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1.
Circulation ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461308

RESUMO

Background: In the AUGUSTUS trial, apixaban resulted in less bleeding and fewer hospitalizations than vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and aspirin caused more bleeding than placebo in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention treated with a P2Y12 inhibitor. We evaluated the risk-benefit balance of antithrombotic therapy according to kidney function. Methods: In 4456 patients, the CKD-EPI formula was used to calculate baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The effect of apixaban vs. VKA and aspirin vs. placebo was assessed across kidney function categories using Cox models. The primary outcome was ISTH major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included death or hospitalization and ischemic events (death, stroke, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis [definite or probable], or urgent revascularization). Creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min was an exclusion criterion in the AUGUSTUS trial. Results: Overall, 30%, 52%, and 19% had an eGFR of >80, >50 to 80, and 30-50 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively. During 6-months follow-up a total of 543 primary outcomes of bleeding, 1125 death or hospitalizations, and 282 ischemic events occurred. Compared with VKA, patients assigned apixaban had lower rates for all 3 outcomes across most eGFR categories without significant interaction. The absolute risk reduction with apixaban was most pronounced in those with an eGFR of 30-50 mL/min/1.73m2 for bleeding events with rates of 13.1% vs. 21.3%; HR (95% CI) 0.59 (0.41-0.84). Patients assigned aspirin had a higher risk of bleeding in all eGFR categories with an even greater increase among those with eGFR >80 mL/min/1.73m2: 16.6% vs. 5.6%; HR 3.22 (2.19-4.74); p for interaction=0.007). The risk of death or hospitalization and ischemic events were comparable with aspirin and placebo across eGFR categories with HR ranging from 0.97 (0.76-1.23) to 1.28 (1.02-1.59) and from 0.75 (0.48-1.17) to 1.34 (0.81-2.22), respectively. Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of apixaban was consistent irrespective of kidney function, as compared with warfarin, and in accordance with the overall trial results. The risk of bleeding with aspirin was consistently higher across all kidney function categories. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02415400.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The selective cardiac myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil has been shown to improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. Its effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned 8256 patients (inpatients and outpatients) with symptomatic chronic heart failure and an ejection fraction of 35% or less to receive omecamtiv mecarbil (using pharmacokinetic-guided doses of 25 mg, 37.5 mg, or 50 mg twice daily) or placebo, in addition to standard heart-failure therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of a first heart-failure event (hospitalization or urgent visit for heart failure) or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: During a median of 21.8 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 1523 of 4120 patients (37.0%) in the omecamtiv mecarbil group and in 1607 of 4112 patients (39.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 0.99; P = 0.03). A total of 808 patients (19.6%) and 798 patients (19.4%), respectively, died from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.11). There was no significant difference between groups in the change from baseline on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score. At week 24, the change from baseline for the median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level was 10% lower in the omecamtiv mecarbil group than in the placebo group; the median cardiac troponin I level was 4 ng per liter higher. The frequency of cardiac ischemic and ventricular arrhythmia events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection, those who received omecamtiv mecarbil had a lower incidence of a composite of a heart-failure event or death from cardiovascular causes than those who received placebo. (Funded by Amgen and others; GALACTIC-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02929329; EudraCT number, 2016-002299-28.).

3.
Lancet ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric carboxymaltose, compared with placebo, on outcomes in patients who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure. METHODS: AFFIRM-AHF was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial done at 121 sites in Europe, South America, and Singapore. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, were hospitalised for acute heart failure with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 µg/L, or 100-299 µg/L with transferrin saturation <20%), and had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%. Before hospital discharge, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo for up to 24 weeks, dosed according to the extent of iron deficiency. To maintain masking of patients and study personnel, treatments were administered in black syringes by personnel not involved in any study assessments. The primary outcome was a composite of total hospitalisations for heart failure and cardiovascular death up to 52 weeks after randomisation, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had at least one post-randomisation data point. Secondary outcomes were the composite of total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular death; cardiovascular death; total heart failure hospitalisations; time to first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death; and days lost due to heart failure hospitalisations or cardiovascular death, all evaluated up to 52 weeks after randomisation. Safety was assessed in all patients for whom study treatment was started. A pre-COVID-19 sensitivity analysis on the primary and secondary outcomes was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937454, and has now been completed. FINDINGS: Between March 21, 2017, and July 30, 2019, 1525 patients were screened, of whom 1132 patients were randomly assigned to study groups. Study treatment was started in 1110 patients, and 1108 (558 in the carboxymaltose group and 550 in the placebo group) had at least one post-randomisation value. 293 primary events (57·2 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 372 (72·5 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR] 0·79, 95% CI 0·62-1·01, p=0·059). 370 total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular deaths occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 451 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·64-1·00, p=0·050). There was no difference in cardiovascular death between the two groups (77 [14%] of 558 in the ferric carboxymaltose group vs 78 [14%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·70-1·32, p=0·81). 217 total heart failure hospitalisations occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 294 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·74; 95% CI 0·58-0·94, p=0·013). The composite of first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death occurred in 181 (32%) patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 209 (38%) in the placebo group (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·66-0·98, p=0·030). Fewer days were lost due to heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death for patients assigned to ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo (369 days per 100 patient-years vs 548 days per 100 patient-years; RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·47-0·97, p=0·035). Serious adverse events occurred in 250 (45%) of 559 patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 282 (51%) of 551 patients in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: In patients with iron deficiency, a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%, and who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was safe and reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalisations, with no apparent effect on the risk of cardiovascular death. FUNDING: Vifor Pharma.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(18): e017155, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865097

