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Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 97, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262328


BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse offspring health outcomes across their life course. We hypothesize that DNA methylation is a potential mediator of this relationship. METHODS: We examined the association of prenatal maternal smoking with offspring blood DNA methylation in 2821 individuals (age 16 to 48 years) from five prospective birth cohort studies and perform Mendelian randomization and mediation analyses to assess whether methylation markers have causal effects on disease outcomes in the offspring. RESULTS: We identify 69 differentially methylated CpGs in 36 genomic regions (P value < 1 × 10-7) associated with exposure to maternal smoking in adolescents and adults. Mendelian randomization analyses provided evidence for a causal role of four maternal smoking-related CpG sites on an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease or schizophrenia. Further mediation analyses showed some evidence of cg25189904 in GNG12 gene mediating the effect of exposure to maternal smoking on schizophrenia-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation may represent a biological mechanism through which maternal smoking is associated with increased risk of psychiatric morbidity in the exposed offspring.

EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561


BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

Natl J Maxillofac Surg ; 9(1): 86-89, 2018 Jan-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937667


Extractions are a common place in orthodontics. The present article discusses a rare case, in which a left maxillary canine along with two lower incisors was extracted. Atypical extractions such as these need to be duly justified and thought over before being carried out. In the case mentioned, all these teeth in question were ectopically erupted. When attempts were made to retract the canine in its right position, it exhibited gingival recession which would only go on increasing further as the distance from the transposed position in between the left central and lateral incisor to the original position was considerably large. It was planned that the 1st premolar would be converted to canine on completion of the treatment. The lower incisors too would have shown severe periodontal damage had attempts to align them was made. Not only were these two teeth lingually erupted but they also were rotated along their long axis. Derotation along with labial movement would have caused breakage of the supracrestal and transseptal fibers resulting in periodontal breakdown leading to mobility of these teeth. An esthetically and functionally balanced outcome was achieved following these extractions. In the upper arch, although the midline remained compromised, it was not worsened. In the lower arch alignment was achieved with preservation of the intercanine width. Complicated cases such as these require a thorough scrutiny of all available options. Whatever the treatment plan may be, the ultimate goal of functional and esthetic balance should be achieved.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 44(3): 248-54, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26762656


OBJECTIVES: To assess the socioeconomic inequalities in oral hygiene and to explore the role of various socioeconomic and psychosocial factors as determinants of these inequalities among adolescents residing in Delhi National Capital Territory. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1386 adolescents aged 12-15 years from three different socioeconomic groups according to their area of residence (middle-class areas, resettlement colonies and urban slum colonies). Level of oral hygiene was examined clinically using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to measure key socio-demographic variables and psychosocial and health-related behaviours. Logistic regression analysis tested the association between area of residence and poor oral hygiene. RESULTS: Poor oral hygiene was observed in 50.2% of the adolescents. There was a socioeconomic gradient in poor oral hygiene, with higher prevalence observed at each level of deprivation. These differences were only partly explained, and the differences between adolescent groups remained statistically significant after adjusting for various demographic variables, standard of living, social capital, social support and health-affecting behaviours (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.30-2.76; and OR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.60-3.92 for adolescents from resettlement colonies and urban slums, respectively, than middle-class adolescents). CONCLUSION: Area of residence emerged as a strong socioeconomic predictor of prevalence of poor oral hygiene among Indian adolescents. Various material, psychosocial and behavioural factors did not fully explain the observed inequalities in poor oral hygiene among different adolescent groups.

Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/economia , Áreas de Pobreza , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escovação Dentária/economia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140860, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26479873


OBJECTIVES: To assess socioeconomic inequalities in traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in adolescents in New Delhi and examine the role of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in explaining these inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study of 1386 adolescents aged between 12-15 years residing in three diverse areas of New Delhi. A non-invasive clinical examination was used to estimate the prevalence of TDIs, and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather relevant behavioural and socio-demographic data. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the association between area based socioeconomic position and TDIs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of TDIs was 10.9%. Social inequalities in the prevalence of TDIs were observed across the adolescent population according to their area of residence. Socio-economic group differences in the prevalence of TDIs remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic factors, material resources, social capital, social support and health affecting behaviours (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.75-6.46 and OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.86-8.56 for adolescents from resettlement areas and urban slums respectively in comparison to middle class adolescents). Different psychosocial, material and socio-demographic variables did not attenuate the estimates for the relationship between area socioeconomic position and TDIs. CONCLUSION: Area of residence was a strong predictor of TDIs in adolescents with a higher prevalence in more deprived areas. Social inequalities in TDIs were not explained by psychosocial and behavioural variables. Health promoting policies aimed at improving the physical environment in which adolescents reside might be instrumental in reducing the prevalence of TDIs and associated inequalities.

Traumatismos Dentários/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Política , Áreas de Pobreza , Classe Social
Acta Biomater ; 9(9): 8365-73, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23727293


In this study, we have investigated the efficacy of inorganic nanotubes as reinforcing agents to improve the mechanical properties of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) composites as a function of nanomaterial loading concentration (0.01-0.2 wt.%). Tungsten disulfide nanotubes (WSNTs) were used as reinforcing agents in the experimental group. Single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) were used as positive controls, and crosslinked PPF composites were used as the baseline control. Mechanical testing (compression and three-point bending) shows a significant enhancement (up to 28-190%) in the mechanical properties (compressive modulus, compressive yield strength, flexural modulus and flexural yield strength) of WSNT-reinforced PPF nanocomposites compared to the baseline control. In comparison to the positive controls, significant improvements in the mechanical properties of WSNT nanocomposites were also observed at various concentrations. In general, the inorganic nanotubes (WSNTs) showed mechanical reinforcement better than (up to 127%) or equivalent to that of carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs). Sol fraction analysis showed significant increases in the crosslinking density of PPF in the presence of WSNTs (0.01-0.2 wt.%). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis on thin sections of crosslinked nanocomposites showed the presence of WSNTs as individual nanotubes in the PPF matrix, whereas SWCNTs and MWCNTs existed as micron-sized aggregates. The trend in the surface area of nanostructures obtained by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis was SWCNTs>MWCNTs>WSNTs. The BET surface area analysis, TEM analysis and sol fraction analysis results taken together suggest that chemical composition (inorganic vs. carbon nanomaterials), the presence of functional groups (such as sulfide and oxysulfide) and individual dispersion of the nanomaterials in the polymer matrix (absence of aggregation of the reinforcing agent) are the key parameters affecting the mechanical properties of nanostructure-reinforced PPF composites and the reason for the observed increases in the mechanical properties compared to the baseline and positive controls.

Implantes Absorvíveis , Substitutos Ósseos/síntese química , Nanotubos/química , Sulfetos/química , Engenharia Tecidual/instrumentação , Tungstênio/química , Força Compressiva , Cristalização/métodos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Resistência à Tração