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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The education of civilians and first responders in prehospital tourniquet (PT) utilization has spread rapidly. We aimed to describe trends in emergency medical services (EMS) and non-EMS PT utilization, and their ability to identify proper clinical indications and to appropriately apply tourniquets in the field. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate all adult patients with PTs who presented at two Level I trauma centers between January 2015 and December 2019. Data were collected via an electronic patient query tool and cross-referenced with institutional Trauma Registries. Medically trained abstractors determined if PTs were clinically indicated (limb amputation, vascular hard signs, injury requiring hemostasis procedure, or significant documented blood loss). PTs were further designated as appropriately or inappropriately applied (based on tourniquet location, venous tourniquet, greater than 2-h ischemic time). Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: 146 patients met inclusion criteria. The incidence of yearly PT placements increased between 2015 and 2019, with an increase in placement by non-EMS personnel (police, firefighter, bystander, and patient). Improvised PTs were frequently utilized by bystanders and patients, whereas first responders had high rates of commercial tourniquet use. A high proportion of tourniquets were placed without indication (72/146, 49%); however, the proportion of PTs placed without a proper indication across applier groups was not statistically different (p = 0.99). Rates of inappropriately applied PTs ranged from 21 to 46% across all groups applying PTs. CONCLUSIONS: PT placement was increasingly performed by non-EMS personnel. Present data indicate that non-EMS persons applied PTs at a similar performance level of those applied by EMS. Study LevelLevel III.

2.
Am Surg ; 88(6): 1054-1058, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465697

RESUMO

As hospital systems plan for health care utilization surges and stress, understanding the necessary resources of a trauma system is essential for planning capacity. We aimed to describe trends in high-intensity resource utilization (operating room [OR] usage and intensive care unit [ICU] admissions) for trauma care during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trauma registry data (2019 pre-COVID-19 and 2020 COVID-19) were collected retrospectively from 4 level I trauma centers. Direct emergency department (ED) disposition to the OR or ICU was used as a proxy for high-intensity resource utilization. No change in the incidence of direct ED to ICU or ED to OR utilization was observed (2019: 24%, 2020 23%; P = .62 and 2019: 11%, 2020 10%; P = .71, respectively). These results suggest the need for continued access to ICU space and OR theaters for traumatic injury during national health emergencies, even when levels of trauma appear to be decreasing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(1): 21-29, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced blood component administration during massive transfusion is standard of care. Most literature focuses on the impact of red blood cell (RBC)/fresh frozen plasma (FFP) ratio, while the value of balanced RBC:platelet (PLT) administration is less established. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the independent impact of RBC:PLT on 24-hour mortality in trauma patients receiving massive transfusion. METHODS: Using the 2013 to 2018 American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database, adult patients who received massive transfusion (≥10 U of RBC/24 hours) and ≥1 U of RBC, FFP, and PLT within 4 hours of arrival were retrospectively included. To mitigate survival bias, only patients with consistent RBC:PLT and RBC:FFP ratios between 4 and 24 hours were analyzed. Balanced FFP or PLT transfusions were defined as having RBC:PLT and RBC:FFP of ≤2, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the independent relationship between RBC:FFP, RBC:PLT, balanced transfusion, and 24-hour mortality. RESULTS: A total of 9,215 massive transfusion patients were included. The number of patients who received transfusion with RBC:PLT >2 (1,942 [21.1%]) was significantly higher than those with RBC:FFP >2 (1,160 [12.6%]) (p < 0.001). Compared with an RBC:PLT ratio of 1:1, a gradual and consistent risk increase was observed for 24-hour mortality as the RBC:PLT ratio increased (p < 0.001). Patients with both FFP and PLT balanced transfusion had the lowest adjusted risk for 24-hour mortality. Mortality increased as resuscitation became more unbalanced, with higher odds of death for unbalanced PLT (odds ratio, 2.48 [2.18-2.83]) than unbalanced FFP (odds ratio, 1.66 [1.37-1.98]), while patients who received both FFP and PLT unbalanced transfusion had the highest risk of 24-hour mortality (odds ratio, 3.41 [2.74-4.24]). CONCLUSION: Trauma patients receiving massive transfusion significantly more often have unbalanced PLT rather than unbalanced FFP transfusion. The impact of unbalanced PLT transfusion on 24-hour mortality is independent and potentially more pronounced than unbalanced FFP transfusion, warranting serious system-level efforts for improvement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management; Level IV.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Adulto , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Injury ; 53(6): 1979-1986, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from single-region studies suggest that stay at home orders (SAHOs) had unforeseen consequences on the volume and patterns of traumatic injury during the initial months of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe, using a multi-regional approach, the effects of COVID-19 SAHOs on trauma volume and patterns of traumatic injury in the US. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed at four verified Level I trauma centers spanning three geographical regions across the United States (US). The study period spanned from April 1, 2020 - July 31, 2020 including a month-matched 2019 cohort. Patients were categorized into pre-COVID-19 (PCOV19) and first COVID-19 surge (FCOV19S) cohorts. Patient demographic, injury, and outcome data were collected via Trauma Registry queries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total 5,616 patients presented to participating study centers during the PCOV19 (2,916) and FCOV19S (2,700) study periods.  Blunt injury volume decreased (p = 0.006) due to a significant reduction in the number of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) (p = 0.003). Penetrating trauma experienced a significant increase, 8% (246/2916) in 2019 to 11% (285/2,700) in 2020 (p = 0.007), which was associated with study site (p = 0.002), not SAHOs. Finally, study site was significantly associated with changes in nearly all injury mechanisms, whereas SAHOs accounted for observed decreases in calculated weekly averages of blunt injuries (p < 0.02) and MVCs (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggest that COVID-19 and initial SAHOs had variable consequences on patterns of traumatic injury, and that region-specific shifts in traumatic injury ensued during initial SAHOs. These results suggest that other factors, potentially socioeconomic or cultural, confound trauma volumes and types arising from SAHOs. Future analyses must consider how regional changes may be obscured with pooled cohorts, and focus on characterizing community-level changes to aid municipal preparation for future similar events.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ferimentos Penetrantes , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia
5.
J Crit Care ; 69: 154012, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217369

