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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18215, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796776

RESUMO

Modifications to the rates of water flowing from the surface to groundwater (groundwater recharge) due to climate variability are the most difficult to assess because of the lack of direct long-term observations. Here, we analyze the chloride salt distribution below the surface soil on a plateau near Los Angeles to reconstruct the amount of recharge that occurred in the last five centuries. Over this time interval, periods of major high and low recharge with different duration follow each other and this cyclicity is consistent with long-term atmospheric forcing patterns, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This study determines the range and the natural variability of recharge to groundwater, which sustains local freshwater flow system, and helps forecast future availability of groundwater resource in southern California, where water scarcity is critical to both local and global populations.

2.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(11): 1392-1401, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674241

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in comparison with standard wound management after initial surgical wound debridement in adults with severe open fractures of the lower limb. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An economic evaluation was conducted from the perspective of the United Kingdom NHS and Personal Social Services, based on evidence from the 460 participants in the Wound Management of Open Lower Limb Fractures (WOLLF) trial. Economic outcomes were collected prospectively over the 12-month follow-up period using trial case report forms and participant-completed questionnaires. Bivariate regression of costs (given in £, 2014 to 2015 prices) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with multiple imputation of missing data, was conducted to estimate the incremental cost per QALY gained associated with NPWT dressings. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were undertaken to assess the impacts of uncertainty and heterogeneity, respectively, surrounding aspects of the economic evaluation. RESULTS: The base case analysis produced an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £267 910 per QALY gained, reflecting higher costs on average (£678; 95% confidence interval (CI) -£1082 to £2438) and only marginally higher QALYS (0.002; 95% CI -0.054 to 0.059) in the NPWT group. The probability that NPWT is cost-effective in this patient population did not exceed 27% regardless of the value of the cost-effectiveness threshold. This result remained robust to several sensitivity and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSION: This trial-based economic evaluation suggests that NPWT is unlikely to be a cost-effective strategy for improving outcomes in adult patients with severe open fractures of the lower limb. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1392-1401.


Assuntos
Ossos da Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Fraturas Expostas/economia , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(2): 021802, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386510

RESUMO

MoEDAL is designed to identify new physics in the form of stable or pseudostable highly ionizing particles produced in high-energy Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collisions. Here we update our previous search for magnetic monopoles in Run 2 using the full trapping detector with almost four times more material and almost twice more integrated luminosity. For the first time at the LHC, the data were interpreted in terms of photon-fusion monopole direct production in addition to the Drell-Yan-like mechanism. The MoEDAL trapping detector, consisting of 794 kg of aluminum samples installed in the forward and lateral regions, was exposed to 4.0 fb^{-1} of 13 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHCb interaction point and analyzed by searching for induced persistent currents after passage through a superconducting magnetometer. Magnetic charges equal to or above the Dirac charge are excluded in all samples. Monopole spins 0, ½, and 1 are considered and both velocity-independent and-dependent couplings are assumed. This search provides the best current laboratory constraints for monopoles with magnetic charges ranging from two to five times the Dirac charge.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11165-11170, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110011

RESUMO

The source of water (H2O) and hydroxyl radicals (OH), identified on the lunar surface, represents a fundamental, unsolved puzzle. The interaction of solar-wind protons with silicates and oxides has been proposed as a key mechanism, but laboratory experiments yield conflicting results that suggest that proton implantation alone is insufficient to generate and liberate water. Here, we demonstrate in laboratory simulation experiments combined with imaging studies that water can be efficiently generated and released through rapid energetic heating like micrometeorite impacts into anhydrous silicates implanted with solar-wind protons. These synergistic effects of solar-wind protons and micrometeorites liberate water at mineral temperatures from 10 to 300 K via vesicles, thus providing evidence of a key mechanism to synthesize water in silicates and advancing our understanding on the origin of water as detected on the Moon and other airless bodies in our solar system such as Mercury and asteroids.

