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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof. RESULTS: Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1ß, are associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.

2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31409, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization emphasized vaccination against COVID-19 because physical distancing proved inadequate to mitigate death, illness, and massive economic loss. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate Korean citizens' perceptions of vaccines by examining their views on COVID-19 vaccines, their positive and negative perceptions of each vaccine, and ways to enhance policies to increase vaccine acceptance. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed posts on NAVER and Instagram to examine Korean citizens' perception of COVID-19 vaccines. The keywords searched were "vaccine," "AstraZeneca," and "Pfizer." In total 8100 posts in NAVER and 5291 posts in Instagram were sampled through web crawling. Morphology analysis was performed, overlapping or meaningless words were removed, sentiment analysis was implemented, and 3 public health professionals reviewed the results. RESULTS: The findings revealed a negative perception of COVID-19 vaccines; of the words crawled, the proportion of negative words for AstraZeneca was 71.0% (476/670) and for Pfizer was 56.3% (498/885). Among words crawled with "vaccine," "good" ranked first, with a frequency of 13.43% (312/2323). Meanwhile, "side effect" ranked highest, with a frequency of 29.2% (163/559) for "AstraZeneca," but 0.6% (4/673) for "Pfizer." With "vaccine," positive words were more frequently used, whereas with "AstraZeneca" and "Pfizer" negative words were prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: There is a negative perception of AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines in Korea, with 1 in 4 people refusing vaccination. To address this, accurate information needs to be shared about vaccines including AstraZeneca, and the experiences of those vaccinated. Furthermore, government communication about risk management is required to increase the AstraZeneca vaccination rate for herd immunity before the vaccine expires.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 399-407, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a COVID-19 pandemic on March 12, 2020. Several studies have indicated that densely populated urban environments and the heavy dependence on traffic could increase the potential spread of COVID-19. This study investigated the association between changes in traffic volume and the spread of COVID-19 in South Korea. METHODS: This study analyzed the daily national traffic and traffic trend for 3 months from January 1, 2020. Traffic data were measured using 6307 vehicle detection system (VDS). This study analyzed the difference in traffic levels between 2019 and 2020. Non-linear regression was performed to analyze the change in traffic trend in 2020. The relationship between traffic and confirmed COVID-19 cases was analyzed using single linear regression. RESULTS: The mean daily nationwide level of traffic for the first 3 months of 2020 was 143 655 563 vehicles, which was 9.7% lower than the same period in 2019 (159 044 566 vehicles). All regions showed a decreasing trend in traffic in February, which shifted to an increasing trend from March. In Incheon there was a positive, but insignificant, linear relationship between increasing numbers of newly confirmed cases and increasing traffic (ß = 43 146; p = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: Numbers of newly confirmed COVID-19 patients have been decreasing since March, while the traffic has been increasing. The fact that traffic is increasing indicates greater contact between people, which in turn increases the risk of further COVID-19 spread. Therefore, the government will need to devise suitable policies, such as total social distancing.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Condução de Veículo , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Glob Health ; 85(1): 148, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886138

