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1.
Integr Biol (Camb) ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195539

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier plays a critical role in delivering oxygen and nutrients to the brain while preventing the transport of neurotoxins. Predicting the ability of potential therapeutics and neurotoxicants to modulate brain barrier function remains a challenge due to limited spatial resolution and geometric constraints offered by existing in vitro models. Using soft lithography to control the shape of microvascular tissues, we predicted blood-brain barrier permeability states based on structural changes in human brain endothelial cells. We quantified morphological differences in nuclear, junction, and cytoskeletal proteins that influence, or indicate, barrier permeability. We established a correlation between brain endothelial cell pair structure and permeability by treating cell pairs and tissues with known cytoskeleton-modulating agents, including a Rho activator, a Rho inhibitor, and a cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog. Using this approach, we found that high-permeability cell pairs showed nuclear elongation, loss of junction proteins, and increased actin stress fiber formation, which were indicative of increased contractility. We measured traction forces generated by high- and low-permeability pairs, finding that higher stress at the intercellular junction contributes to barrier leakiness. We further tested the applicability of this platform to predict modulations in brain endothelial permeability by exposing cell pairs to engineered nanomaterials, including gold, silver-silica, and cerium oxide nanoparticles, thereby uncovering new insights into the mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated barrier disruption. Overall, we confirm the utility of this platform to assess the multiscale impact of pharmacological agents or environmental toxicants on blood-brain barrier integrity.

2.
Circulation ; 141(4): 285-300, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current differentiation protocols to produce cardiomyocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are capable of generating highly pure cardiomyocyte populations as determined by expression of cardiac troponin T. However, these cardiomyocytes remain immature, more closely resembling the fetal state, with a lower maximum contractile force, slower upstroke velocity, and immature mitochondrial function compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Immaturity of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes may be a significant barrier to clinical translation of cardiomyocyte cell therapies for heart disease. During development, cardiomyocytes undergo a shift from a proliferative state in the fetus to a more mature but quiescent state after birth. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-signaling pathway plays a key role in nutrient sensing and growth. We hypothesized that transient inhibition of the mTOR-signaling pathway could lead cardiomyocytes to a quiescent state and enhance cardiomyocyte maturation. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes were differentiated from 3 human iPSC lines using small molecules to modulate the Wnt pathway. Torin1 (0 to 200 nmol/L) was used to inhibit the mTOR pathway at various time points. We quantified contractile, metabolic, and electrophysiological properties of matured iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. We utilized the small molecule inhibitor, pifithrin-α, to inhibit p53 signaling, and nutlin-3a, a small molecule inhibitor of MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog) to upregulate and increase activation of p53. RESULTS: Torin1 (200 nmol/L) increased the percentage of quiescent cells (G0 phase) from 24% to 48% compared with vehicle control (P<0.05). Torin1 significantly increased expression of selected sarcomere proteins (including TNNI3 [troponin I, cardiac muscle]) and ion channels (including Kir2.1) in a dose-dependent manner when Torin1 was initiated after onset of cardiomyocyte beating. Torin1-treated cells had an increased relative maximum force of contraction, increased maximum oxygen consumption rate, decreased peak rise time, and increased downstroke velocity. Torin1 treatment increased protein expression of p53, and these effects were inhibited by pifithrin-α. In contrast, nutlin-3a independently upregulated p53, led to an increase in TNNI3 expression and worked synergistically with Torin1 to further increase expression of both p53 and TNNI3. CONCLUSIONS: Transient treatment of human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes with Torin1 shifts cells to a quiescent state and enhances cardiomyocyte maturity.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(49): 45498-45510, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755704

RESUMO

Recent reports suggest the utility of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules as raw components in scaffolding of engineered materials. However, rapid and tunable manufacturing of ECM molecules into fibrous structures remains poorly developed. Here we report on an immersion rotary jet-spinning (iRJS) method to show high-throughput manufacturing (up to ∼1 g/min) of hyaluronic acid (HA) and other ECM fiber scaffolds using different spinning conditions and postprocessing modifications. This system allowed control over a variety of scaffold material properties, which enabled the fabrication of highly porous (70-95%) and water-absorbent (swelling ratio ∼2000-6000%) HA scaffolds with soft-tissue mimetic mechanical properties (∼0.5-1.5 kPa). Tuning these scaffolds' properties enabled the identification of porosity (∼95%) as a key facilitator for rapid and in-depth cellular ingress in vitro. We then demonstrated that porous HA scaffolds accelerated granulation tissue formation, neovascularization, and reepithelialization in vivo, altogether potentiating faster wound closure and tissue repair. Collectively, this scalable and versatile manufacturing approach enabled the fabrication of tunable ECM-mimetic nanofiber scaffolds that may provide an ideal first building block for the design of all-in-one healing materials.