RESUMO

Background We compared different methods of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and their association with cardiovascular death and major bleeding in 14 980 patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Methods and Results eGFR was calculated using equations based on creatinine (Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI]) and/or cystatin C (CKD-EPICysC and CKD-EPICysC+Creatinine). These 5 eGFR equations, as well as the individual variables that are used in these equations, were assessed for correlation and discriminatory ability for cardiovascular death and major bleeding. The median age was 70.0 years, and 35.6% were women. The median eGFR was highest with Cockcroft-Gault (74.1 mL/min) and CKD-EPICysC (74.2 mL/min), and lowest with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (66.5 mL/min). Correlation between methods ranged from 0.49 (Cockroft-Gault and CKD-EPICysC) to 0.99 (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and CKD-EPI). Among the eGFR equations, those based on cystatin C yielded the highest C indices for cardiovascular death and major bleeding: 0.628 (CKD-EPICysC) and 0.612 (CKD-EPICysC+Creatinine), respectively. A model based on the variables within the different eGFR equations (age, sex, weight, creatinine, and cystatin C) yielded the highest discriminatory value for both outcomes, with a C index of 0.673 and 0.656, respectively. Conclusions In patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation, correlation between eGFR calculated using different methods varied substantially. Cystatin C-based eGFRs seem to provide the most robust information for predicting death and bleeding. A model based on the individual variables within the eGFR equations, however, provided the highest discriminatory value. Our findings may help refine risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation and define how renal function should be determined in future atrial fibrillation studies. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00412984.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(11): 2160-2171, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985088

RESUMO

AIMS: The safety and efficacy of the novel selective cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is being tested in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure (GALACTIC-HF) trial. Here we describe the baseline characteristics of participants in GALACTIC-HF and how these compare with other contemporary trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with established HFrEF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class ≥II, ejection fraction ≤35%, elevated natriuretic peptides and either current hospitalization for heart failure or history of hospitalization/emergency department visit for heart failure within a year were randomized to either placebo or omecamtiv mecarbil (pharmacokinetic-guided dosing: 25, 37.5, or 50 mg bid). A total of 8256 patients [male (79%), non-white (22%), mean age 65 years] were enrolled with a mean ejection fraction 27%, ischaemic aetiology in 54%, NYHA class II 53% and III/IV 47%, and median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide 1971 pg/mL. Heart failure therapies at baseline were among the most effectively employed in contemporary heart failure trials. GALACTIC-HF randomized patients representative of recent heart failure registries and trials with substantial numbers of patients also having characteristics understudied in previous trials including more from North America (n = 1386), enrolled as inpatients (n = 2084), systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg (n = 1127), estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 528), and treated with sacubitril/valsartan at baseline (n = 1594). CONCLUSIONS: GALACTIC-HF enrolled a well-treated, high-risk population from both inpatient and outpatient settings, which will provide a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this novel therapy, as well as informing its potential future implementation.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 41(42): 4114-4123, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820320

