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1.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 132, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health research governance is an essential function of national health research systems. Yet many African countries have not developed strong health research governance structures and processes. This paper presents a comparative analysis of national health research governance in Botswana, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, where health sciences research production is well established relative to some others in the region and continues to grow. The paper aims to examine progress made and challenges faced in strengthening health research governance in these countries. METHODS: We collected data through document review and key informant interviews with a total of 80 participants including decision-makers, researchers and funders across stakeholder institutions in the four countries. Data on health research governance were thematically coded for policies, legislation, regulation and institutions and analysed comparatively across the four national health research systems. RESULTS: All countries were found to be moving from using a research governance framework set by national science, technology and innovation policies to one that is more anchored in health research structures and policies within the health sectors. Kenya and Zambia have adopted health research legislation and policies, while Botswana and Uganda are in the process of developing the same. National-level health research coordination and regulation is hampered by inadequate financial and human resource capacities, which present challenges for building strong health research governance institutions. CONCLUSION: Building health research governance as a key pillar of national health research systems involves developing stronger governance institutions, strengthening health research legislation, increasing financing for governance processes and improving human resource capacity in health research governance and management.

2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 36, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422159

RESUMO

The evolution and contemporary challenges of health research (HR) in Madagascar are poorly documented. We aim to gain insights on the factors that shape Madagascar's National Health Research System (NHRS) to better understand their influence. We conducted a qualitative case study, which included a documentary review and semi-structured interviews with 38 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis and used the WHO/AFRO NHRS Barometer to structure the presentation of the results. There is no legislative framework to support HR activities and institutions. There is, however, a policy document outlining national priorities for HS. Human resources for HR are insufficient, due to challenges in training and retaining researchers. International collaboration is almost the only source of HR funding. Collaborations contribute to developing human and institutional capacity, but they are not always aligned with research carried out locally and the country's priority health needs. Incomplete efforts to improve regulation and low public investment in research training and research implementation reflect an insufficient commitment to HR by the government. Negotiating equitable international partnerships, the availability of public funding, and aligning HR with national health priorities would constitute a solid basis for the development of the NHRS in Madagascar.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Entrevistas como Assunto , Madagáscar , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315777

RESUMO

While it is important to be able to evaluate and measure a country's performance in health research (HR), HR systems are complex and multifaceted in nature. As such, attempts at measurement can suffer several limitations which risk leading to inadequate indices or representations. In this study, we critically review common indicators of HR capacity and performance and explore their strengths and limitations. The paper is informed by review of data sources and documents, combined with interviews and peer-to-peer learning activities conducted with officials working in health and education ministries in a set of nine African countries. We find that many metrics that can assess HR performance have gaps in the conceptualisation or fail to address local contextual realities, which makes it a challenge to interpret them in relation to other theoretical constructs. Our study identified several concepts that are excluded from current definitions of indicators and systems of metrics for HR performance. These omissions may be particularly important for interpreting HR performance within the context and processes of HR in African countries, and thus challenging the relevance, utility, appropriateness and acceptability of universal measures of HR in the region. We discuss the challenges that scholars may find in conceptualising such a complex phenomenon-including the different and competing viewpoints of stakeholders, in setting objectives of HR measurement work, and in navigating the realities of empirical measurement where missing or partial data may necessitate that proxies or alternative indicators may be chosen. These findings are important to ensure that the global health community does not rely on over-simplistic evaluations of HR when analysing and planning for improvements in low-income and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Pobreza , África , Humanos
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine health information system(s) (RHIS) facilitate the collection of health data at all levels of the health system allowing estimates of disease prevalence, treatment and preventive intervention coverage, and risk factors to guide disease control strategies. This core health system pillar remains underdeveloped in many low-income and middle-income countries. Efforts to improve RHIS data coverage, quality and timeliness were launched over 10 years ago. METHODS: A systematic review was performed across 12 databases and literature search engines for both peer-reviewed articles and grey literature reports on RHIS interventions. Studies were analysed in three stages: (1) categorisation of RHIS intervention components and processes; (2) comparison of intervention component effectiveness and (3) whether the post-intervention outcome improved above the WHO integrated disease surveillance response framework data quality standard of 80% or above. RESULTS: 5294 references were screened, resulting in 56 studies. Three key performance determinants-technical, organisational and behavioural-were proposed as critical to RHIS strengthening. Seventy-seven per cent [77%] of studies identified addressed all three determinants. The most frequently implemented intervention components were 'providing training' and 'using an electronic health management information systems'. Ninety-three per cent [93%] of pre-post or controlled trial studies showed improvements in one or more data quality outputs, but after applying a standard threshold of >80% post-intervention, this number reduced to 68%. There was an observed benefit of multi-component interventions that either conducted data quality training or that addressed improvement across multiple processes and determinants of RHIS. CONCLUSION: Holistic data quality interventions that address multiple determinants should be continuously practised for strengthening RHIS. Studies with clearly defined and pragmatic outcomes are required for future RHIS improvement interventions. These should be accompanied by qualitative studies and cost analyses to understand which investments are needed to sustain high-quality RHIS in low-income and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Pobreza
5.
Health Policy Plan ; 36(1): 35-44, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319225