5.
J Hered ; 110(2): 194-210, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597046

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and expression technologies were utilized to investigate the genes and sequence elements in a 586 kb region of chicken chromosome 1 associated with the autosomal recessive diplopodia-1 (dp-1) mutation. This mutation shows a syndromic phenotype similar to known human developmental abnormalities (e.g., cleft palate, polydactyly, omphalocele [exposed viscera]). Toward our goal to ascertain the variant responsible, the entire 586 kb region was sequenced following utilization of a specifically designed capture array and to confirm/validate fine-mapping results. Bioinformatic analyses identified a total of 6142 sequence variants, which included SNPs, indels, and gaps. Of these, 778 SNPs, 146 micro-indels, and 581 gaps were unique to the UCD-Dp-1.003 inbred congenic line; those found within exons and splice sites were studied for contribution to the mutant phenotype. Upon further validation with additional mutant samples, a smaller subset (of variants [51]) remains linked to the mutation. Additionally, utilization of specific samples in the NGS technology was advantageous in that fine-mapping methodologies eliminated an additional 326 kb of sequence information on chromosome 1. Predicted and confirmed protein-coding genes within the smaller 260 kb region were assessed for their developmental expression patterns over several stages of early embryogenesis in regions/tissues of interest (e.g., digits, craniofacial region). Based on these results and known function in other vertebrates, 2 genes within 5 kb of each other, MRE11 and GPR83, are proposed as high-priority candidates for the dp-1 mutation.

6.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 27(6): e293-e300, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Averaging length of stay (LOS) ignores patient complexity and is a poor metric for quality control in geriatric hip fracture programs. We developed a predictive model of LOS that compares patient complexity to the logistic effects of our institution's hip fracture care pathway. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients enrolled into a hip fracture co-management pathway at an academic level I trauma center from 2014 to 2015. Patient complexity was approximated using the Charlson Comorbidity Index and ASA score. A predictive model of LOS was developed from patient-specific and system-specific variables using a multivariate linear regression analysis; it was tested against a sample of patients from 2016. RESULTS: LOS averaged 5.95 days. Avoidance of delirium and reduced time to surgery were found to be notable predictors of reduced LOS. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was not a strong predictor of LOS, but the ASA score was. Our predictive LOS model worked well for 63% of patients from the 2016 group; for those it did not work well for, 80% had postoperative complications. DISCUSSION: Predictive LOS modeling accounting for patient complexity was effective for identifying (1) reasons for outliers to the expected LOS and (2) effective measures to target for improving our hip fracture program. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Delírio/complicações , Delírio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/psicologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Bone Joint J ; 100-B(11): 1506-1510, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418053

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to estimate economic outcomes associated with deep surgical site infection (SSI) in patients with an open fracture of the lower limb. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 460 patients were recruited from 24 specialist trauma hospitals in the United Kingdom Major Trauma Network. Preference-based health-related quality-of-life outcomes, assessed using the EuroQol EQ-5D-3L and the 6-Item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-6D), and economic costs (£, 2014/2015 prices) were measured using participant-completed questionnaires over the 12 months following injury. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis were used to explore the relationship between deep SSI and health utility scores, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and health and personal social service (PSS) costs. RESULTS: Deep SSI was associated with lower EQ-5D-3L derived QALYs (adjusted mean difference -0.102, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.202 to 0.001, p = 0.047) and increased health and social care costs (adjusted mean difference £1950; 95% CI £1383 to £5285, p = 0.250) versus patients without deep SSI over the 12 months following injury. CONCLUSION: Deep SSI may lead to significantly impaired health-related quality of life and increased economic costs. Our economic estimates can be used to inform clinical and budgetary service planning and can act as reference data for future economic evaluations of preventive or treatment interventions. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:1506-10.