RESUMO

Background: In 2015, the United Nations set the sustainable development goals (SDGs) with a focus on the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), to decrease the mortality rate of newborns to 70 per 100,000 by 2030. Despite efforts to achieve the SDGs, the MMR in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was 693 per 100,000 in 2015-the sixth highest in the world and higher than the average (547 per 100,000) of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: The primary aim was to identify effect factors of 4+ antenatal care (ANC) of the maternal and child health care (MCH) project focused on reproductive women in the DRC. Methods: This study used a before and after study design and focused on ANC utilization of reproductive age women in Kenge, DRC. This study provided the MCH intervention based on three phases of the Three Delays Model from 2014 to 2017. We interviewed 2,663 participants from 2014 to 2017. This study used the decision tree node for prediction of 4+ ANC utilization. Findings: The decision tree showed that hand-washing (1.000) was the most important factor for receiving 4+ ANC services in the midline I survey, followed by writing skills (0.891), satisfaction with health facilities (0.869), age (0.782), and awareness of interventions (0.621). The results of the midline II decision tree demonstrated that MCH promotion by signboard (1.000) was the most important factor for 4+ ANC services, followed by income (0.970), and abortion (0.894). In the third year, distance (1.000) was the most important factor, followed by abortion (0.940) and knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (0.806). Conclusions: The most important factors were related to awareness. We recommend conducting interventions focused on improving awareness increase 4+ ANC utilization. Sustainability intervention for improving the 4+ ANC utilization requires that focus on the infrastructure, such as accessibility and knowledge, of reproductive women.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Árvores de Decisões , Desinfecção das Mãos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idade Materna , Satisfação do Paciente , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Fortalecimento Institucional , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , República Democrática do Congo , Escolaridade , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Mortalidade Materna , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Redação , Adulto Jovem
6.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 157, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, the maternal mortality ratio in the Democratic Republic of Congo was 693 per 100,000 in 2015-the 6th highest in the world and higher than the average (547 per 100,000) in sub-Saharan Africa. Antenatal care (ANC) service is a cost-effective intervention for reducing the maternal mortality ratio in low-income countries. This study aimed to identify the intervention effect of the maternal and child health care (MCH) project on the use of four or more (4+) ANC services. METHODS: The MCH project was implemented using the three delays model in Kenge city by the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) of the DRC with technical assistance from Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the Yonsei Global Health Center from 2014 to 2017. Furthermore, Boko city was selected as the control group. A baseline and an endline survey were conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this project. We interviewed 602 and 719 participants in Kenge, and 150 and 614 participants in Boko in the baseline and endline surveys, respectively. We interviewed married reproductive-aged women (19-45 years old) in both cities annually. The study instruments were developed based on the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. This study used the homogeneity test and the binary logistic regression difference-in-differences method of analysis. RESULTS: The odds of reproductive-aged women's 4+ ANC service utilization at the intervention site increased 2.280 times from the baseline (OR: 2.280, 95% CI: 1.332-3.902, p = .003) as compared to the control site. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the KOICA MCH project effectively increased the 4+ ANC utilization by reproductive-aged women in Kenge. As the 4+ ANC services are expected to reduce maternal deaths, this project might have contributed to reducing maternal mortality in Kenge. In the future, we expect these findings to inform MCH policies of the MoPH in the DRC.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/normas , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Pobreza , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ann Rehabil Med ; 39(5): 793-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26605178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could improve dysarthria in stroke patients at the subacute stage. METHODS: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Patients who had unilateral middle cerebral artery infarction were enrolled. In patients in the rTMS group, we found hot spots by searching for the evoked motor potential of the orbicularis oris on the non-affected side. We performed rTMS at a low frequency (1 Hz), 1,500 stimulations/day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks on the hotspots. We used the same protocol in the sham stimulation group patients as that in the rTMS group, except that the angle of the coil was perpendicular to the skull rather than tangential to it. The patients in both groups received speech therapy for 30 minutes, 5 days a week from a skilled speech therapist. The speech therapist measured the Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonology, alternative motion rates, sequential motion rates, and maximal phonation time before and after intervention sessions. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were enrolled in this study and 20 completed the study. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvements on the dysarthria scales in both groups. The sequential motion rate (SMR)-PǝTǝKǝ showed significantly greater improvement in the rTMS group patients than in the sham stimulation group. CONCLUSION: Patients in the rTMS group showed greater improvement in articulation than did patients in the sham rTMS group. Therefore, rTMS can have a synergistic effect with speech therapy in treating dysarthria after stroke.

8.
Brain Lang ; 119(1): 1-5, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21641021

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown the appearance of right-sided language-related brain activity in right-handed patients after a stroke. Non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been shown to modulate excitability in the brain. Moreover, rTMS and tDCS have been found to improve naming in non-fluent post-stroke aphasic patients. Here, we investigated the effect of tDCS on the comprehension of aphasic patients with subacute stroke. We hypothesized that tDCS applied to the left superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) or the right Wernicke's area might be associated with recovery of comprehension ability in aphasic patients with subacute stroke. Participants included right-handed subacute stroke patients with global aphasia due to ischemic infarct of the left M1 or M2 middle cerebral artery. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: patients who received anodal tDCS applied to the left superior temporal gyrus, patients who received cathodal tDCS applied to the right superior temporal gyrus, and patients who received sham tDCS. All patients received conventional speech and language therapy during each period of tDCS application. The Korean-Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) was used to assess all patients before and after tDCS sessions. After intervention, all patients had significant improvements in aphasia quotients, spontaneous speech, and auditory verbal comprehension. However, auditory verbal comprehension improved significantly more in patients treated with a cathode, as compared to patients in the other groups. These results are consistent with the role of Wernicke's area in language comprehension and the therapeutic effect that cathodal tDCS has on aphasia patients with subacute stroke, suggesting that tDCS may be an adjuvant treatment approach for aphasia rehabilitation therapy in patients in an early stage of stroke.


Assuntos
Afasia/terapia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Afasia/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletrodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
9.
Pediatr Transplant ; 14(7): 870-8, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20609169

RESUMO

There have only been a few studies on the long-term outcomes and prognostic factors after pediatric LDLT. We conducted a retrospective, single-center assessment of the outcomes as well as the demographic and clinical factors that influenced the poor outcomes in 113 children aged <16 (median age 21 months; 6 months-15.5 yr) who underwent 115 LDLTs, predominantly for biliary atresia (60.9%) and FHF (14.8%), between 1994 and 2006 at Asan Medical Center. Left lateral segment or left lobe grafts were implanted into most of these children (86.9%) according to routine procedures. The overall rates of graft survival at one, five, and 10 yr were 89.6%, 83.0%, and 81.5%, respectively, and the overall rates of patient survival were 92.9%, 86.3%, and 84.8%, respectively. Virus-related disease (41.2%) and chronic rejection (29.4%) were the major causes of mortality. On multivariate analysis, UNOS status 1a and 1b and chronic rejection were significant risk factors for both graft and patient loss, whereas the PELD score >25 was a significant risk factor for graft loss. Patient and graft survival may be related not only to post-operative complications, but also to the patient's preoperative clinical condition.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Pediatria/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Lactente , Falência Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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