RESUMO

This article explores how malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa is shaped in important ways by political and economic considerations within the contexts of aid-recipient nations and the global health community. Malaria control is often assumed to be a technically driven exercise: the remit of public health experts and epidemiologists who utilize available data to select the most effective package of activities given available resources. Yet research conducted with national and international stakeholders shows how the realities of malaria control decision-making are often more nuanced. Hegemonic ideas and interests of global actors, as well as the national and global institutional arrangements through which malaria control is funded and implemented, can all influence how national actors respond to malaria. Results from qualitative interviews in seven malaria-endemic countries indicate that malaria decision-making is constrained or directed by multiple competing objectives, including a need to balance overarching global goals with local realities, as well as a need for National Malaria Control Programmes to manage and coordinate a range of non-state stakeholders who may divide up regions and tasks within countries. Finally, beyond the influence that political and economic concerns have over programmatic decisions and action, our analysis further finds that malaria control efforts have institutionalized systems, structures and processes that may have implications for local capacity development.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Malária , África ao Sul do Saara , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública
6.
Malar J ; 19(1): 353, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Declining malaria prevalence and pressure on external funding have increased the need for efficiency in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Modelled Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) maps are increasingly becoming available and provide information on the epidemiological situation of countries. However, how these maps are understood or used for national malaria planning is rarely explored. In this study, the practices and perceptions of national decision-makers on the utility of malaria risk maps, showing prevalence of parasitaemia or incidence of illness, was investigated. METHODS: A document review of recent National Malaria Strategic Plans was combined with 64 in-depth interviews with stakeholders in Kenya, Malawi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The document review focused on the type of epidemiological maps included and their use in prioritising and targeting interventions. Interviews (14 Kenya, 17 Malawi, 27 DRC, 6 global level) explored drivers of stakeholder perceptions of the utility, value and limitations of malaria risk maps. RESULTS: Three different types of maps were used to show malaria epidemiological strata: malaria prevalence using a PfPR modelled map (Kenya); malaria incidence using routine health system data (Malawi); and malaria prevalence using data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DRC). In Kenya the map was used to target preventative interventions, including long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), whilst in Malawi and DRC the maps were used to target in-door residual spraying (IRS) and LLINs distributions in schools. Maps were also used for operational planning, supply quantification, financial justification and advocacy. Findings from the interviews suggested that decision-makers lacked trust in the modelled PfPR maps when based on only a few empirical data points (Malawi and DRC). CONCLUSIONS: Maps were generally used to identify areas with high prevalence in order to implement specific interventions. Despite the availability of national level modelled PfPR maps in all three countries, they were only used in one country. Perceived utility of malaria risk maps was associated with the epidemiological structure of the country and use was driven by perceived need, understanding (quality and relevance), ownership and trust in the data used to develop the maps.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Mapeamento Geográfico , Malária/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , República Democrática do Congo , Humanos , Quênia , Malária/parasitologia , Malaui
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(3): e000652, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946486