4.
NPJ Sci Food ; 3: 20, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646181

RESUMO

Bioprocessing applications that derive meat products from animal cell cultures require food-safe culture substrates that support volumetric expansion and maturation of adherent muscle cells. Here we demonstrate scalable production of microfibrous gelatin that supports cultured adherent muscle cells derived from cow and rabbit. As gelatin is a natural component of meat, resulting from collagen denaturation during processing and cooking, our extruded gelatin microfibers recapitulated structural and biochemical features of natural muscle tissues. Using immersion rotary jet spinning, a dry-jet wet-spinning process, we produced gelatin fibers at high rates (~ 100 g/h, dry weight) and, depending on process conditions, we tuned fiber diameters between ~ 1.3 ± 0.1 µm (mean ± SEM) and 8.7 ± 1.4 µm (mean ± SEM), which are comparable to natural collagen fibers. To inhibit fiber degradation during cell culture, we crosslinked them either chemically or by co-spinning gelatin with a microbial crosslinking enzyme. To produce meat analogs, we cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells and rabbit skeletal muscle myoblasts in gelatin fiber scaffolds, then used immunohistochemical staining to verify that both cell types attached to gelatin fibers and proliferated in scaffold volumes. Short-length gelatin fibers promoted cell aggregation, whereas long fibers promoted aligned muscle tissue formation. Histology, scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical testing demonstrated that cultured muscle lacked the mature contractile architecture observed in natural muscle but recapitulated some of the structural and mechanical features measured in meat products.

5.
Nanoscale ; 11(38): 17878-17893, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553035

RESUMO

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly used in consumer products due to their unique physicochemical properties, but the specific hazards they pose to the structural and functional integrity of endothelial barriers remain elusive. When assessing the effects of ENMs on vascular barrier function, endothelial cell monolayers are commonly used as in vitro models. Monolayer models, however, do not offer a granular understanding of how the structure-function relationships between endothelial cells and tissues are disrupted due to ENM exposure. To address this issue, we developed a micropatterned endothelial cell pair model to quantitatively evaluate the effects of 10 ENMs (8 metal/metal oxides and 2 organic ENMs) on multiple cellular parameters and determine how these parameters correlate to changes in vascular barrier function. This minimalistic approach showed concerted changes in endothelial cell morphology, intercellular junction formation, and cytoskeletal organization due to ENM exposure, which were then quantified and compared to unexposed pairs using a "similarity scoring" method. Using the cell pair model, this study revealed dose-dependent changes in actin organization and adherens junction formation following exposure to representative ENMs (Ag, TiO2 and cellulose nanocrystals), which exhibited trends that correlate with changes in tissue permeability measured using an endothelial monolayer assay. Together, these results demonstrate that we can quantitatively evaluate changes in endothelial architecture emergent from nucleo-cytoskeletal network remodeling using micropatterned cell pairs. The endothelial pair model therefore presents potential applicability as a standardized assay for systematically screening ENMs and other test agents for their cellular-level structural effects on vascular barriers.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Nanopartículas/química , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Humanos
6.
Lab Chip ; 19(18): 2993-3010, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464325

RESUMO

Pancreatic ß cell function is compromised in diabetes and is typically assessed by measuring insulin secretion during glucose stimulation. Traditionally, measurement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion involves manual liquid handling, heterogeneous stimulus delivery, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays that require large numbers of islets and processing time. Though microfluidic devices have been developed to address some of these limitations, traditional methods for islet testing remain the most common due to the learning curve for adopting microfluidic devices and the incompatibility of most device materials with large-scale manufacturing. We designed and built a thermoplastic, microfluidic-based Islet on a Chip compatible with commercial fabrication methods, that automates islet loading, stimulation, and insulin sensing. Inspired by the perfusion of native islets by designated arterioles and capillaries, the chip delivers synchronized glucose pulses to islets positioned in parallel channels. By flowing suspensions of human cadaveric islets onto the chip, we confirmed automatic capture of islets. Fluorescent glucose tracking demonstrated that stimulus delivery was synchronized within a two-minute window independent of the presence or size of captured islets. Insulin secretion was continuously sensed by an automated, on-chip immunoassay and quantified by fluorescence anisotropy. By integrating scalable manufacturing materials, on-line, continuous insulin measurement, and precise spatiotemporal stimulation into an easy-to-use design, the Islet on a Chip should accelerate efforts to study and develop effective treatments for diabetes.