Assuntos
Fraturas Expostas/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/economia , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/economia , Fraturas Expostas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Expostas/reabilitação , Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medicina Estatal/economia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/reabilitação , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
J Orthop ; 15(4): 952-956, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210200

RESUMO

Purpose: Intertrochanteric (IT) hip fractures can be treated with sliding hip screws (SHS) or cephalomedullary nails (CMN) based on the stability of the fracture. This stability is affected by the initial impaction of the fracture which can be difficult to assess. The aim of this paper is to develop specific pre-operative computed tomography (CT) measurements of IT fractures which are predictive of post-operative shortening. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 141 patients with AO/OTA 31A1 or 31A2 fracture patterns, who had pre-operative radiographs and CT scans, and who were treated with a SHS or a CMN. Pre-operative and post-operative imaging of IT fractures were analyzed for those fractures that shortened ≥15 mm post-fixation. Results: 11 fractures shortened ≥15 mm with CMN being protective of shortening (6/36 SHS versus 5/105 CMN, p = 0.0268). A novel measurement made on the pre-operative CT scan called the cortical thin point (CTP) detected differences between patients with <15 mm and ≥15 mm of post-operative shortening for the SHS group (p = 0.0375). CTP was found to be a reliable predictor for post-operative shortening of ≥15 mm when a cutoff threshold of 9 mm was used in the SHS group (p = 0.0161). Conclusions: Measuring the CTP is predictive of post-operative shortening after fixation of an IT fracture with a SHS. CMN fixation may be protective of shortening. Patients with a CTP of ≤9 mm are at risk for fracture site shortening of more than 15 mm when treated with a SHS.

9.
J Pain Res ; 11: 1343-1354, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050318

RESUMO

Background: Assessment of function and functional interference is an important component of chronic pain assessment and treatment and is commonly based on self-report questionnaires. Existing questionnaires for assessing functional interference are language dependent, which can limit their utility for patients across cultures with literacy, fluency, or cognitive restrictions. Objective: The objectives of this study were to create a tool with minimal language dependence and literacy requirement for measuring functional interference due to chronic pain and evaluate the psychometric properties and usability of this new assessment scale, the Pictorial Pain Interference Questionnaire (PPIQ), in a clinical sample of participants with chronic pain. Design: The study employed a prospective, cross-sectional design in a clinical chronic pain setting. Participants and methods: A total of 113 participants with chronic non-cancer pain were recruited from a private chronic pain clinic. A pictorial scale was developed and tested via psychometric procedures, including comparisons with validated measures of functional interference and related chronic pain constructs. Results: Excellent internal consistency reliability (a=0.91), good construct validity (total score: r=0.72-0.81), and adequate-to-good convergent and discriminant validities were demonstrated through comparative analyses with existing self-report questionnaires. A scoring metric for classifying low, moderate, and high levels of interference was found to have good construct validity. Evaluation of satisfaction revealed adequate understanding of the PPIQ among most users. Conclusion: Initial support for the PPIQ as an alternative to language-based questionnaires for assessing functional interference from chronic pain was found. Subsequent research will help to clarify psychometric properties of the PPIQ and user response among various chronic pain subgroups.

10.
J Appl Microbiol ; 125(5): 1482-1493, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939449

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to optimize the potential of Beauveria bassiana through cell electrofusion technique with emphasis on improving its thermotolerance and virulence against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (WFT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine B. bassiana isolates were tested against western flower thrips, F. occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (WFT) to estimate their pathogenicity and speed of infection under laboratory conditions. The isolates were also exposed to 25, 36, 38 and 40°C, for 24, 48, 72 and 120 h. Two isolates with the highest virulence against WFT and highest thermotolerance were selected and paired using a cell electrofusion technique to obtain a single strain that was both highly virulent and thermotolerant. To determine the hybrid conidia among the fusion cells, each selected isolate was loaded with a different nuclei-staining fluorescent dye before the fusion process. Hybridized fungal strains were acquired by a series of sequential dilutions and were tested for thermotolerance and virulence against WFT. Those that demonstrated both characteristics (high thermotolerance and virulence) similar to or greater than the parental isolates were considered hybrids. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that genetic transformation using cell electrofusion can be used to obtain hybrid isolates of fungal pathogens that contain the desired genes from selected isolates. Further DNA-based analysis is required to determine the genetic variation between hybrids and the parental isolates. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first study to demonstrate genetic transformation in B. bassiana by use of cell electrofusion and it could be developed to create superior hybrid isolates with various desired properties for integrated pest management and industrial uses in the future.


