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Nature ; 570(7762): 514-518, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217584


Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have laid the foundation for investigations into the biology of complex traits, drug development and clinical guidelines. However, the majority of discovery efforts are based on data from populations of European ancestry1-3. In light of the differential genetic architecture that is known to exist between populations, bias in representation can exacerbate existing disease and healthcare disparities. Critical variants may be missed if they have a low frequency or are completely absent in European populations, especially as the field shifts its attention towards rare variants, which are more likely to be population-specific4-10. Additionally, effect sizes and their derived risk prediction scores derived in one population may not accurately extrapolate to other populations11,12. Here we demonstrate the value of diverse, multi-ethnic participants in large-scale genomic studies. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study conducted a GWAS of 26 clinical and behavioural phenotypes in 49,839 non-European individuals. Using strategies tailored for analysis of multi-ethnic and admixed populations, we describe a framework for analysing diverse populations, identify 27 novel loci and 38 secondary signals at known loci, as well as replicate 1,444 GWAS catalogue associations across these traits. Our data show evidence of effect-size heterogeneity across ancestries for published GWAS associations, substantial benefits for fine-mapping using diverse cohorts and insights into clinical implications. In the United States-where minority populations have a disproportionately higher burden of chronic conditions13-the lack of representation of diverse populations in genetic research will result in inequitable access to precision medicine for those with the highest burden of disease. We strongly advocate for continued, large genome-wide efforts in diverse populations to maximize genetic discovery and reduce health disparities.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(1): 119-27, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25293881


BACKGROUND: The lung cancer risk of smokers varies by race/ethnicity even after adjustment for smoking. Evaluating the role of genetics in nicotine metabolism is likely important in understanding these differences, as disparities in risk may be related to differences in nicotine dose and metabolism. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study in search of common genetic variants that predict nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation in a sample of 2,239 smokers (437 European Americans, 364 African Americans, 453 Latinos, 674 Japanese Americans, and 311 Native Hawaiians) in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Urinary concentration of nicotine and its metabolites were determined. RESULTS: Among 11,892,802 variants analyzed, 1,241 were strongly associated with cotinine glucuronidation, 490 of which were also associated with nicotine glucuronidation (P < 5×10(-8)). The vast majority were within chromosomal region 4q13, near UGT2B10. Fifteen independent and globally significant SNPs explained 33.2% of the variation in cotinine glucuronidation, ranging from 55% for African Americans to 19% for Japanese Americans. The strongest single SNP association was for rs115765562 (P = 1.60 × 10(-155)). This SNP is highly correlated with a UGT2B10 splice site variant, rs116294140, which together with rs6175900 (Asp67Tyr) explains 24.3% of the variation. The top SNP for nicotine glucuronidation (rs116224959, P = 2.56 × 10(-43)) was in high LD (r(2) = 0.99) with rs115765562. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in UGT2B10 contributes significantly to nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation but not to nicotine dose. IMPACT: The contribution of genetic variation to nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation varies significantly by racial/ethnic group, but is unlikely to contribute directly to lung cancer risk.

Grupos Étnicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Nicotina/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Controle de Qualidade
Carcinogenesis ; 35(11): 2526-33, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25233931


Nicotine metabolism influences smoking behavior and differences in metabolism probably contribute to ethnic variability in lung cancer risk. We report here on the proportion of nicotine metabolism by cytochrome P450 2A6-catalyzed C-oxidation, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 2B10 (UGT2B10)-catalyzed N-glucuronidation and flavin monooxygenase 3-catalyzed N-oxidation in five ethnic/racial groups and the role of UGT2B10 genotype on the metabolic patterns observed. Nicotine and its metabolites were quantified in urine from African American (AA, n = 364), Native Hawaiian (NH, n = 311), White (n = 437), Latino (LA, n = 453) and Japanese American (JA, n = 674) smokers. Total nicotine equivalents, the sum of nicotine and six metabolites, and nicotine metabolism phenotypes were calculated. The relationship of UGT2B10 genotype to nicotine metabolic pathways was determined for each group; geometric means were computed and adjusted for age, sex, creatinine, and body mass index. Nicotine metabolism patterns were unique across the groups, C-oxidation was lowest in JA and NH (P < 0.0001), and N-glucuronidation lowest in AA (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in C-oxidation among Whites and AA and LA. Nicotine and cotinine glucuronide ratios were 2- and 3-fold lower in AA compared with Whites. Two UGT variants, a missense mutation (Asp67Tyr, rs61750900) and a splice variant (rs116294140) accounted for 33% of the variation in glucuronidation. In AA, the splice variant accounted for the majority of the reduced nicotine glucuronidation. UGT2B10 variant allele carriers had increased levels of C-oxidation (P = 0.0099). Our data indicate that the relative importance of nicotine metabolic pathways varies by ethnicity, and all pathways should be considered when characterizing the role of nicotine metabolism on smoking behavior and cancer risk.

Glucuronatos/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Nicotina/análogos & derivados , Nicotina/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Glucuronosiltransferase/farmacocinética , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Nicotina/genética , Fatores de Risco