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1.
ACS Phys Chem Au ; 3(1): 44-62, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718262

RESUMO

Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments in surface science are usually analyzed using the Polanyi-Wigner equation and/or transition-state theory. These methods are far from straightforward, and the determination of the pre-exponential factor is often problematic. We present a different method based on equilibrium thermodynamics, which builds on an approach previously used for TPD by Kreuzer et al. (Surf. Sci. 1988). Equations for the desorption rate are presented for three different types of surface-adsorbate interactions: (i) a 2D ideal hard-sphere gas with a negligible diffusion barrier, (ii) an ideal lattice gas, that is, fixed adsorption sites without interaction between the adsorbates, and (iii) a lattice gas with a distribution of (site-dependent) adsorption energies. We show that the coverage dependence of the sticking coefficient for adsorption at the desorption temperature determines whether the desorption process can be described by first- or second-order kinetics. The sticking coefficient at the desorption temperature must also be known for a quantitative determination of the adsorption energy, but it has a rather weak influence (like the pre-exponential factor in a traditional TPD analysis). Quantitative analysis is also influenced by the vibrational contributions to the energy and entropy. For the case of a single adsorption energy, we provide equations to directly convert peak temperatures into adsorption energies. These equations also provide an approximation of the desorption energy in cases that cannot be described by a fixed pre-exponential factor. For the case of a distribution of adsorption energies, the desorption spectra cannot be considered a superposition of desorption spectra corresponding to the different energies. Nevertheless, we present a method to extract the distribution of adsorption energies from TPD spectra, and we rationalize the energy resolution of TPD experiments. The analytical results are complemented by a program for simulation and analysis of TPD data.

2.
Top Catal ; 65(17-18): 1620-1630, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405974

RESUMO

The local environment of metal-oxide supported single-atom catalysts plays a decisive role in the surface reactivity and related catalytic properties. The study of such systems is complicated by the presence of point defects on the surface, which are often associated with the localization of excess charge in the form of polarons. This can affect the stability, the electronic configuration, and the local geometry of the adsorbed adatoms. In this work, through the use of density functional theory and surface-sensitive experiments, we study the adsorption of Rh1, Pt1, and Au1 metals on the reduced TiO2(110) surface, a prototypical polaronic material. A systematic analysis of the adsorption configurations and oxidation states of the adsorbed metals reveals different types of couplings between adsorbates and polarons. As confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, the favored Pt1 and Au1 adsorption at oxygen vacancy sites is associated with a strong electronic charge transfer from polaronic states to adatom orbitals, which results in a reduction of the adsorbed metal. In contrast, the Rh1 adatoms interact weakly with the excess charge, which leaves the polarons largely unaffected. Our results show that an accurate understanding of the properties of single-atom catalysts on oxide surfaces requires a careful account of the interplay between adatoms, vacancy sites, and polarons. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11244-022-01651-0.

3.
Chem Rev ; 122(18): 14911-14939, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070397

RESUMO

The field of single-atom catalysis (SAC) has expanded greatly in recent years. While there has been much success developing new synthesis methods, a fundamental disconnect exists between most experiments and the theoretical computations used to model them. The real catalysts are based on powder supports, which inevitably contain a multitude of different facets, different surface sites, defects, hydroxyl groups, and other contaminants due to the environment. This makes it extremely difficult to determine the structure of the active SAC site using current techniques. To be tractable, computations aimed at modeling SAC utilize periodic boundary conditions and low-index facets of an idealized support. Thus, the reaction barriers and mechanisms determined computationally represent, at best, a plausibility argument, and there is a strong chance that some critical aspect is omitted. One way to better understand what is plausible is by experimental modeling, i.e., comparing the results of computations to experiments based on precisely defined single-crystalline supports prepared in an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) environment. In this review, we report the status of the surface-science literature as it pertains to SAC. We focus on experimental work on supports where the site of the metal atom are unambiguously determined from experiment, in particular, the surfaces of rutile and anatase TiO2, the iron oxides Fe2O3 and Fe3O4, as well as CeO2 and MgO. Much of this work is based on scanning probe microscopy in conjunction with spectroscopy, and we highlight the remarkably few studies in which metal atoms are stable on low-index surfaces of typical supports. In the Perspective section, we discuss the possibility for expanding such studies into other relevant supports.