Assuntos
Beauveria/genética , Termotolerância/genética , Animais , Beauveria/patogenicidade , Beauveria/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Tisanópteros , Transformação Genética , Virulência
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 118: 38-53, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Driving courtesy, and conversely driving discourtesy, recently has been of great interest in the public domain. In addition, there has been increasing recognition of the negative impact of stress upon the individual's health and wellbeing, with a plethora of interventions aimed at minimising stress more generally. The research literature regarding driving dis/courtesy, in comparison, is scant, with a handful of studies examining the dis/courteous driving behaviour of road users, and the relationship between driving discourtesy and driving stress. AIM: To examine courteous and discourteous driving experiences, and to explore the impact of stress associated with such driving experiences. METHOD: Thirty-eight drivers (20 females) from the Sunshine Coast region volunteered to participate in one of four 1-1.5 h focus groups. Content analysis used the verbatim utterances captured via an Mp3 device. RESULTS: Three themes pertaining to stressful and discourteous interactions were identified. Theme one pertained to the driving context: road infrastructure (eg, roundabouts, roadwork), vehicles (eg, features), location (eg, country vs city, unfamiliar areas), and temporal aspects (eg, holidays). Theme two pertained to other road users: their behaviour (eg, tailgating, merging), and unknown factors (eg, illicit and licit drug use). Theme three pertained to the self as road user: their own behaviours (eg, deliberate intimidation), and their emotions (eg, angry reaction to other drivers, being in control). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Driving dis/courtesy and driving stress is a complex phenomenon, suggesting complex intervention efforts are required. Driving discourtesy was reported as being highly stressful, therefore intervention efforts which encourage driving courtesy and which foster emotional capacity to cope with stressful circumstances appear warranted.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Ira , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Assunção de Riscos
12.
Dalton Trans ; 47(16): 5695-5702, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632905

RESUMO

The use of amidoxime-functionalized polymer fibers as a sorbent for uranium has attracted recent interest for the extraction of uranium from seawater. Vanadium is one of the main competing ions for uranium sorption as V(v) species, however, vanadium is also present as V(iv) in seawater. In the present study, the interactions of V(iv) with amidoxime and similar ligands were explored. Attempts were made to synthesize V(iv) complexes of glutaroimide-dioxime, a molecular analogue of polymer sorbents. However, V(iv) was found to react irreversibly with glutaroimide-dioxime and other oxime groups, oxidizing to the V(v) oxidation state. We have explored the reactions and propose mechanisms, as well as characterized the redox behavior of the vanadium-glutaroimide-dioxime complex.

13.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(9): 2329-2343, 2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29442510

RESUMO

(D3-)Methanol-nitrogen monoxide (CH3OH/CD3OH-NO) ices were exposed to ionizing radiation to facilitate the eventual determination of the CH3NO2 potential energy surface (PES) in the condensed phase. Reaction intermediates and products were monitored via infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoionization reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) during the irradiation and temperature controlled desorption (TPD) phase, respectively. Distinct photoionization energies were utilized to discriminate the isomer(s) formed in these processes. The primary methanol radiolysis products were the methoxy (CH3O) and hydroxymethyl (CH2OH) radicals along with atomic hydrogen. The former was found to react barrierlessly with nitrogen monoxide resulting in the formation of cis- and trans-methyl nitrite (CH3ONO), which is the most abundant product that can be observed in the irradiated samples. On the other hand, the self-recombination of hydroxymethyl radicals yielding ethylene glycol (HO(CH2)2OH) and glycerol (HOCH2CH2(OH)CH2OH) is preferred over the recombination with nitrogen monoxide to nitrosomethanol (HOCH2NO).