RESUMO

AIMS: Statins reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and normal-to-moderately impaired renal function. It is not known whether proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors provide similar benefit across a range of renal function. We determined whether effects of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab to reduce cardiovascular events and death after ACS are influenced by renal function. METHODS AND RESULTS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared alirocumab with placebo in patients with recent ACS and dyslipidaemia despite intensive statin treatment. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 was exclusionary. In 18 918 patients, baseline eGFR was 82.8 ± 17.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 92 ± 31 mg/dL. At 36 months, alirocumab decreased LDL-C by 48.5% vs. placebo but did not affect eGFR (P = 0.65). Overall, alirocumab reduced risk of the primary outcome (coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization) with fewer deaths. There was no interaction between continuous eGFR and treatment on the primary outcome or death (P = 0.14 and 0.59, respectively). Alirocumab reduced primary outcomes in patients with eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 7470; hazard ratio 0.784, 95% confidence interval 0.670-0.919; P = 0.003) and 60 to <90 (n = 9326; 0.833, 0.731-0.949; P = 0.006), but not in those with eGFR < 60 (n = 2122; 0.974, 0.805-1.178; P = 0.784). Adverse events other than local injection-site reactions were similar in both groups across all categories of eGFR. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent ACS, alirocumab was associated with fewer cardiovascular events and deaths across the range of renal function studied, with larger relative risk reductions in those with eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.

8.
Card Fail Rev ; 6: e19, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714567

RESUMO

Levosimendan was first approved for clinic use in 2000, when authorisation was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the haemodynamic stabilisation of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure. In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitisation and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced heart failure, right ventricular failure and pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the US. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and non-cardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute heart failure arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.

9.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(1): 4-22, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639325

RESUMO

Levosimendan was first approved for clinical use in 2000, when authorization was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the hemodynamic stabilization of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (HF). In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitization and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced HF, right ventricular failure, pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care, and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the United States. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and noncardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute HF arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.

10.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320941987, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718237

RESUMO

AIMS: Statins are pivotal to the secondary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events, but some patients are statin-intolerant. We examined the effects of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor alirocumab on the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events according to the intensity of background statin treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial compared alirocumab with placebo in 18,924 patients with acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidaemia despite intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment (including no statin if intolerance was documented). The primary outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events) comprised coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Baseline statin treatment was high-intensity (88.8%), low/moderate-intensity (8.7%) or none (2.4%). Median baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 86, 89 and 139 mg/dL (P < 0.001) in these statin treatment categories, respectively. Alirocumab produced similar relative reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from baseline across statin treatment subgroups, but the mean absolute reductions differed (52.9, 56.7 and 86.1 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). With placebo, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events was highest in the no statin subgroup (10.8%, 10.7% and 26.0% respectively). Alirocumab reduced major adverse cardiovascular events in each statin subgroup (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.96; 0.68, 0.49-0.94; and 0.65, 0.44-0.97, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.14) with a gradient of absolute risk reduction: 1.25%, 95% CI 0.34-2.16; 3.16%, 0.38-5.94; 7.97%, 0.42-15.51; Pinteraction = 0.106). CONCLUSIONS: PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab reduces the relative risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome irrespective of background statin treatment. However, patients on no statin are at high absolute risk for recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events; alirocumab substantially reduces that risk. PCSK9 inhibition may be an important therapeutic strategy for statin-intolerant patients with acute coronary syndrome.

11.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(4): 426-436, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558054

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to ascertain the relationship between level of physical activity and outcomes and to discriminate the determinants of physical activity performance or avoidance. METHODS: CLARIFY is an international prospective registry of 32,370 consecutive outpatients with stable coronary artery disease who were followed for up to five years. Patients were grouped according to the level and frequency of physical activity: i) sedentary (n = 5223; 16.1%); ii) only light physical activity most weeks (light; n = 16,634; 51.4%); iii) vigorous physical activity once or twice per week (vigorous ≤ 2×; n = 5427; 16.8%); iv) vigorous physical activity three or more times per week (vigorous >2×; n = 5086; 15.7%). The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: Patients performing vigorous physical activity ≤2 × had the lowest risk of the primary outcome (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.93; p = 0.0031) taking the light group as reference. Engaging in more frequent exercise did not result in further outcome benefit. All-cause death, cardiovascular death, and stroke occurred less frequently in patients performing vigorous physical activity ≤2×. However, the rate of myocardial infarction was comparable between the four physical activity groups. Female sex, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction or stroke, pulmonary disease and body mass index all emerged as independent predictors of lower physical activity. CONCLUSION: Vigorous physical activity once or twice per week was associated with superior cardiac outcomes compared with patients performing no or a low level of physical activity in outpatients with stable coronary artery disease.