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Enteral nutrition is associated with improved outcomes in acute pancreatitis (AP), but previous studies have not focused on critically-ill patients. Our purpose was to determine the association between nutritional support and infectious complications in ICU-admitted patients with AP. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with AP admitted in ICUs of 127 US hospitals from the eICU Collaborative were included. Patients were classified by type (initial and any use) of nutritional support they received: none (NN); oral (ON); enteral (EN); and parenteral nutrition (PN). RESULTS: 925 patients were identified. Length of stay was longer in the initial PN group (PN 21.3 ± 15.4 d, EN 19.1 ± 20.1 d, ON 8 ± 7.1 d, NN 6.6 ± 6.3 d, p < 0.001) and mortality was more common in the initial EN group (EN 16.7%, PN 8.9%, ON 2.7%, NN 10.9%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis found any EN use to be associated with infections (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.13-3.98, p = 0.019) and pneumonias (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.04-4.03, p = 0.039). CONCLUSION: EN was associated with an increased risk for pneumonias and overall infections in critically-ill patients with AP. More studies are needed to assess optimal nutritional approaches in critically-ill AP patients and patients who do not tolerate EN.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Pneumonia , Doença Aguda , Estado Terminal , Nutrição Enteral , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Pancreatite/terapia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Am J Surg ; 223(2): 417-422, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peri-operative blood transfusion (BT) may lead to transfusion-induced immunomodulation. We aimed to investigate the association between peri-operative BT and infectious complications in patients undergoing intestinal-cutaneous fistulas (ICF) repair. METHODS: We queried the ACS-NSQIP 2006-2017 database to include patients who underwent ICF repair. The main outcome was 30-day infectious complications. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the predictors of post-operative infections. RESULTS: Of 4,197 patients included, 846 (20.2%) received peri-operative BT. Transfused patients were generally older, sicker and had higher ASA (III-V). After adjusting for relevant covariates, patients who received intra and/or post-operative (and not pre-operative) BT had higher odds of infectious complications compared (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48). Specifically, they had higher odds of organ-space surgical site infection (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.21-2.13), but not other infectious complications. CONCLUSIONS: Intra and/or post-operative (and not pre-operative) BT is an independent predictor of infectious complications in ICF repair.