14.
Dalton Trans ; 47(3): 639-644, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261203

RESUMO

This review provides a brief background on the extraction of uranium from seawater as well as recent work by the United States Department of Energy on this project. The world's oceans contain uranium at 3 parts per billion, and despite this low concentration, there has been historical interest in harvesting it, mainly in Japan in the 1980s and the United States in this decade. Improvements in materials, chemistry, and deployment methods have all been made, with the ultimate goal of lower cost. This has been partially realized, dropping from approximately $2000 per kg U3O8 extracted in 1984 to $500 per kg today, although this is not yet competitive with terrestrial uranium. This technology may become cost-competitive if the cost of land-based uranium rises, especially if seawater extraction technology is improved further. The coordination chemistry aspects of the project are described in more detail, exploring the functional groups that are present on typical polymer sorbents as well as small-molecule analogues of these ligands. Selectivity for uranium over other metals, particularly vanadium, remains problematic, and techniques to both quantify binding strength and selectivity in order to overcome this issue are essential for future cost improvements.

15.
Geriatrics (Basel) ; 3(4)2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011098

RESUMO

The Chief Resident Immersion Training (CRIT) in the Care of Older Adults curriculum was developed at Boston University School of Medicine to improve the care of older adults through an educational intervention. The curriculum targeted chief residents (CRs) because their role as mediators between learners and faculty provides the greatest potential impact for transmitting knowledge. The goals of CRIT are to: (1) provide education on geriatric principles and on teaching/leadership skills, (2) foster interdisciplinary collaboration, and (3) complete an action project. This study demonstrates successful implementation of CRIT at a different academic institution in a rural state. The CRs indicated that their confidence in their ability to apply and teach geriatrics improved after CRIT. In addition, the CRs indicated that CRIT improved their confidence in their overall skills as CRs. The barriers and facilitators to implementation are addressed in order to promote successful adoption of CRIT at other institutions, including those in rural states.

16.
Dev Dyn ; 246(12): 969, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144604
17.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 99(13): 1119-1128, 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We studied children and adolescents with symbrachydactyly to determine whether hand function depends on digit opposability and whether scores for function and quality-of-life measures differ from population norms. METHODS: Participants were grouped on the basis of hand morphology: Group A lacked opposable digits, and Group B had ≥2 digits that were opposable. The groups were compared with each other and with norms with respect to pinch strength, the performance of bimanual activities and in-hand manipulation, and questionnaires regarding psychosocial status and the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Participants and parents also rated the appearance and function of the hand. RESULTS: Pinch strength was higher for participants in Group B (4.1 compared with 2.4 kg; p = 0.008), but the groups did not differ with respect to the proportion of participants outside of pinch norms. Participants in Group B were more likely to actively use their affected hand to perform bimanual activities (p ≤ 0.0009), and to use normal or supination strategies to accomplish in-hand manipulation (p = 0.031). The groups did not differ in the proportion of ADLs rated "difficult" or "impossible," and both groups tested within normal limits for psychosocial function. Participants from both groups and their parents rated their satisfaction with hand appearance and function similarly high. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with ≥2 opposable digits incorporated their hand better in bimanual activities and used more effective strategies to accomplish in-hand manipulation than those who did not. These groups reported no difference in the ability to perform ADLs or with psychosocial function, which was within the normal range. Children and adolescents with symbrachydactyly demonstrated and reported a high level of function in all domains of validated function tests. This study provides information to help parents of children with a unilateral hand malformation understand their child's potential function, and assist surgeons with recommending treatment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/psicologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 106: 62-68, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28189846