4.
Sci Adv ; 8(33): eabq1433, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984882

RESUMO

Polarizable materials attract attention in catalysis because they have a free parameter for tuning chemical reactivity. Their surfaces entangle the dielectric polarization with surface polarity, excess charge, and orbital hybridization. How this affects individual adsorbed molecules is shown for the incipient ferroelectric perovskite KTaO3. This intrinsically polar material cleaves along (001) into KO- and TaO2-terminated surface domains. At TaO2 terraces, the polarity-compensating excess electrons form a two-dimensional electron gas and can also localize by coupling to ferroelectric distortions. TaO2 terraces host two distinct types of CO molecules, adsorbed at equivalent lattice sites but charged differently as seen in atomic force microscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy. Temperature-programmed desorption shows substantially stronger binding of the charged CO; in density functional theory calculations, the excess charge favors a bipolaronic configuration coupled to the CO. These results pinpoint how adsorption states couple to ferroelectric polarization.

5.
Sci Adv ; 8(13): eabn4580, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363523

RESUMO

Heterogeneous catalysts based on subnanometer metal clusters often exhibit strongly size-dependent properties, and the addition or removal of a single atom can make all the difference. Identifying the most active species and deciphering the reaction mechanism is extremely difficult, however, because it is often not clear how the catalyst evolves in operando. Here, we use a combination of atomically resolved scanning probe microscopies, spectroscopic techniques, and density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations to study CO oxidation by a model Pt/Fe3O4(001) "single-atom" catalyst. We demonstrate that (PtCO)2 dimers, formed dynamically through the agglomeration of mobile Pt-carbonyl species, catalyze a reaction involving the oxide support to form CO2. Pt2 dimers produce one CO2 molecule before falling apart into two adatoms, releasing the second CO. Olattice extraction only becomes facile when both the Pt-dimer and the Fe3O4 support can access metastable configurations, suggesting that substantial, concerted rearrangements of both cluster and support must be considered for reactions occurring at elevated temperature.

6.
ACS Energy Lett ; 7(1): 375-380, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059503

RESUMO

Oxide-supported single-atom catalysts are commonly modeled as a metal atom substituting surface cation sites in a low-index surface. Adatoms with dangling bonds will inevitably coordinate molecules from the gas phase, and adsorbates such as water can affect both stability and catalytic activity. Herein, we use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), noncontact atomic force microscopy (ncAFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to show that high densities of single Rh adatoms are stabilized on α-Fe2O3(11̅02) in the presence of 2 × 10-8 mbar of water at room temperature, in marked contrast to the rapid sintering observed under UHV conditions. Annealing to 50 °C in UHV desorbs all water from the substrate leaving only the OH groups coordinated to Rh, and high-resolution ncAFM images provide a direct view into the internal structure. We provide direct evidence of the importance of OH ligands in the stability of single atoms and argue that their presence should be assumed when modeling single-atom catalysis systems.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6488, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759277

RESUMO

Oxygen exchange at oxide/liquid and oxide/gas interfaces is important in technology and environmental studies, as it is closely linked to both catalytic activity and material degradation. The atomic-scale details are mostly unknown, however, and are often ascribed to poorly defined defects in the crystal lattice. Here we show that even thermodynamically stable, well-ordered surfaces can be surprisingly reactive. Specifically, we show that all the 3-fold coordinated lattice oxygen atoms on a defect-free single-crystalline "r-cut" ([Formula: see text]) surface of hematite (α-Fe2O3) are exchanged with oxygen from surrounding water vapor within minutes at temperatures below 70 °C, while the atomic-scale surface structure is unperturbed by the process. A similar behavior is observed after liquid-water exposure, but the experimental data clearly show most of the exchange happens during desorption of the final monolayer, not during immersion. Density functional theory computations show that the exchange can happen during on-surface diffusion, where the cost of the lattice oxygen extraction is compensated by the stability of an HO-HOH-OH complex. Such insights into lattice oxygen stability are highly relevant for many research fields ranging from catalysis and hydrogen production to geochemistry and paleoclimatology.

8.
Nat Mater ; 20(8): 1041-1042, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321652

Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Óxidos
9.
Science ; 371(6527): 375-379, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479148

RESUMO

Understanding how the local environment of a "single-atom" catalyst affects stability and reactivity remains a challenge. We present an in-depth study of copper1, silver1, gold1, nickel1, palladium1, platinum1, rhodium1, and iridium1 species on Fe3O4(001), a model support in which all metals occupy the same twofold-coordinated adsorption site upon deposition at room temperature. Surface science techniques revealed that CO adsorption strength at single metal sites differs from the respective metal surfaces and supported clusters. Charge transfer into the support modifies the d-states of the metal atom and the strength of the metal-CO bond. These effects could strengthen the bond (as for Ag1-CO) or weaken it (as for Ni1-CO), but CO-induced structural distortions reduce adsorption energies from those expected on the basis of electronic structure alone. The extent of the relaxations depends on the local geometry and could be predicted by analogy to coordination chemistry.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(20): 206101, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258623