RESUMO

Introduction: In global health discussions, there have been widespread calls for health policy and programme implementation to be informed by the best available evidence. However, recommendations in the literature on knowledge translation are often decontextualised, with little attention to the local systems of institutions, structures and practices which can direct the production of evidence and shape whether or how it informs health decisions. This article explores these issues in the country setting of Cambodia, where the Ministry of Health has explicitly championed the language of evidence-based approaches to policy and planning. Methods: Research for this paper combined multiple sources and material, including in-depth interviews with key informants in Phnom Penh and the analysis of documentary material and publications. Data collection and analysis focused on two key domains in evidence advisory systems: domestic capacities to generate health policy-relevant evidence and institutional mechanisms to monitor, evaluate and incorporate evidence in the policy process. Results: We identified a number of structural arrangements that may increasingly work to facilitate the supply of health-related data and information, and their use to inform policy and planning. However, other trends and features appear to be more problematic, including gaps between research and public health priorities in the country, the fragmented nature of research activities and information systems, the lack of a national policy to support and guide the production and use of evidence for health policy, and challenges to the use of evidence for intersectoral policy-making. Conclusions: In Cambodia, as in other low/middle-income countries, continued investments to increase the supply and quality of health data and information are needed, but greater attention should be paid to the enabling institutional environment to ensure relevance of health research products and effective knowledge management.

8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(1): e000485, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527338

RESUMO

Introduction: Generating country-level political commitment will be critical to driving forward action throughout the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016-2025). In this review of the empirical nutrition policy literature, we ask: what factors generate, sustain and constrain political commitment for nutrition, how and under what circumstances? Our aim is to inform strategic 'commitment-building' actions. Method: We adopted a framework synthesis method and realist review protocol. An initial framework was derived from relevant theory and then populated with empirical evidence to test and modify it. Five steps were undertaken: initial theoretical framework development; search for relevant empirical literature; study selection and quality appraisal; data extraction, analysis and synthesis and framework modification. Results: 75 studies were included. We identified 18 factors that drive commitment, organised into five categories: actors; institutions; political and societal contexts; knowledge, evidence and framing; and, capacities and resources. Irrespective of country-context, effective nutrition actor networks, strong leadership, civil society mobilisation, supportive political administrations, societal change and focusing events, cohesive and resonant framing, and robust data systems and available evidence were commitment drivers. Low-income and middle-income country studies also frequently reported international actors, empowered institutions, vertical coordination and capacities and resources. In upper-middle-income and high-income country studies, private sector interference frequently undermined commitment. Conclusion: Political commitment is not something that simply exists or emerges accidentally; it can be created and strengthened over time through strategic action. Successfully generating commitment will likely require a core set of actions with some context-dependent adaptations. Ultimately, it will necessitate strategic actions by cohesive, resourced and strongly led nutrition actor networks that are responsive to the multifactorial, multilevel and dynamic political systems in which they operate and attempt to influence. Accelerating the formation and effectiveness of such networks over the Nutrition Decade should be a core task for all actors involved.

9.
Health Policy Plan ; 33(2): 215-223, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237026

RESUMO

Although concerns have historically been raised about the influence of external donors on health policy process in recipient countries, remarkably few studies have investigated perspectives and experiences of domestic policymakers and advisers. This study examines donor influence at different stages of the health policy process (priority setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and monitoring and evaluation) in two aid-dependent LMICs, Cambodia and Pakistan. It identifies mechanisms through which asymmetries in influence between donors and domestic policy actors emerge. We conducted 24 key informant interviews-14 in Pakistan and 10 in Cambodia-with high-level decision-makers who inform or authorize health priority setting, allocate resources and/or are responsible for policy implementation, identifying three routes of influence: financial resources, technical expertise and indirect financial and political incentives. We used both inductive and deductive approaches to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that different routes of influence emerged depending on the stage of the policy process. Control of financial resources was the most commonly identified route by which donors influenced priority setting and policy implementation. Greater (perceived) technical expertise played an important role in donor influence at the policy formulation stage. Donors' power in influencing decisions, particularly during the final (monitoring and evaluation) stage of the policy process, was mediated by their ability to control indirect financial and political incentives as well as direct control of financial resources. This study thus helps unpack the nuances of donor influence over health policymaking in these settings, and can potentially indicate areas that require attention to increase the ownership of domestic actors of their countries' health policy processes.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Obtenção de Fundos , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Política , Camboja , Países em Desenvolvimento , Prioridades em Saúde , Humanos , Paquistão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Recursos Humanos
10.
Glob Chall ; 2(9): 1700077, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565347

