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JAMA Psychiatry ; 73(6): 590-7, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27120077


IMPORTANCE: Complex disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD), likely result from the influence of both common and rare susceptibility alleles. While common variation has been widely studied, rare variant discovery has only recently become feasible with next-generation sequencing. OBJECTIVE: To utilize a combined family-based and case-control approach to exome sequencing in BD using multiplex families as an initial discovery strategy, followed by association testing in a large case-control meta-analysis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed exome sequencing of 36 affected members with BD from 8 multiplex families and tested rare, segregating variants in 3 independent case-control samples consisting of 3541 BD cases and 4774 controls. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We used penalized logistic regression and 1-sided gene-burden analyses to test for association of rare, segregating damaging variants with BD. Permutation-based analyses were performed to test for overall enrichment with previously identified gene sets. RESULTS: We found 84 rare (frequency <1%), segregating variants that were bioinformatically predicted to be damaging. These variants were found in 82 genes that were enriched for gene sets previously identified in de novo studies of autism (19 observed vs. 10.9 expected, P = .0066) and schizophrenia (11 observed vs. 5.1 expected, P = .0062) and for targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) pathway (10 observed vs. 4.4 expected, P = .0076). The case-control meta-analyses yielded 19 genes that were nominally associated with BD based either on individual variants or a gene-burden approach. Although no gene was individually significant after correction for multiple testing, this group of genes continued to show evidence for significant enrichment of de novo autism genes (6 observed vs 2.6 expected, P = .028). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our results are consistent with the presence of prominent locus and allelic heterogeneity in BD and suggest that very large samples will be required to definitively identify individual rare variants or genes conferring risk for this disorder. However, we also identify significant associations with gene sets composed of previously discovered de novo variants in autism and schizophrenia, as well as targets of the FRMP pathway, providing preliminary support for the overlap of potential autism and schizophrenia risk genes with rare, segregating variants in families with BD.

Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Exoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Alelos , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
Genome Biol ; 12(9): R97, 2011 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21958622


BACKGROUND: Human exome resequencing using commercial target capture kits has been and is being used for sequencing large numbers of individuals to search for variants associated with various human diseases. We rigorously evaluated the capabilities of two solution exome capture kits. These analyses help clarify the strengths and limitations of those data as well as systematically identify variables that should be considered in the use of those data. RESULTS: Each exome kit performed well at capturing the targets they were designed to capture, which mainly corresponds to the consensus coding sequences (CCDS) annotations of the human genome. In addition, based on their respective targets, each capture kit coupled with high coverage Illumina sequencing produced highly accurate nucleotide calls. However, other databases, such as the Reference Sequence collection (RefSeq), define the exome more broadly, and so not surprisingly, the exome kits did not capture these additional regions. CONCLUSIONS: Commercial exome capture kits provide a very efficient way to sequence select areas of the genome at very high accuracy. Here we provide the data to help guide critical analyses of sequencing data derived from these products.

Exoma , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Biologia Computacional , Sequência Consenso , DNA/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Genoma Humano , Projeto HapMap , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Sensibilidade e Especificidade