Assuntos
Fístula Cutânea , Fístula Intestinal , Transfusão de Sangue , Fístula Cutânea/cirurgia , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/complicações , Fístula Intestinal/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica
7.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(6): 728-735, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little research evaluating outcomes from sepsis in intensive care units (ICUs) with lower sepsis patient volumes as compared to ICUs with higher sepsis patient volumes. Our objective was to compare the outcomes of septic patients admitted to ICUs with different sepsis patient volumes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all patients from the eICU-CRD database admitted for the management of sepsis with blood lactate ≥ 2mmol/L within 24 hours of admission. Our primary outcome was ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, 30-day ventilator free days, and initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). ICUs were grouped in quartiles based on the number of septic patients treated at each unit. RESULTS: 10,716 patients were included in our analysis; 272 (2.5%) in low sepsis volume ICUs, 1,078 (10.1%) in medium-low sepsis volume ICUs, 2,608 (24.3%) in medium-high sepsis volume ICUs, and 6,758 (63.1%) in high sepsis volume ICUs. On multivariable analyses, no significant differences were documented regarding ICU and hospital mortality, and ventilator days in patients treated in lower versus higher sepsis volume ICUs. Patients treated at lower sepsis volume ICUs had lower rates of RRT initiation as compared to high volume units (medium-high vs. high: OR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.66-0.91, P-value = 0.002 and medium-low vs. high: OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.73, P-value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The previously described volume-outcome association in septic patients was not identified in an intensive care setting.

8.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 46(1): 130-140, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of early enteral nutrition (EEN) in critically ill patients on vasoactive medications remain unclear. We aimed to compare in-hospital outcomes for EEN vs late EN (LEN) in mechanically ventilated patients receiving vasopressor support. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using the national eICU Collaborative Research Database. Adult patients requiring vasopressor support and mechanical ventilation within 24 h of admission and for ≥2 days were included. Patients with an admission diagnosis that could constitute a contraindication for EEN (eg, gastrointestinal [GI] perforation, GI surgery) and patients with an intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) <72 h were excluded. EEN and LEN were defined as tube feeding within 48 h and between 48 h and 1 week (nothing by mouth during the first 48 h) of admission, respectively. Propensity score matching was performed to derive two cohorts receiving EEN and LEN that were comparable for baseline patient characteristics. RESULTS: Among 1701 patients who met the inclusion criteria (EEN: 1001, LEN: 700), 1148 were included in propensity score-matched cohorts (EEN: 574, LEN: 574). Median time to EN was 29 vs 79 h from admission in the EEN and LEN groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality or hospital LOS between the two nutrition strategies. EEN was associated with shorter ICU LOS, lower need for renal replacement therapy, and lower incidence of electrolyte abnormalities. CONCLUSION: This study showed no difference in 28-day mortality between EEN and LEN in critically ill patients receiving vasopressor support.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Nutrição Enteral , Adulto , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Am Surg ; 87(12): 1893-1900, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a deadly multisystemic disease, and bowel ischemia, the most consequential gastrointestinal manifestation, remains poorly described. Our goal is to describe our institution's surgical experience with management of bowel ischemia due to COVID-19 infection over a one-year period. METHODS: All patients admitted to our institution between March 2020 and March 2021 for treatment of COVID-19 infection and who underwent exploratory laparotomy with intra-operative confirmation of bowel ischemia were included. Data from the medical records were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included. Eighty percent had a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, 70% had abdominal distension, and 50% had increased gastric residuals. Intra-operatively, ischemia affected the large bowel in 80% of cases, the small bowel in 60%, and both in 40%. Sixty five percent had an initial damage control laparotomy. Most of the resected bowel specimens had a characteristic appearance at the time of surgery, with a yellow discoloration, small areas of antimesenteric necrosis, and very sharp borders. Histologically, the bowel specimens frequently have fibrin thrombi in the small submucosal and mucosal blood vessels in areas of mucosal necrosis. Overall mortality in this cohort was 33%. Forty percent of patients had a thromboembolic complication overall with 88% of these developing a thromboembolic phenomenon despite being on prophylactic pre-operative anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Bowel ischemia is a potentially lethal complication of COVID-19 infection with typical gross and histologic characteristics. Suspicious clinical features that should trigger surgical evaluation include a new or increasing vasopressor requirement, abdominal distension, and intolerance of gastric feeds.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Enteropatias/cirurgia , Enteropatias/virologia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Isquemia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(6): 611-619, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270365