12.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 6(5): 301-309, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821482

RESUMO

AIMS: Most clinical risk stratification models are based on measurement at a single time-point rather than serial measurements. Artificial intelligence (AI) is able to predict one-dimensional outcomes from multi-dimensional datasets. Using data from Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field (GARFIELD)-AF registry, a new AI model was developed for predicting clinical outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients up to 1 year based on sequential measures of prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) within 30 days of enrolment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with newly diagnosed AF who were treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and had at least three measurements of PT-INR taken over the first 30 days after prescription were analysed. The AI model was constructed with multilayer neural network including long short-term memory and one-dimensional convolution layers. The neural network was trained using PT-INR measurements within days 0-30 after starting treatment and clinical outcomes over days 31-365 in a derivation cohort (cohorts 1-3; n = 3185). Accuracy of the AI model at predicting major bleed, stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and death was assessed in a validation cohort (cohorts 4-5; n = 1523). The model's c-statistic for predicting major bleed, stroke/SE, and all-cause death was 0.75, 0.70, and 0.61, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using serial PT-INR values collected within 1 month after starting VKA, the new AI model performed better than time in therapeutic range at predicting clinical outcomes occurring up to 12 months thereafter. Serial PT-INR values contain important information that can be analysed by computer to help predict adverse clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Assistida por Computador , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Redes Neurais de Computação , Tempo de Protrombina , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683969

RESUMO

Both acute and advanced heart failure are an increasing threat in term of survival, quality of life and socio-economical burdens. Paradoxically, the use of successful treatments for chronic heart failure can prolong life but-per definition-causes the rise in age of patients experiencing acute decompensations, since nothing at the moment helps avoiding an acute or final stage in the elderly population. To complicate the picture, acute heart failure syndromes are a collection of symptoms, signs and markers, with different aetiologies and different courses, also due to overlapping morbidities and to the plethora of chronic medications. The palette of cardio- and vasoactive drugs used in the hospitalization phase to stabilize the patient's hemodynamic is scarce and even scarcer is the evidence for the agents commonly used in the practice (e.g. catecholamines). The pipeline in this field is poor and the clinical development chronically unsuccessful. Recent set backs in expected clinical trials for new agents in acute heart failure (AHF) (omecamtiv, serelaxine, ularitide) left a field desolately empty, where only few drugs have been approved for clinical use, for example, levosimendan and nesiritide. In this consensus opinion paper, experts from 26 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, U.K. and Ukraine) analyse the situation in details also by help of artificial intelligence applied to bibliographic searches, try to distil some lesson-learned to avoid that future projects would make the same mistakes as in the past and recommend how to lead a successful development project in this field in dire need of new agents.

14.
Lancet ; 394(10204): 1169-1180, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes with previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), particularly those with previous stenting, are at high risk of ischaemic events. These patients are generally treated with aspirin. In this trial, we aimed to investigate if these patients would benefit from treatment with aspirin plus ticagrelor. METHODS: The Effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in diabEtes Mellitus patients Intervention Study (THEMIS) was a phase 3 randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, done in 1315 sites in 42 countries. Patients were eligible if 50 years or older, with type 2 diabetes, receiving anti-hyperglycaemic drugs for at least 6 months, with stable coronary artery disease, and one of three other mutually non-exclusive criteria: a history of previous PCI or of coronary artery bypass grafting, or documentation of angiographic stenosis of 50% or more in at least one coronary artery. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either ticagrelor or placebo, by use of an interactive voice-response or web-response system. The THEMIS-PCI trial comprised a prespecified subgroup of patients with previous PCI. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (measured in the intention-to-treat population). FINDINGS: Between Feb 17, 2014, and May 24, 2016, 11 154 patients (58% of the overall THEMIS trial) with a history of previous PCI were enrolled in the THEMIS-PCI trial. Median follow-up was 3·3 years (IQR 2·8-3·8). In the previous PCI group, fewer patients receiving ticagrelor had a primary efficacy outcome event than in the placebo group (404 [7·3%] of 5558 vs 480 [8·6%] of 5596; HR 0·85 [95% CI 0·74-0·97], p=0·013). The same effect was not observed in patients without PCI (p=0·76, pinteraction=0·16). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular death was similar in both treatment groups (174 [3·1%] with ticagrelor vs 183 (3·3%) with placebo; HR 0·96 [95% CI 0·78-1·18], p=0·68), as well as all-cause death (282 [5·1%] vs 323 [5·8%]; 0·88 [0·75-1·03], p=0·11). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 111 (2·0%) of 5536 patients receiving ticagrelor and 62 (1·1%) of 5564 patients receiving placebo (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·48-2·76], p<0·0001), and fatal bleeding in 6 (0·1%) of 5536 patients with ticagrelor and 6 (0·1%) of 5564 with placebo (1·13 [0·36-3·50], p=0·83). Intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 33 (0·6%) and 31 (0·6%) patients (1·21 [0·74-1·97], p=0·45). Ticagrelor improved net clinical benefit: 519/5558 (9·3%) versus 617/5596 (11·0%), HR=0·85, 95% CI 0·75-0·95, p=0·005, in contrast to patients without PCI where it did not, pinteraction=0·012. Benefit was present irrespective of time from most recent PCI. INTERPRETATION: In patients with diabetes, stable coronary artery disease, and previous PCI, ticagrelor added to aspirin reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, although with increased major bleeding. In that large, easily identified population, ticagrelor provided a favourable net clinical benefit (more than in patients without history of PCI). This effect shows that long-term therapy with ticagrelor in addition to aspirin should be considered in patients with diabetes and a history of PCI who have tolerated antiplatelet therapy, have high ischaemic risk, and low bleeding risk. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
Circulation ; 140(23): 1960-1963, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553201
16.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
17.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 293: 39-44, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178223