RESUMO

This paper presents findings from a case study of two different policy development processes within the WHO's malaria department. By comparing the policy processes for the interventions of intermittent preventive treatment in infants versus children, the findings suggest that "good evidence" from a technical perspective, though important, is not sufficient to ensure universal agreement and uptake of recommendations. An analysis of 29 key informant interviews finds that evidence also needs to be relevant to the policy question being asked, and that expert actors retain a concern over the legitimacy of the process by which technical evidence is brought to bear in the policy development process. Previous findings from the field of sustainable development, that evidence must be credible, salient, and legitimate to be accepted by the public, appears to apply equally within scientific advisory committees. While the WHO has principally focused on technical criteria for evidence inclusion in its policy development processes, this study suggests that the design and functionality of its advisory bodies must also enable transparent, responsive, and accepted processes of evidence review to ensure that these bodies are effective in producing advice that engenders change in policy and practice.

11.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 15(1): 95, 2017 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discussions within the health community routinely emphasise the importance of evidence in informing policy formulation and implementation. Much of the support for the evidence-based policy movement draws from concern that policy decisions are often based on inadequate engagement with high-quality evidence. In many such discussions, evidence is treated as differing only in quality, and assumed to improve decisions if it can only be used more. In contrast, political science scholars have described this as an overly simplistic view of the policy-making process, noting that research 'use' can mean a variety of things and relies on nuanced aspects of political systems. An approach more in recognition of how policy-making systems operate in practice can be to consider how institutions and ideas influence which pieces of evidence appear to be relevant for, and are used within, different policy processes. METHODS: Drawing on in-depth interviews undertaken in 2015-2016 with key health sector stakeholders in Cambodia, we investigate the evidence perceived to be relevant to policy decisions for three contrasting health policy examples, namely tobacco control, HIV/AIDS and performance-based salary incentives. These cases allow us to examine the ways that policy-relevant evidence may differ given the framing of the issue and the broader institutional context in which evidence is considered. RESULTS: The three health issues show few similarities in how pieces of evidence were used in various aspects of policy-making, despite all being discussed within a broad policy environment in which evidence-based policy-making is rhetorically championed. Instead, we find that evidence use can be better understood by mapping how these health policy issues differ in terms of the issue characteristics, and also in terms of the stakeholders structurally established as having a dominant influence for each issue. Both of these have important implications for evidence use. Contrasting concerns of key stakeholders meant that evidence related to differing issues could be understood in terms of how it was relevant to policy. The stakeholders involved, however, could further be seen to possess differing logics about how to go about achieving their various outcomes - logics that could further help explain the differences seen in evidence utilisation. CONCLUSION: A comparative approach reiterates that evidence is not a uniform concept for which more is obviously better, but rather illustrates how different constructions and pieces of evidence become relevant in relation to the features of specific health policy decisions. An institutional approach that considers the structural position of stakeholders with differing core goals or objectives, as well as their logics related to evidence utilisation, can further help to understand some of the complexities of evidence use in health policy-making.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Camboja , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Reembolso de Incentivo/organização & administração , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 6(2): 103-105, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812785

RESUMO

The field of cognitive psychology has increasingly provided scientific insights to explore how humans are subject to unconscious sources of evidentiary bias, leading to errors that can affect judgement and decision-making. Increasingly these insights are being applied outside the realm of individual decision-making to the collective arena of policy-making as well. A recent editorial in this journal has particularly lauded the work of the World Bank for undertaking an open and critical reflection on sources of unconscious bias in its own expert staff that could undermine achievement of its key goals. The World Bank case indeed serves as a remarkable case of a global policy-making agency making its own critical reflections transparent for all to see. Yet the recognition that humans are prone to cognitive errors has been known for centuries, and the scientific exploration of such biases provided by cognitive psychology is now well-established. What still remains to be developed, however, is a widespread body of work that can inform efforts to institutionalise strategies to mitigate the multiple sources and forms of evidentiary bias arising within administrative and policy-making environments. Addressing this gap will require a programme of conceptual and empirical work that supports robust development and evaluation of institutional bias mitigation strategies. The cognitive sciences provides a scientific basis on which to proceed, but a critical priority will now be the application of that science to improve policy-making within those agencies taking responsibility for social welfare and development programmes.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Formulação de Políticas , Viés , Humanos , Nações Unidas
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 135: 15-22, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25939072