RESUMO

Background: Medical practitioners have had to learn more and more statistics not only to perform studies but more importantly, to interpret the medical literature and apply new findings to practice. We believe that because of a lack of formal training in statistics, the prevalence of some common errors is simply because of a lack of knowledge and awareness about these errors, which frequently leads to the misinterpretation of study results. Discussion: This article reviews some of the common pitfalls and tricks that are prevalent in the reporting of results in the medical literature. Common errors include the use of the wrong average, misinterpretation of statistical significance as practical significance, reaching false conclusions because of errors in statistical power interpretation, and false assumptions about causation caused by correlation. Additionally, we review some design and reporting practices that are misguided, the use of post hoc analysis in study design, and the pervasiveness of "spin" in scientific writing. Last, we review and demonstrate common pitfalls with the presentation of data in graphs, which adds another potential opportunity to introduce bias. Conclusions: The tests used in the medical literature continue to change and evolve, usually for the better. With these changes, there will certainly be opportunities to introduce unintentional bias. The more aware we are of this, the more likely we are to find it and correct it.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Estatística como Assunto , Viés , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
11.
Surgery ; 170(5): 1501-1507, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score was recently validated in a prospective multicenter study as an accurate predictor of mortality in emergency general surgery patients. The Emergency Surgery Score is easily calculated using multiple demographic, comorbidity, laboratory, and acuity of disease variables. We aimed to investigate whether the Emergency Surgery Score can predict 30-day postoperative mortality across patients undergoing emergency surgery in multiple surgical specialties. METHODS: Our study is a retrospective cohort study using data from the national American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2007-2017). We included patients that underwent emergency gynecologic, urologic, thoracic, neurosurgical, orthopedic, vascular, cardiac, and general surgical procedures. The Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient, and the correlation between the Emergency Surgery Score and 30-day mortality was assessed for each specialty using the c-statistics methodology. RESULTS: Of 6,485,915 patients, 173,890 patients were included. The mean age was 60 years, 50.6% were female patients, and the overall mortality was 9.7%. The Emergency Surgery Score predicted mortality best in emergency gynecologic, general, and urologic surgery (c-statistics: 0.97, 0.87, 0.81, respectively). The Emergency Surgery Score predicted mortality moderately well in emergency thoracic, neurosurgical, orthopedic, and vascular surgery (c-statistics 0.73-0.79). For example, the mortality of gynecology patients with an Emergency Surgery Score of 5, 9, and 13 was 2%, 27%, and 50%, respectively. The Emergency Surgery Score performed poorly in cardiac surgery. CONCLUSION: The Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts mortality across patients undergoing emergency surgery in multiple surgical specialties, especially general, gynecologic, and urologic surgery. The Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for perioperative patient counseling and for benchmarking the quality of surgical care.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(6): 1054-1060, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-field triage tools for trauma patients are limited by availability of information, linear risk classification, and a lack of confidence reporting. We therefore set out to develop and test a machine learning algorithm that can overcome these limitations by accurately and confidently making predictions to support in-field triage in the first hours after traumatic injury. METHODS: Using an American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program-derived database of truncal and junctional gunshot wound (GSW) patients (aged 16-60 years), we trained an information-aware Dirichlet deep neural network (field artificial intelligence triage). Using supervised training, field artificial intelligence triage was trained to predict shock and the need for major hemorrhage control procedures or early massive transfusion (MT) using GSW anatomical locations, vital signs, and patient information available in the field. In parallel, a confidence model was developed to predict the true-class probability (scale of 0-1), indicating the likelihood that the prediction made was correct, based on the values and interconnectivity of input variables. RESULTS: A total of 29,816 patients met all the inclusion criteria. Shock, major surgery, and early MT were identified in 13.0%, 22.4%, and 6.3% of the included patients, respectively. Field artificial intelligence triage achieved mean areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89, 0.86, and 0.82 for prediction of shock, early MT, and major surgery, respectively, for 80/20 train-test splits over 1,000 epochs. Mean predicted true-class probability for errors/correct predictions was 0.25/0.87 for shock, 0.30/0.81 for MT, and 0.24/0.69 for major surgery. CONCLUSION: Field artificial intelligence triage accurately identifies potential shock in truncal GSW patients and predicts their need for MT and major surgery, with a high degree of certainty. The presented model is an important proof of concept. Future iterations will use an expansion of databases to refine and validate the model, further adding to its potential to improve triage in the field, both in civilian and military settings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, Level III.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico , Triagem/métodos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Choque/epidemiologia , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Traumatismos Torácicos/terapia , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/complicações , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(5): 880-890, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe characteristics, multisystem outcomes, and predictors of mortality of the critically ill COVID-19 patients in the largest hospital in Massachusetts. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection between March 14, 2020, and April 28, 2020, were included; hospital and multisystem outcomes were evaluated. Data were collected from electronic records. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300 during admission and bilateral radiographic pulmonary opacities. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for available confounders were performed to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 235 patients were included. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 5 (3-8), and the median (IQR) PaO2/FiO2 was 208 (146-300) with 86.4% of patients meeting criteria for ARDS. The median (IQR) follow-up was 92 (86-99) days, and the median ICU length of stay was 16 (8-25) days; 62.1% of patients were proned, 49.8% required neuromuscular blockade, and 3.4% required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The most common complications were shock (88.9%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (69.8%), secondary bacterial pneumonia (70.6%), and pressure ulcers (51.1%). As of July 8, 2020, 175 patients (74.5%) were discharged alive (61.7% to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility), 58 (24.7%) died in the hospital, and only 2 patients were still hospitalized, but out of the ICU. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.12), higher median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at ICU admission (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), elevated creatine kinase of ≥1,000 U/L at hospital admission (OR, 6.64; 95% CI, 1.51-29.17), and severe ARDS (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.18-23.29) independently predicted hospital mortality.Comorbidities, steroids, and hydroxychloroquine treatment did not predict mortality. CONCLUSION: We present here the outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Age, acuity of disease, and severe ARDS predicted mortality rather than comorbidities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Gravidade do Paciente , Injúria Renal Aguda/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Bacteriana/virologia , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Decúbito Ventral , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Choque/virologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(9): 903-909, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926272