RESUMO

A Gaussian approximation potential was trained using density-functional theory data to enable a global geometry optimization of low-index rutile IrO_{2} facets through simulated annealing. Ab initio thermodynamics identifies (101) and (111) (1×1) terminations competitive with (110) in reducing environments. Experiments on single crystals find that (101) facets dominate and exhibit the theoretically predicted (1×1) periodicity and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy core-level shifts. The obtained structures are analogous to the complexions discussed in the context of ceramic battery materials.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(49): 21904-21908, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729209

RESUMO

Establishing the atomic-scale structure of metal-oxide surfaces during electrochemical reactions is a key step to modeling this important class of electrocatalysts. Here, we demonstrate that the characteristic (√2×√2)R45° surface reconstruction formed on (001)-oriented magnetite single crystals is maintained after immersion in 0.1 M NaOH at 0.20 V vs. Ag/AgCl and we investigate its dependence on the electrode potential. We follow the evolution of the surface using in situ and operando surface X-ray diffraction from the onset of hydrogen evolution, to potentials deep in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) regime. The reconstruction remains stable for hours between -0.20 and 0.60 V and, surprisingly, is still present at anodic current densities of up to 10 mA cm-2 and strongly affects the OER kinetics. We attribute this to a stabilization of the Fe3 O4 bulk by the reconstructed surface. At more negative potentials, a gradual and largely irreversible lifting of the reconstruction is observed due to the onset of oxide reduction.

12.
Chemphyschem ; 21(16): 1788-1796, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639106

RESUMO

Difficulties associated with the integration of liquids into a UHV environment make surface-science style studies of mineral dissolution particularly challenging. Recently, we developed a novel experimental setup for the UHV-compatible dosing of ultrapure liquid water and studied its interaction with TiO2 and Fe3 O4 surfaces. Herein, we describe a simple approach to vary the pH through the partial pressure of CO2 ( p C O 2 ) in the surrounding vacuum chamber and use this to study how these surfaces react to an acidic solution. The TiO2 (110) surface is unaffected by the acidic solution, except for a small amount of carbonaceous contamination. The Fe3 O4 (001)-( 2 × 2 )R45° surface begins to dissolve at a pH 4.0-3.9 ( p C O 2 =0.8-1 bar) and, although it is significantly roughened, the atomic-scale structure of the Fe3 O4 (001) surface layer remains visible in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals that the surface is chemically reduced and contains a significant accumulation of bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) species. These observations are consistent with Fe(II) being extracted by bicarbonate ions, leading to dissolved iron bicarbonate complexes (Fe(HCO3 )2 ), which precipitate onto the surface when the water evaporates.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(16): 8336-8343, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255111

RESUMO

We present surface X-ray diffraction and fast scanning tunneling microscopy results to elucidate the nature of the surface phase transition on magnetite (001) from a reconstructed to a non-reconstructed surface around 720 K. In situ surface X-ray diffraction at a temperature above the phase transition, at which long-range order is lost, gives evidence that the subsurface cation vacancy reconstruction still exists as a local structural motif, in line with the characteristics of a 2D second-order phase transition. Fast scanning tunneling microscopy results across the phase transition underpin the hypothesis that the reconstruction lifting is initiated by surplus Fe ions occupying subsurface octahedral vacancies. The reversible near-surface iron enrichment and reduction of the surface to stoichiometric composition is further confirmed by in situ low-energy ion scattering, as well as ultraviolet and X-ray photoemission results.

14.
Nanoscale ; 12(10): 5866-5875, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103229

RESUMO

The structure of a catalyst often changes in reactive environments, and following the structural evolution is crucial for the identification of the catalyst's active phase and reaction mechanism. Here we present an atomic-scale study of CO oxidation on a model Rh/Fe3O4(001) "single-atom" catalyst, which has a very different evolution depending on which of the two reactants, O2 or CO, is adsorbed first. Using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) combined with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we show that O2 destabilizes Rh atoms, leading to the formation of RhxOy clusters; these catalyze CO oxidation via a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism at temperatures as low as 200 K. If CO adsorbs first, the system is poisoned for direct interaction with O2, and CO oxidation is dominated by a Mars-van-Krevelen pathway at 480 K.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 152(6): 064703, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061207