RESUMO

Global policy recommendations to scale up of male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention tend to frame the procedure as a simple and efficacious public health intervention. However, there has been variable uptake of MC in countries with significant HIV epidemics. Kenya, for example, has embraced MC and has been dubbed a 'leader' by the global health community, while Malawi has been branded a 'laggard' in its slow adoption of a national programme, with a strong political discourse of resistance forming around MC. Regardless of any epidemiological or technical evidence, the uptake of international recommendations will be shaped by how a policy, and the specific artefacts that constitute that policy, intersect with local concerns. MC holds particular significance within many ethnic and religious groups, serving as an important rite of passage, but also designating otherness or enabling the identification of the social and political self. Understanding how the artefact of MC intersects with local social, economic, and political contexts, is therefore essential to understand the acceptance or resistance of global policy recommendations. In this paper we present an in-depth analysis of Malawi's political resistance to MC, finding that ethnic and religious divisions dominating recent political movements aligned well with differing circumcision practices. Political resistance was further found to manifest through two key narratives: a 'narrative of defiance' around the need to resist donor manipulation, and a 'narrative of doubt' which seized on a piece of epidemiological evidence to refute global claims of efficacy. Further, we found that discussions over MC served as an additional arena through which ethnic identities and claims to power could themselves be negotiated, and therefore used to support claims of political legitimacy.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Política , Religião e Medicina
14.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 17: 19052, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25204872

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. DISCUSSION: A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between "structural factors," which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge) which influence risk and vulnerability, and "structural drivers," which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A "structural diagnostic approach" is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. CONCLUSIONS: For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities shaping patterns of sexual practices. Future HIV prevention efforts must address the multiple factors influencing risk and vulnerability, and they must do so in ways tailored to particular settings. Clarity on the concepts, terminology and approaches that can allow structural HIV prevention efforts to achieve this is therefore essential to improve the (social) science of HIV prevention.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/organização & administração , Humanos
15.
Glob Public Health ; 8(10): 1093-108, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24236409