RESUMO

Background: Post-operative infectious complications after repair of intestinal-cutaneous fistulas (ICF) represent a substantial burden and these outcomes vary widely in the literature. We aimed to evaluate the use of the modified frailty index-5 (mFI-5) to account for physiologic reserve to predict infectious complications in patients with ICF undergoing operative repair. Methods: We used the American College of Surgeon National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) 2006-2017 dataset to include patients who underwent ICF repair. The main outcome measure was 30-day infectious complications (surgical site infection [SSI], sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection [UTI]). The risk of 30-day post-operative infectious complications was assessed based on mFI-5 score. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to evaluate the association between infectious complications and mFI-5. Results: We identified 4,197 patients who underwent an ICF repair. The median age (interquartile range [IQR]) was 57 (46, 67) years, and the majority of patients were female (2,260; 53.9%); white (3,348; 79.8%); and 1,586 (38.3%) were obese. After adjustment for relevant confounders such as baseline patient characteristics, and operative details, mFI-5 was independently associated with infectious complications (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-3.21), particularly SSI (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.28-3.63) and pneumonia (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.29-12.35), but not UTI or sepsis. Conclusions: We showed that the mFI-5 is a strong predictor of infectious complications after ICF repair. It can be utilized to account for physiologic reserve, therefore reducing the variability of outcomes reported for ICF repair.