RESUMO

The interaction of methanol with iron oxide surfaces is of interest due to its potential in hydrogen storage and from a fundamental perspective as a chemical probe of reactivity. We present here a study examining the adsorption and reaction of methanol on magnetite Fe3O4(001) at cryogenic temperatures using a combination of temperature programmed desorption, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. The methanol desorption profile from Fe3O4(001) is complex, exhibiting peaks at 140 K, 173 K, 230 K, and 268 K, corresponding to the desorption of intact methanol, as well as peaks at 341 K and 495 K due to the reaction of methoxy intermediates. The saturation of a monolayer of methanol corresponds to ∼5 molecules/unit cell (u.c.), which is slightly higher than the number of surface octahedral iron atoms of 4/u.c. We probe the kinetics and thermodynamics of the desorption of molecular methanol using inversion analysis. The deconvolution of the complex desorption profile into individual peaks allows for calculations of both the desorption energy and the prefactor of each feature. The initial 0.7 methanol/u.c. reacts to form methoxy and hydroxy intermediates at 180 K, which remain on the surface above room temperature after intact methanol has desorbed. The methoxy species react via one of two channels, a recombination reaction with surface hydroxyls to form additional methanol at ∼350 K and a disproportionation reaction to form methanol and formaldehyde at ∼500 K. Only 20% of the methoxy species undergo the disproportionation reaction, with most of them reacting via the 350 K pathway.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 151(15): 154702, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640372

RESUMO

Atomic-scale investigations of metal oxide surfaces exposed to aqueous environments are vital to understand degradation phenomena (e.g., dissolution and corrosion) as well as the performance of these materials in applications. Here, we utilize a new experimental setup for the ultrahigh vacuum-compatible dosing of liquids to explore the stability of the Fe3O4(001)-(√2 × âˆš2)R45° surface following exposure to liquid and ambient pressure water. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction data show that extensive hydroxylation causes the surface to revert to a bulklike (1 × 1) termination. However, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images reveal a more complex situation, with the slow growth of an oxyhydroxide phase, which ultimately saturates at approximately 40% coverage. We conclude that the new material contains OH groups from dissociated water coordinated to Fe cations extracted from subsurface layers and that the surface passivates once the surface oxygen lattice is saturated with H because no further dissociation can take place. The resemblance of the STM images to those acquired in previous electrochemical STM studies leads us to believe that a similar structure exists at the solid-electrolyte interface during immersion at pH 7.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(39): 13961-13968, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339617

RESUMO

Single-atom catalysts (SACs) bridge homo- and heterogeneous catalysis because the active site is a metal atom coordinated to surface ligands. The local binding environment of the atom should thus strongly influence how reactants adsorb. Now, atomically resolved scanning-probe microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, and DFT are used to study how CO binds at different Ir1 sites on a precisely defined Fe3 O4 (001) support. The two- and five-fold-coordinated Ir adatoms bind CO more strongly than metallic Ir, and adopt structures consistent with square-planar IrI and octahedral IrIII complexes, respectively. Ir incorporates into the subsurface already at 450 K, becoming inactive for adsorption. Above 900 K, the Ir adatoms agglomerate to form nanoparticles encapsulated by iron oxide. These results demonstrate the link between SAC systems and coordination complexes, and that incorporation into the support is an important deactivation mechanism.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(10): 2487-2492, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039610

RESUMO

The interaction of water with the most prominent surfaces of Fe3O4, (001) and (111), is directly compared using a combination of temperature-programmed desorption, temperature-programmed low energy electron diffraction (TP LEED), and scanning probe microscopies. Adsorption on the (√2 × âˆš2)R45°-reconstructed surface of Fe3O4(001) is strongly influenced by the surface reconstruction, which remains intact at all coverages. Close to the completion of the first monolayer, however, the ad-layer adopts a longer-range (2 × 2) superstructure. This finding is discussed in the context of a similar (2 × 2) superstructure recently observed on the (111) facet, which exists over a significantly larger range of temperatures and coverages. In both cases, the long-range order is evidence that water-water interactions exert a significant influence on the structure already prior to the nucleation of the second layer. We conclude that the stability differences stem from the smaller unit cell on the (111) surface, and the ability of water to more easily form stable hexagonal ice-like structures on the hexagonal substrate.

19.
Catal Letters ; 149(5): 1137-1146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971855
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(25): E5642-E5650, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866854

RESUMO

Determining the structure of water adsorbed on solid surfaces is a notoriously difficult task and pushes the limits of experimental and theoretical techniques. Here, we follow the evolution of water agglomerates on Fe3O4(001); a complex mineral surface relevant in both modern technology and the natural environment. Strong OH-H2O bonds drive the formation of partially dissociated water dimers at low coverage, but a surface reconstruction restricts the density of such species to one per unit cell. The dimers act as an anchor for further water molecules as the coverage increases, leading first to partially dissociated water trimers, and then to a ring-like, hydrogen-bonded network that covers the entire surface. Unraveling this complexity requires the concerted application of several state-of-the-art methods. Quantitative temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) reveals the coverage of stable structures, monochromatic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows the extent of partial dissociation, and noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a CO-functionalized tip provides a direct view of the agglomerate structure. Together, these data provide a stringent test of the minimum-energy configurations determined via a van der Waals density functional theory (DFT)-based genetic search.

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