7.
ACS Omega ; 4(5): 8626-8631, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459951

RESUMO

A spoof fingerprint was fabricated on paper and applied for a spoofing attack to unlock a smartphone on which a capacitive array of sensors had been embedded with a fingerprint recognition algorithm. Using an inkjet printer with an ink made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), we printed a spoof fingerprint having an electrical and geometric pattern of ridges and furrows comparable to that of the real fingerprint. With this printed spoof fingerprint, we were able to unlock a smartphone successfully; this was due to the good quality of the printed CNT material, which provided electrical conductivities and structural patterns similar to those of the real fingerprint. This result confirms that inkjet-printing CNTs to fabricate a spoof fingerprint on paper is an easy, simple spoofing route from the real fingerprint and suggests a new method for outputting the physical ridges and furrows on a two-dimensional plane.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(37): 33535-33547, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369233

RESUMO

Engineering bioscaffolds for improved cutaneous tissue regeneration remains a healthcare challenge because of the increasing number of patients suffering from acute and chronic wounds. To help address this problem, we propose to utilize alfalfa, an ancient medicinal plant that contains antibacterial/oxygenating chlorophylls and bioactive phytoestrogens, as a building block for regenerative wound dressings. Alfalfa carries genistein, which is a major phytoestrogen known to accelerate skin repair. The scaffolds presented herein were built from composite alfalfa and polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers with hydrophilic surface and mechanical stiffness that recapitulate the physiological microenvironments of skin. This composite scaffold was engineered to have aligned nanofibrous architecture to accelerate directional cell migration. As a result, alfalfa-based composite nanofibers were found to enhance the cellular proliferation of dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Finally, these nanofibers exhibited reproducible regenerative functionality by promoting re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation in both mouse and human skin, without requiring additional proteins, growth factors, or cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate the potential of alfalfa-based nanofibers as a regenerative platform toward accelerating cutaneous tissue repair.


Assuntos
Derme , Queratinócitos , Medicago sativa/química , Nanocompostos , Nanofibras , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Derme/lesões , Derme/metabolismo , Derme/patologia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Nanocompostos/química , Nanocompostos/uso terapêutico , Nanofibras/química , Nanofibras/uso terapêutico , Poliésteres/química
9.
Circulation ; 140(5): 390-404, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modeling of human arrhythmias with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes has focused on single-cell phenotypes. However, arrhythmias are the emergent properties of cells assembled into tissues, and the impact of inherited arrhythmia mutations on tissue-level properties of human heart tissue has not been reported. METHODS: Here, we report an optogenetically based, human engineered tissue model of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), an inherited arrhythmia caused by mutation of the cardiac ryanodine channel and triggered by exercise. We developed a human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte-based platform to study the tissue-level properties of engineered human myocardium. We investigated pathogenic mechanisms in CPVT by combining this novel platform with genome editing. RESULTS: In our model, CPVT tissues were vulnerable to developing reentrant rhythms when stimulated by rapid pacing and catecholamine, recapitulating hallmark features of the disease. These conditions elevated diastolic Ca2+ levels and increased temporal and spatial dispersion of Ca2+ wave speed, creating a vulnerable arrhythmia substrate. Using Cas9 genome editing, we pinpointed a single catecholamine-driven phosphorylation event, ryanodine receptor-serine 2814 phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, that is required to unmask the arrhythmic potential of CPVT tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our study illuminates the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of CPVT and reveals a critical role of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent reentry in the tissue-scale mechanism of this disease. We anticipate that this approach will be useful for modeling other inherited and acquired cardiac arrhythmias.