Assuntos
Fístula Cutânea , Fragilidade , Fístula Intestinal , Feminino , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/epidemiologia , Fístula Intestinal/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
15.
Surgery ; 169(5): 1199-1205, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of operative repair of intestinal-cutaneous fistulas vary widely throughout the literature. We aimed to investigate whether the modified frailty index-5 is a reliable tool to account for physiologic reserve and whether it serves as a predictor of Clavien-Dindo grade IV complications in those with intestinal-cutaneous fistulas undergoing operative repair. METHODS: We queried the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2006 to 2017 database to include patients who underwent intestinal-cutaneous fistulas repair. The outcome of interest was 30-day Clavien-Dindo grade IV complications. The incidence of 30-day post-operative Clavien-Dindo grade IV complications were evaluated based on calculated modified frailty index-5 score. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of Clavien-Dindo grade IV complications and modified frailty index-5. RESULTS: A total of 3,995 patients were identified who underwent an intestinal-cutaneous fistulas repair. The median age (interquartile range) was 57 years (46, 67), and most patients were female (2,143 [53.7%]), White (3,206 [80.3%]), and 1,512 (38.2%) were obese. After adjusting for relevant covariates such as demographics, comorbidities, and operative details, modified frailty index-5 was independently associated with Clavien-Dindo grade IV complications (odds ratio = 2.81, 95% confidence interval 1.64-4.82; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Modified frailty index-5 is an independent predictor of Clavien-Dindo grade IV complications following intestinal-cutaneous fistulas repair. It can be used to account for physiologic reserve, thus reducing the variability of outcomes reported for intestinal-cutaneous fistulas repair.


Assuntos
Fístula Cutânea/cirurgia , Fragilidade , Fístula Intestinal/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(1): 148-156, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decision making regarding the optimal timing for initiating thromboprophylaxis in patients with blunt abdominal solid organ injuries (BSOIs) remains ill-defined, with no guidelines defining optimal timing. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship of the timing of thromboprophylaxis with thromboembolic and bleeding complications in the setting of BSOIs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the Trauma Quality Improvement Program database was performed between 2013 and 2016. All patients with isolated BSOIs (liver, spleen, pancreas, or kidney, Abbreviated Injury Scale score, <3 in other regions) who underwent initial nonoperative management (NOM) were included. Patients were divided into three groups (early, <48 hours; intermediate, 48-72 hours; and late, >72 hours) based on timing of thromboprophylaxis initiation. Primary outcomes were rates of thromboembolism and bleeding after thromboprophylaxis initiation. RESULTS: Of the 25,118 patients with isolated BSOIs, 3,223 met the inclusion criteria (age, 38.7 ± 17.3 years; males, 2.082 [64.6%]), among which 1,832 (56.8%) received early thromboprophylaxis, 703 (21.8%) received intermediate thromboprophylaxis, and 688 (21.4%) received late thromboprophylaxis. Late thromboprophylaxis initiation was independently associated with a higher likelihood of both deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio [OR], 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68-5.91, p < 0.001) and pulmonary embolism (OR, 4.29; 95% CI, 1.95-9.42; p < 0.001). Intermediate thromboprophylaxis initiation was independently associated with a higher likelihood of deep venous thrombosis (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.20-4.74; p = 0.013), but not pulmonary embolism (p = 0.960) compared with early initiation. Early (but not intermediate) thromboprophylaxis initiation was independently associated with a higher likelihood of bleeding (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.11-2.18; p = 0.023), along with a history of diabetes mellitus, splenic, and high-grade liver injuries. CONCLUSION: Early thromboprophylaxis should be considered in patients with BSOIs undergoing nonoperative management who are at low likelihood of bleeding. An intermediate delay (48-72 hours) of thromboprophylaxis should be considered for patients with diabetes mellitus, splenic injuries, and Grades 3 to 5 liver injuries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, Level IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/terapia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 471-476, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) is a point-based scoring system validated to predict mortality and morbidity in emergency general surgery (EGS). In addition to demographics and comorbidities, ESS accounts for the acuity of disease at presentation. We sought to examine whether ESS can predict the destination of discharge of EGS patients, as a proxy for quality of life at discharge. METHODS: Using the 2007 to 2017 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we identified all EGS patients. EGS cases were defined as per American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program as those performed by a general surgeon within a short interval from diagnosis or the onset of related symptomatology, when the patient's well-being and outcome may be threatened by unnecessary delay and patient's status could deteriorate unpredictably or rapidly. Emergency Surgery Score patients were then categorized by their discharge disposition to home versus rehabilitation or nursing facilities. All patients with missing ESS or discharge disposition and those discharged to hospice, senior communities, or separate acute care facilities were excluded. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient. C statistics were used to study the correlation between ESS and the destination of discharge. RESULTS: Of 6,485,915 patients, 84,694 were included. The mean age was 57 years, 51% were female, and 79.6% were discharged home. The mean ESS was 5. Emergency Surgery Score accurately and reliably predicted the discharge destination with a C statistic of 0.83. For example, ESS of 1, 10, and 20 were associated with 0.9%, 56.5%, and 100% rates of discharge to a rehabilitation or nursing facility instead of home. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts which EGS patients require discharge to rehabilitation or nursing facilities and can thus be used for preoperatively counseling patients and families and for improving early discharge preparations, when appropriate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Gravidade do Paciente , Alta do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1050-1055, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intestinal-cutaneous fistulas (ICFs) constitute a major surgical challenge. Definitive surgical treatment of ICFs continues to be associated with significant morbidity. The purpose of this study was to utilize a nationwide database to define the morbidity associated with current treatment strategies in the surgical management of ICFs. METHODS: The 2006-2017 American College of Surgeon National Surgical Quality Improvement datasets (ACS-NSQIP) were used to assess 30-day morbidity and mortality after surgical repair of ICFs. Outcomes for emergent repair were compared to elective repair of ICFs. RESULTS: Overall, 4197 patients undergoing ICF-repair were identified. Mean age was 55.9 (SD 15.3). Patients were generally comorbid (62.9% were in ASA class III). The observed in-hospital mortality was 2.3%. However, the observed morbidity rate was 47.3%. Of the observed morbidity, 35.6% was due to post-operative infectious complications (superficial surgical site infections (SSI), deep SSI, organ/space SSI, wound disruption, pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI) sepsis or septic shock). The most common infectious complication was sepsis (13.1%). 30-day readmission rate was 15.3% and the 30-day reoperation rate was 11.0%. Emergent repair was associated with a sevenfold increase in mortality (11.9% vs 1.8%, P < 0.001) CONCLUSION: The management of patients with ICFs is complex and is associated with significant morbidity. Half of patients undergoing surgical management of ICFs developed in-hospital complications.