RESUMO

Abnormalities of myocardial energy metabolism appear as a common background of the two major cardiac disorders: ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF). Myocardial ischemia has been recently conceived as a multifaceted syndrome that can be precipitated by a number of mechanisms including metabolic abnormalities. HF is a progressive disorder characterised by a complex interaction of haemodynamic, neurohormonal and metabolic disturbances. HF may further promote metabolic changes, generating a vicious cycle. Thus, targeting cardiac metabolism in IHD patients may prevent the deterioration of left ventricular function, stopping the progression to HF. For these reasons, several studies have explored the potential benefits of trimetazidine (TMZ), an inhibitor of free fatty acids oxidation that shifts cardiac and muscle metabolism to glucose utilization. Because of its mechanism of action, TMZ has been found to provide a cardioprotective effect in patients with angina, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and those undergoing revascularization procedures, without relevant side effects. In addition, the lack of interference with heart rate, arterial pressure, and most of frequent comorbidities, makes TMZ an attractive option for patients and clinicians as well. The impact of TMZ on long term mortality and morbidity in ischemic syndromes and in heart failure need to be conclusively confirmed in properly designed RCT.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Trimetazidina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Cardiologia/tendências , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Trimetazidina/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
19.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Circulation ; 140(2): 103-112, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous trials of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9) inhibitors demonstrated reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events, but not death. We assessed the effects of alirocumab on death after index acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) was a double-blind, randomized comparison of alirocumab or placebo in 18 924 patients who had an ACS 1 to 12 months previously and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy. Alirocumab dose was blindly titrated to target achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) between 25 and 50 mg/dL. We examined the effects of treatment on all-cause death and its components, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death, with log-rank testing. Joint semiparametric models tested associations between nonfatal cardiovascular events and cardiovascular or noncardiovascular death. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Death occurred in 334 (3.5%) and 392 (4.1%) patients, respectively, in the alirocumab and placebo groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98; P=0.03, nominal P value). This resulted from nonsignificantly fewer cardiovascular (240 [2.5%] vs 271 [2.9%]; HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05; P=0.15) and noncardiovascular (94 [1.0%] vs 121 [1.3%]; HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.01; P=0.06) deaths with alirocumab. In a prespecified analysis of 8242 patients eligible for ≥3 years follow-up, alirocumab reduced death (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.94; P=0.01). Patients with nonfatal cardiovascular events were at increased risk for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths ( P<0.0001 for the associations). Alirocumab reduced total nonfatal cardiovascular events ( P<0.001) and thereby may have attenuated the number of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths. A post hoc analysis found that, compared to patients with lower LDL-C, patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L) had a greater absolute risk of death and a larger mortality benefit from alirocumab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.90; Pinteraction=0.007). In the alirocumab group, all-cause death declined with achieved LDL-C at 4 months of treatment, to a level of approximately 30 mg/dL (adjusted P=0.017 for linear trend). CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy has the potential to reduce death after acute coronary syndrome, particularly if treatment is maintained for ≥3 years, if baseline LDL-C is ≥100 mg/dL, or if achieved LDL-C is low. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01663402.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
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