10.
Cell ; 176(4): 684-685, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735631

RESUMO

Using induced pluripotent stem cells and microelectromechanical device technology Zhao et al. have developed 'organs on chips' representing the different chambers of the heart and used them to replicate healthy and diseased tissues in vitro. These systems offer investigators and the pharmaceutical industry a new tool in testing the safety and efficacy of new medicinal therapeutics.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Coração
11.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 793-804, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616354

RESUMO

Understanding the uptake and transport dynamics of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) by mammalian cells is an important step in designing next-generation drug delivery systems. However, to track these materials and their cellular interactions, current studies often depend on surface-bound fluorescent labels, which have the potential to alter native cellular recognition events. As a result, there is still a need to develop methods capable of monitoring ENM-cell interactions independent of surface modification. Addressing these concerns, here we show how scatter enhanced phase contrast (SEPC) microscopy can be extended to work as a generalized label-free approach for monitoring nanoparticle uptake and transport dynamics. To determine which materials can be studied using SEPC, we turn to Lorenz-Mie theory, which predicts that individual particles down to ∼35 nm can be observed. We confirm this experimentally, demonstrating that SEPC works for a variety of metal and metal oxides, including Au, Ag, TiO2, CeO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles. We then demonstrate that SEPC microscopy can be used in a quantitative, time-dependent fashion to discriminate between distinct modes of active cellular transport, including intracellular transport and membrane-assisted transport. Finally, we combine this technique with microcontact printing to normalize transport dynamics across multiple cells, allowing for a careful study of ensemble TiO2 nanoparticle uptake. This revealed three distinct regions of particle transport across the cell, indicating that membrane dynamics play an important role in regulating particle flow. By avoiding fluorescent labels, SEPC allows for a rational exploration of the surface properties of nanomaterials in their native state and their role in endocytosis and cellular transport.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/instrumentação , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Endocitose , Desenho de Equipamento , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Metais/análise , Metais/metabolismo , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Nanopartículas/análise , Óxidos/análise , Óxidos/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Nat Biotechnol ; 36(9): 865-874, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125269

RESUMO

The neurovascular unit (NVU) regulates metabolic homeostasis as well as drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the central nervous system. Metabolic fluxes and conversions over the NVU rely on interactions between brain microvascular endothelium, perivascular pericytes, astrocytes and neurons, making it difficult to identify the contributions of each cell type. Here we model the human NVU using microfluidic organ chips, allowing analysis of the roles of individual cell types in NVU functions. Three coupled chips model influx across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the brain parenchymal compartment and efflux across the BBB. We used this linked system to mimic the effect of intravascular administration of the psychoactive drug methamphetamine and to identify previously unknown metabolic coupling between the BBB and neurons. Thus, the NVU system offers an in vitro approach for probing transport, efficacy, mechanism of action and toxicity of neuroactive drugs.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Neurônios/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Fenótipo
13.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 410(24): 6141-6154, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744562

RESUMO

Due to the unique physicochemical properties exhibited by materials with nanoscale dimensions, there is currently a continuous increase in the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) used in consumer goods. However, several reports associate ENM exposure to negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the pathological consequences of ENM exposure represents an important challenge, requiring model systems that can provide mechanistic insights across different levels of ENM-based toxicity. To achieve this, we developed a mussel-inspired 3D microphysiological system (MPS) to measure cardiac contractility in the presence of ENMs. While multiple cardiac MPS have been reported as alternatives to in vivo testing, most systems only partially recapitulate the native extracellular matrix (ECM) structure. Here, we show how adhesive and aligned polydopamine (PDA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber can be used to emulate the 3D native ECM environment of the myocardium. Such nanofiber scaffolds can support the formation of anisotropic and contractile muscular tissues. By integrating these fibers in a cardiac MPS, we assessed the effects of TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles on the contractile function of cardiac tissues. We found that these ENMs decrease the contractile function of cardiac tissues through structural damage to tissue architecture. Furthermore, the MPS with embedded sensors herein presents a way to non-invasively monitor the effects of ENM on cardiac tissue contractility at different time points. These results demonstrate the utility of our MPS as an analytical platform for understanding the functional impacts of ENMs while providing a biomimetic microenvironment to in vitro cardiac tissue samples. Graphical Abstract Heart-on-a-chip integrated with mussel-inspired fiber scaffolds for a high-throughput toxicological assessment of engineered nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Nanofibras/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Tecidos Suporte , Adesivos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas In Vitro , Indóis/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Poliésteres/química , Polímeros/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Nat Biotechnol ; 36(6): 530-535, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806849