Assuntos
Fístula Cutânea/cirurgia , Fístula Intestinal/cirurgia , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/mortalidade , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
20.
Injury ; 51(11): 2546-2552, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients on prehospital anticoagulation with warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) represent a vulnerable subset of the trauma population. While protocolized warfarin reversal is widely available and easily implemented, prehospital anticoagulation with DOAC is cost prohibitive with only a few reversal options. This study aims to compare hospital outcomes of non-head injured trauma patients taking pre-injury DOAC versus warfarin. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study at a level 1 trauma center was performed. All adult trauma patients with pre-injury anticoagulation admitted between January 2015 and December 2018, were stratified into DOAC-using and warfarin-using groups. Patients were excluded if they had traumatic brain injury (TBI). Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Outcomes measures included in-hospital mortality, blood transfusion requirements, ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS and discharge disposition. RESULTS: 374 non-TBI trauma patients on anticoagulation were identified, of which 134 were on DOACs and 240 on warfarin. Patients on DOACs had a higher ISS (9 [IQR, 9-10] vs. 9 [IQR, 5-9]; p<0.001), and lower admission INR values (1.2 [IQR, 1.1-1.3] vs 2.4 [IQR, 1.8-2.7]; p<0.001) than warfarin users. Use of reversal agents was higher in warfarin users (p<0.001). Relative to warfarin, DOAC users did not differ significantly with respect to hospital mortality (OR 0.47, 95% CI [0.13-1.73]). Multivariable analysis (not possible for mortality) did not show significant difference for RBC transfusion requirements (OR 0.92 [0.51-1.67]), ICU LOS (OR 1.08 [0.53-2.19]), hospital LOS (OR 1.10 [0.70-1.74]) or discharge disposition (OR 0.56 [0.29-1.11]) between the groups. CONCLUSION: Despite lower reversal rates and higher ISS, non-TBI trauma patients with pre-injury DOAC use had similar outcomes as patients on pre-injury warfarin. There may be equipoise to have larger, prospective studies evaluating the comparative safety of DOACs and warfarin in the population prone to low energy fall type injuries.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Varfarina , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
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