RESUMO

The cellular production of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to protein, lipid or DNA modifications and tumor formation. The cellular lipids undergo structural changes through the actions of enzymes (e.g. cyclooxygenases) or free radicals to form a class of compounds called Isolevuglandins (IsoLGs). The recruitment and continued exposure of tissue to ROS and IsoLGs causes increased cell proliferation, mutagenesis, loss of normal cell function and angiogenesis. The elevated concentration of ROS in cancerous tissues suggests that these mediators play an important role in cancer development. We hypothesized that tumors with elevated ROS levels would similarly possess an increased concentration of IsoLGs when compared with normal tissue. Using D11, an ScFv recombinant antibody specific for IsoLGs, we utilized immunohistochemistry to visualize the presence of IsoLG in human tumors compared to normal adjacent tissue (NAT) to the same tumor. We found that IsoLG concentrations were elevated in human breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, pancreatic and tongue tumor cells when compared to NAT and believe that IsoLGs can be used as a gauge indicative of lipid peroxidation in tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Prostaglandinas E/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo
19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(6): 061801, 2017 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28234515

RESUMO

MoEDAL is designed to identify new physics in the form of long-lived highly ionizing particles produced in high-energy LHC collisions. Its arrays of plastic nuclear-track detectors and aluminium trapping volumes provide two independent passive detection techniques. We present here the results of a first search for magnetic monopole production in 13 TeV proton-proton collisions using the trapping technique, extending a previous publication with 8 TeV data during LHC Run 1. A total of 222 kg of MoEDAL trapping detector samples was exposed in the forward region and analyzed by searching for induced persistent currents after passage through a superconducting magnetometer. Magnetic charges exceeding half the Dirac charge are excluded in all samples and limits are placed for the first time on the production of magnetic monopoles in 13 TeV pp collisions. The search probes mass ranges previously inaccessible to collider experiments for up to five times the Dirac charge.

20.
BBA Clin ; 7: 16-22, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Microparticles (MPs) are membrane-bound vesicles derived from vascular and intravascular cells such as endothelial cells (EMPs) and platelets (PMPs). We investigated EMP and PMP numbers across a spectrum of autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) with the aim of comparing the levels of, and relationship between, EMPs and PMPs. METHODS: Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (n = 24), Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) (n = 24), Primary Raynauds Phenomenon (RP) (n = 17) and "other CTD" (n = 15) (Primary Sjogrens Syndrome, UCTD or MCTD) as well as 15 healthy controls were recruited. EMPs and PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Associations between MP levels and objective functional vascular assessments were evaluated. RESULTS: SLE patients had significantly higher EMPs compared with healthy controls and SSc patients. Higher PMP levels were noted in SSc and primary RP when compared to healthy controls and 'other CTD' patients. A modest correlation was noted between EMP and PMP levels in healthy controls (Spearman r = 0.6, p = 0.017). This relationship appeared stronger in SLE (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001) and other CTD patients (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). The association between EMPs and PMPs was notably less strong in SSc (r = 0.45, p = 0.014) and RP (r = 0.37, p = 0.15). A significantly lower EMP/PMP ratio was detected in SSc/RP patients in comparison to both healthy controls and SLE/other CTD patients. Higher EMP and PMP levels were associated with higher digital perfusion following cold challenge in SSc. In contrast, higher PMP (but not EMP) levels were associated with lower digital perfusion at both baseline and following cold challenge in primary RP. Higher PMP levels were associated with greater endothelial-independent dilation in patients with SLE. CONCLUSION: MP populations differ across the spectrum of AIRDS, possibly reflecting differences in vascular cell injury and activation. MP levels are associated with functional assessments of vascular function and might have a role as novel vascular biomarkers in AIRDs. SIGNIFICANCE AND INNOVATIONS: Levels of circulating endothelial and platelet microparticles differ between SSc/primary RP compared with SLE and other CTDs (UCTD, MCTD and Primary Sjogrens). MP release may occur within different vascular sites across these disease groups (macrovascular and microvascular). The association between circulating MP levels and objective assessment of macro- and microvascular dysfunction within these disease areas suggests that MPs might have a useful role as novel circulating biomarkers of vascular disease within the CTDs.

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