RESUMO

Inside cells, complex metabolic reactions are distributed across the modular compartments of organelles. Reactions in organelles have been recapitulated in vitro by reconstituting functional protein machineries into membrane systems. However, maintaining and controlling these reactions is challenging. Here we designed, built, and tested a switchable, light-harvesting organelle that provides both a sustainable energy source and a means of directing intravesicular reactions. An ATP (ATP) synthase and two photoconverters (plant-derived photosystem II and bacteria-derived proteorhodopsin) enable ATP synthesis. Independent optical activation of the two photoconverters allows dynamic control of ATP synthesis: red light facilitates and green light impedes ATP synthesis. We encapsulated the photosynthetic organelles in a giant vesicle to form a protocellular system and demonstrated optical control of two ATP-dependent reactions, carbon fixation and actin polymerization, with the latter altering outer vesicle morphology. Switchable photosynthetic organelles may enable the development of biomimetic vesicle systems with regulatory networks that exhibit homeostasis and complex cellular behaviors.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Células Artificiais/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Actinas/metabolismo , Biomimética , Biotecnologia , Ciclo do Carbono , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Ópticos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteolipídeos/metabolismo , Rodopsinas Microbianas/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194706, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590169

RESUMO

Cardiac tissue development and pathology have been shown to depend sensitively on microenvironmental mechanical factors, such as extracellular matrix stiffness, in both in vivo and in vitro systems. We present a novel quantitative approach to assess cardiac structure and function by extending the classical traction force microscopy technique to tissue-level preparations. Using this system, we investigated the relationship between contractile proficiency and metabolism in neonate rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) cultured on gels with stiffness mimicking soft immature (1 kPa), normal healthy (13 kPa), and stiff diseased (90 kPa) cardiac microenvironments. We found that tissues engineered on the softest gels generated the least amount of stress and had the smallest work output. Conversely, cardiomyocytes in tissues engineered on healthy- and disease-mimicking gels generated significantly higher stresses, with the maximal contractile work measured in NRVM engineered on gels of normal stiffness. Interestingly, although tissues on soft gels exhibited poor stress generation and work production, their basal metabolic respiration rate was significantly more elevated than in other groups, suggesting a highly ineffective coupling between energy production and contractile work output. Our novel platform can thus be utilized to quantitatively assess the mechanotransduction pathways that initiate tissue-level structural and functional remodeling in response to substrate stiffness.


Assuntos
Mecanotransdução Celular , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Biomaterials ; 166: 96-108, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549768

RESUMO

Wounds in the fetus can heal without scarring. Consequently, biomaterials that attempt to recapitulate the biophysical and biochemical properties of fetal skin have emerged as promising pro-regenerative strategies. The extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (Fn) in particular is believed to play a crucial role in directing this regenerative phenotype. Accordingly, Fn has been implicated in numerous wound healing studies, yet remains untested in its fibrillar conformation as found in fetal skin. Here, we show that high extensional (∼1.2 ×105 s-1) and shear (∼3 ×105 s-1) strain rates in rotary jet spinning (RJS) can drive high throughput Fn fibrillogenesis (∼10 mL/min), thus producing nanofiber scaffolds that are used to effectively enhance wound healing. When tested on a full-thickness wound mouse model, Fn nanofiber dressings not only accelerated wound closure, but also significantly improved tissue restoration, recovering dermal and epidermal structures as well as skin appendages and adipose tissue. Together, these results suggest that bioprotein nanofiber fabrication via RJS could set a new paradigm for enhancing wound healing and may thus find use in a variety of regenerative medicine applications.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Fibronectinas , Nanofibras , Cicatrização , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Fibronectinas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanofibras/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1913, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382927

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of polymerized protein monomers that form a unique fibrous network providing stability and structural support to surrounding cells. We harnessed the fibrillogenesis mechanisms of naturally occurring ECM proteins to produce artificial fibers with a heterogeneous protein makeup. Using ECM proteins as fibril building blocks, we created uniquely structured multi-component ECM fibers. Sequential incubation of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LAM) resulted in self-assembly into locally stacked fibers. In contrast, simultaneous incubation of FN with LAM or collagen (COL) produced molecularly stacked multi-component fibers because both proteins share a similar assembly mechanism or possess binding domains specific to each other. Sequential incubation of COL on FN fibers resulted in fibers with sandwiched layers because COL molecules bind to the external surface of FN fibers. By choosing proteins for incubation according to the interplay of their fibrillogenesis mechanisms and their binding domains (exposed when they unfold), we were able to create ECM protein fibers that have never before been observed.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/fisiologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Laminina/metabolismo
18.
Biofabrication ; 10(2): 025004, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29337695