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths for women globally, with an estimated 88% of deaths occurring in the developing world. Available technologies have dramatically reduced mortality in high-income settings, yet cervical cancer receives considerably little attention on the global health policy landscape. The authors applied four policy-analysis frameworks to literature on global cervical cancer to explore the question of why cervical cancer may not be receiving the international attention it may otherwise warrant. Each framework explores the process of agenda setting and discerns factors that either facilitate or hinder policy change in cases where there is both a clear problem and a potential effective solution. In combination, these frameworks highlight a number of crucial elements that may be needed to raise the profile of cervical cancer on global health agendas, including improving local (national or sub-national) information on the condition; increasing mobilisation of affected civil society groups; framing cervical cancer debates in ways that build upon its classification as a non-communicable disease (NCD) and an issue of women's rights; linking cervical cancer screening to well-funded services such as those for HIV treatment in some countries; and identifying key global policy windows of opportunity to promote the cervical cancer agenda, including emerging NCD global health discussions and post-2015 reviews of the Millennium Development Goals.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia , Formulação de Políticas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/economia , Saúde da Mulher/economia , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e77404, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24204823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. FINDINGS: 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies of evidence use, and an engagement with theories and approaches beyond the current remit of public health or knowledge utilisation studies.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/ética , Política de Saúde , Política , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , África , Europa (Continente) , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Estados Unidos
17.
Health Policy Plan ; 28(1): 20-9, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22411881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioural interventions have been widely integrated in HIV/AIDS social marketing prevention strategies and are considered valuable in settings with high levels of risk behaviours and low levels of HIV/AIDS awareness. Despite their widespread application, there is a lack of economic evaluations comparing different behaviour change communication methods. This paper analyses the costs to increase awareness and the cost-effectiveness to influence behaviour change for five interventions in Benin. METHODS: Cost and cost-effectiveness analyses used economic costs and primary effectiveness data drawn from surveys. Costs were collected for provider inputs required to implement the interventions in 2009 and analysed by 'person reached'. Cost-effectiveness was analysed by 'person reporting systematic condom use'. Sensitivity analyses were performed on all uncertain variables and major assumptions. RESULTS: Cost-per-person reached varies by method, with public outreach events the least costly (US$2.29) and billboards the most costly (US$25.07). Influence on reported behaviour was limited: only three of the five interventions were found to have a significant statistical correlation with reported condom use (i.e. magazines, radio broadcasts, public outreach events). Cost-effectiveness ratios per person reporting systematic condom use resulted in the following ranking: magazines, radio and public outreach events. Sensitivity analyses indicate rankings are insensitive to variation of key parameters although ratios must be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that while individual interventions are an attractive use of resources to raise awareness, this may not translate into a cost-effective impact on behaviour change. The study found that the extensive reach of public outreach events did not seem to influence behaviour change as cost-effectively when compared with magazines or radio broadcasts. Behavioural interventions are context-specific and their effectiveness influenced by a multitude of factors. Further analyses using a quasi-experimental design would be useful to programme implementers and policy makers as they face decisions regarding which HIV prevention activities to prioritize.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/economia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Marketing Social , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle
18.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 15 Suppl 1: 1-10, 2012 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22713355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fact that HIV prevention often deals with politicised sexual and drug taking behaviour is well known, but structural HIV prevention interventions in particular can involve alteration of social arrangements over which there may be further contested values at stake. As such, normative frameworks are required to inform HIV prevention decisions and avoid conflicts between social goals. METHODS: This paper provides a conceptual review and discussion of the normative issues surrounding structural HIV prevention strategies. It applies political and ethical concepts to explore the contested nature of HIV planning and suggests conceptual frameworks to inform future structural HIV responses. RESULTS: HIV prevention is an activity that cannot be pursued without making value judgements; it is inherently political. Appeals to health outcomes alone are insufficient when intervention strategies have broader social impacts, or when incidence reduction can be achieved at the expense of other social values such as freedom, equality, or economic growth. This is illustrated by the widespread unacceptability of forced isolation which may be efficacious in preventing spread of infectious agents, but conflicts with other social values. CONCLUSIONS: While no universal value system exists, the capability approach provides one potential framework to help overcome seeming contradictions or value trade-offs in structural HIV prevention approaches. However, even within the capability approach, valuations must still be made. Making normative values explicit in decision making processes is required to ensure transparency, accountability, and representativeness of the public interest, while ensuring structural HIV prevention efforts align with broader social development goals as well.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Mudança Social , Valores Sociais
19.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 27(2): 180-91, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22460830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In India, 50%-80% of patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek private care. This study set out to explore HIV testing and referral practices of private hospital doctors treating patients with TB. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with private hospital doctors (n = 15). Interviews covered HIV testing, linking HIV-positive patients with TB to HIV care, and coordination of care for co-infected patients. RESULTS: Doctors did not routinely refer patients with TB to government HIV testing facilities as per national policy guidance. If deemed appropriate, then testing was conducted privately. Testing was more common when a facility guideline mandated testing or a public-private initiative for TB management was in place. Otherwise, testing was based on doctors' judgement. Patients accustomed to private care who could not afford treatment were reportedly reluctant to shift to public facilities. A lack of communication between public and private doctors was found to undermine co-management. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, private provider practices were influenced by both the social and the health systems contexts in which they operated. An understanding of patient perceptions of HIV, private doctors concerns for retaining patients, and the contrasting philosophies of private medicine versus public health objectives was found to be critical to explain HIV testing and referral behaviours. The government has proposed to scale up HIV testing and treatment among patients with TB, yet operationalising this will require engagement with the realities of a large, diverse private sector. It will also require considering what role government policies can have on shaping private practice and how to potentially integrate public and private care.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Hospitais Privados , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Padrões de Prática Médica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino
20.
Glob Public Health ; 6 Suppl 3: S293-309, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21745027

RESUMO

A key component of the shift from an emergency to a long-term response to AIDS is a change in focus from HIV prevention interventions focused on individuals to a comprehensive strategy in which social/structural approaches are core elements. Such approaches aim to modify social conditions by addressing key drivers of HIV vulnerability that affect the ability of individuals to protect themselves and others from HIV. The development and implementation of evidence-based social/structural interventions have been hampered by both scientific and political obstacles that have not been fully explored or redressed. This paper provides a framework, examples, and some guidance for how to conceptualise, operationalise, measure, and evaluate complex social/structural approaches to HIV prevention to help situate them more concretely in a long-term strategy to end AIDS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Meio Social , Saúde Global , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Trabalho Sexual , Comportamento Sexual , Classe Social
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