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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(14): 2799-2806, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264268

RESUMO

The Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX) score, defined as [(creatinine × lactate dehydrogenase [LDH])/platelets], is a marker of endothelial activation that has been validated in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting. Endothelial activation is one of the mechanisms driving immune-mediated toxicities in patients treated with chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T)-cell therapy. This study's objective was to evaluate the association between EASIX and other laboratory parameters collected before lymphodepletion and the subsequent onset of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) those patients. Toxicity data were collected prospectively on 171 patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) for large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). CRS grades 2 to 4 were diagnosed in 81 (47%) patients and ICANS grades 2 to 4 in 84 (49%). EASIX combined with ferritin (EASIX-F) identified 3 risk groups with CRS grades 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (hazards ratio [HR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-11; P < .001), 49% (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.02-5; P = .04), and 23% (reference), respectively. EASIX combined with CRP and ferritin (EASIX-FC) identified 3 risk groups with an ICANS grade 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.9-6.9; P < .001), 51% (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9; P = .025), and 29% (reference). Our results indicate that common laboratory parameters before lymphodepletion correlate with CAR-T-related toxicities and can help support clinical decisions, such as preemptive toxicity management, hospitalization length, and proper setting for CAR-T administration.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Ferritinas , Humanos
2.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 430.e1-430.e7, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965187

RESUMO

Prolonged thrombocytopenia occurs in up to 37% of patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with adverse prognosis and increased risk of bleeding. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can increase platelet counts in thrombocytopenic patients. We conducted a phase II study, adaptively randomizing patients at ≥35 days post-HSCT to receive placebo or eltrombopag at a platelet count ≤20,000/µL for 7 days or platelet transfusion-dependent and a neutrophil count ≥1500/µL. Sixty patients were randomized to eltrombopag (n = 42) or placebo (n = 18) and received at least 1 dose. Fifteen patients (36%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥30,000/µL, compared with 5 patients (28%) in the placebo arm, with a posterior probability of 0.75. (The protocol required this probability to be >0.975 to declare a winner; thus, the results are inconclusive.) However, 9 patients (21%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL, compared with no patients in the placebo arm (P = .046). The overall survival, progression-free survival, relapse rate, and nonrelapse mortality were similar in the 2 arms. In conclusion, compared with placebo, treatment with eltrombopag led to a higher percentage of patients achieving a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL in patients with persistent thrombocytopenia after HSCT.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Trombocitopenia , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Haematologica ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951890

RESUMO

High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplant (HDC/ASCT) is standard treatment of chemosensitive relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), although outcomes of high-risk relapse (HRR) patients remain suboptimal. We retrospectively analyzed all HRR cHL patients treated with HDC/ASCT at our institution between 01/01/2005-12/31/2019. HRR criteria included primary refractory disease/relapse within 1 year, extranodal extension, B symptoms, requiring > 1 salvage line, or PET+ disease at ASCT. All patients met the same ASCT eligibility criteria. We treated 501 patients with BEAM (N=146), BuMel (N=38), GemBuMel (N=189) and vorinostat/GemBuMel (N=128). The GemBuMel and vorinostat/GemBuMel cohorts had more HRR criteria and more patients with PET+ disease at ASCT. Pre-ASCT BV, anti-PD1, PET-negative disease at ASCT, and maintenance BV increased over time. BEAM and BuMel predominated in earlier years (2005-2007), GemBuMel and BEAM in middle years (2008-2015), and vorinostat/GemBuMel and BEAM in later years (2016-2019). Median follow-up is 50 months (6-186). Outcomes improved over time, with 2-year PFS/OS rates of 58%/82% (2005-2007), 59%/83% (2008-2011), 71%/94% (2012-2015) and 86%/99% (2016-2019) (P.

4.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(3): 243.e1-243.e6, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781521

RESUMO

Numerous genetic abnormalities affect treatment outcomes in multiple myeloma. The role of coexistent trisomy or hyperdiploidy and high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (CGAs) is not well defined. We assessed the influence of overlapping genetic abnormalities in patients who received frontline autologous stem cell transplantation. A total of 491 consecutive patients between January 2009 and January 2016 were identified. High-risk CGAs included del(17p), t(4;14), t(14;16), and gain 1q21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and del(13) by conventional cytogenetics. Thirty-two percent had a trisomy, 27% had a high-risk CGA, and 11% had both. Among patients with any trisomy, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 60% and 90%, respectively, compared to 25% and 65%, respectively, for patients with any high-risk CGA. Patients with co-existent trisomy and high-risk CGAs had 3-year PFS and OS of 43% and 89%, respectively, whereas those with isolated high-risk CGAs without trisomy had 3-year PFS and OS of 13% and 49%, respectively. The PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.3; P = .02) and OS (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 13; P = .006) were worse for high-risk CGAs without versus those with concurrent trisomies. Our findings suggest a protective impact of trisomies in patients with high-risk CGAs and a potential need for revised risk stratification assessments to account for overlapping genetic abnormalities.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Blood ; 137(23): 3272-3276, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534891

RESUMO

Corticosteroids are commonly used for the management of severe toxicities associated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. However, it remains unclear whether their dose, duration, and timing may affect clinical efficacy. Here, we determined the impact of corticosteroids on clinical outcomes in patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma treated with standard of care anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy. Among 100 patients evaluated, 60 (60%) received corticosteroids for management of CAR T-cell therapy-associated toxicities. The median cumulative dexamethasone-equivalent dose was 186 mg (range, 8-1803) and the median duration of corticosteroid treatment was 9 days (range, 1-30). Corticosteroid treatment was started between days 0 and 7 in 45 (75%) patients and beyond day 7 in 15 (25%). After a median follow-up of 10 months (95% confidence interval, 8-12 months), use of higher cumulative dose of corticosteroids was associated with significantly shorter progression-free survival. More importantly, higher cumulative dose of corticosteroids, and prolonged and early use after CAR T-cell infusion were associated with significantly shorter overall survival. These results suggest that corticosteroids should be used at the lowest dose and for the shortest duration and their initiation should be delayed whenever clinically feasible while managing CAR T-cell therapy-associated toxicities.