RESUMO

Organ-on-chip platforms aim to improve preclinical models for organ-level responses to novel drug compounds. Heart-on-a-chip assays in particular require tissue engineering techniques that rely on labor-intensive photolithographic fabrication or resolution-limited 3D printing of micropatterned substrates, which limits turnover and flexibility of prototyping. We present a rapid and automated method for large scale on-demand micropatterning of gelatin hydrogels for organ-on-chip applications using a novel biocompatible laser-etching approach. Fast and automated micropatterning is achieved via photosensitization of gelatin using riboflavin-5'phosphate followed by UV laser-mediated photoablation of the gel surface in user-defined patterns only limited by the resolution of the 15 µm wide laser focal point. Using this photopatterning approach, we generated microscale surface groove and pillar structures with feature dimensions on the order of 10-30 µm. The standard deviation of feature height was 0.3 µm, demonstrating robustness and reproducibility. Importantly, the UV-patterning process is non-destructive and does not alter gelatin micromechanical properties. Furthermore, as a quality control step, UV-patterned heart chip substrates were seeded with rat or human cardiac myocytes, and we verified that the resulting cardiac tissues achieved structural organization, contractile function, and long-term viability comparable to manually patterned gelatin substrates. Start-to-finish, UV-patterning shortened the time required to design and manufacture micropatterned gelatin substrates for heart-on-chip applications by up to 60% compared to traditional lithography-based approaches, providing an important technological advance enroute to automated and continuous manufacturing of organ-on-chips.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Análise Serial de Tecidos/instrumentação , Engenharia Tecidual/instrumentação , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Automação , Células Cultivadas , Gelatina/química , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Ratos
19.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 7(9): e1701175, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359866

RESUMO

Historically, soy protein and extracts have been used extensively in foods due to their high protein and mineral content. More recently, soy protein has received attention for a variety of its potential health benefits, including enhanced skin regeneration. It has been reported that soy protein possesses bioactive molecules similar to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and estrogen. In wound healing, oral and topical soy has been heralded as a safe and cost-effective alternative to animal protein and endogenous estrogen. However, engineering soy protein-based fibrous dressings, while recapitulating ECM microenvironment and maintaining a moist environment, remains a challenge. Here, the development of an entirely plant-based nanofibrous dressing comprised of cellulose acetate (CA) and soy protein hydrolysate (SPH) using rotary jet spinning is described. The spun nanofibers successfully mimic physicochemical properties of the native skin ECM and exhibit a high water retaining capability. In vitro, CA/SPH nanofibers promote fibroblast proliferation, migration, infiltration, and integrin ß1 expression. In vivo, CA/SPH scaffolds accelerate re-epithelialization and epidermal thinning as well as reduce scar formation and collagen anisotropy in a similar fashion to other fibrous scaffolds, but without the use of animal proteins or synthetic polymers. These results affirm the potential of CA/SPH nanofibers as a novel wound dressing.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Celulose/química , Matriz Extracelular/química , Nanofibras/química , Pele , Proteínas de Soja/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Cicatrização , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia
20.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2(12): 930-941, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015723

RESUMO

Laboratory studies of the heart use cell and tissue cultures to dissect heart function yet rely on animal models to measure pressure and volume dynamics. Here, we report tissue-engineered scale models of the human left ventricle, made of nanofibrous scaffolds that promote native-like anisotropic myocardial tissue genesis and chamber-level contractile function. Incorporating neonatal rat ventricular myocytes or cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, the tissue-engineered ventricles have a diastolic chamber volume of ~500 µl (comparable to that of the native rat ventricle and approximately 1/250 the size of the human ventricle), and ejection fractions and contractile work 50-250 times smaller and 104-108 times smaller than the corresponding values for rodent and human ventricles, respectively. We also measured tissue coverage and alignment, calcium-transient propagation and pressure-volume loops in the presence or absence of test compounds. Moreover, we describe an instrumented bioreactor with ventricular-assist capabilities, and provide a proof-of-concept disease model of structural arrhythmia. The model ventricles can be evaluated with the same assays used in animal models and in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Projeto Auxiliado por Computador , Matriz Extracelular/química , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Nanofibras/química , Polímeros/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tecidos Suporte/química , Função Ventricular
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