6.
Acta Haematol ; 144(1): 74-81, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604096

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients not in remission and beyond first or second complete remission are considered allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) candidates. We present 361 patients who underwent SCT from matched related or unrelated donors between 2005 and 2013. The purpose was to identify a subgroup of patients with active disease at the time of transplant that benefit. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for univariate and multivariate analyses to predict overall survival (OS). Variables considered were age, sex, SWOG cytogenetic risk group, bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) blast percentage, regimen intensity, and type of AML. At a median of 26 months after transplantation, OS, progression-free survival (PFS), non-relapse mortality, and relapse rates were 26, 24, 23, and 48%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, risk cytogenetics (p < 0.001) and BM blasts >4% (p = 0.006) or any blasts in PB (p < 0.001) indicated worse OS. In a multivariate analysis, patients with <5% BM blasts or absence of circulating blasts and good or intermediate risk cytogenetics had significantly superior OS (46%), PFS (44%), and disease progression at 3 years. Based on these findings, patients not in remission with good or intermediate risk cytogenetics and low blast counts should be considered for SCT.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2013935, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990738

RESUMO

Importance: Response-adapted randomized trials have used positron emission tomography-computed tomography to attempt to identify patients with early-stage favorable Hodgkin lymphoma (ESFHL) who could be treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) without radiation therapy (RT). While maximal efficacy is demonstrated with combined modality therapy, RT is often omitted in fear of late adverse effects; however, the application of modern RT could limit these toxic effects. Objective: To determine the radiation doses delivered to organs at risk with modern involved-site RT among patients with ESFHL treated with 20 Gy after 2 cycles of ABVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 42 adult patients with ESFHL (according to the German Hodgkin Study Group criteria) who were treated between 2010 and 2019, achieved complete response by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (1-3 on 5-point scale) following 2 cycles of ABVD, and then received consolidative RT. The study was conducted at a single comprehensive cancer center. Exposures: 2 cycles of chemotherapy followed by 20-Gy involved-site RT. Main Outcomes and Measures: The medical records of patients with ESFHL were examined. Organs at risk were contoured, and doses were calculated. Progression-free survival, defined from date of diagnosis to disease progression, relapse, or death, and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The cohort comprised 42 patients with ESFHL (median [range] age at diagnosis, 35 [18-74] years; 18 [43%] women; 24 [57%] with stage II disease). At a median follow-up of 44.6 (95% CI, 27.6-61.6) months, the 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 91.2% (95% CI, 74.9%-97.1%) and 97.0% (95% CI, 80.4%-99.6%), respectively. The mean heart dose was less than 5 Gy (mean, 0.8 Gy; SD, 1.5 Gy; range, 0-4.8 Gy) in all patients. The mean (SD) breast dose for both breasts was 0.1 (0.2) Gy (left breast range, 0-1.0 Gy; right breast range, 0-0.9 Gy). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, combined modality therapy with 2 cycles of ABVD and 20 Gy for ESFHL was highly effective and avoided excess doses to organs at risk, which may limit long-term toxic effects.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Doença de Hodgkin , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração , Órgãos em Risco , Doses de Radiação , Radioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Dacarbazina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/etiologia , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Órgãos em Risco/patologia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem
8.
Blood Adv ; 4(16): 3943-3951, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822484

RESUMO

Neurotoxicity or immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) is the second most common acute toxicity after chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. However, there are limited data on the clinical and radiologic correlates of ICANS. We conducted a cohort analysis of 100 consecutive patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) treated with standard of care axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel). ICANS was graded according to an objective grading system. Neuroimaging studies and electroencephalograms (EEGs) were reviewed by an expert neuroradiologist and neurologist. Of 100 patients included in the study, 68 (68%) developed ICANS of any grade and 41 (41%) had grade ≥3. Median time to ICANS onset was 5 days, and median duration was 6 days. ICANS grade ≥3 was associated with high peak ferritin (P = .03) and C-reactive protein (P = .001) levels and a low peak monocyte count (P = .001) within the 30 days after axi-cel infusion. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 38 patients with ICANS and revealed 4 imaging patterns with features of encephalitis (n = 7), stroke (n = 3), leptomeningeal disease (n = 2), and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (n = 2). Abnormalities noted on EEG included diffuse slowing (n = 49), epileptiform discharges (n = 6), and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (n = 8). Although reversible, grade ≥3 ICANS was associated with significantly shorter progression-free (P = .02) and overall survival (progression being the most common cause of death; P = .001). Our results suggest that imaging and EEG abnormalities are common in patients with ICANS, and high-grade ICANS is associated with worse outcome after CAR T-cell therapy in LBCL patients.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior , Antígenos CD19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia
9.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 20(8): 533-541, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (ESHL) is highly curable; however, 10% to 15% of patients experience relapse. We examined the utilization of follow-up imaging for patients with ESHL who achieved a metabolic complete response after upfront therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of adult patients treated at a single institution between 2003 and 2014 were reviewed. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and CT scan frequency was quantified during the 2 years following treatment and subsequent visits beyond 2 years. RESULTS: The study cohort contained 179 patients. The median age was 31 years; bulky disease was present in 30%. ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) or AVD (doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) was given in 97%; 75% received radiation therapy. At a median follow-up of 6.9 years, the 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 93.7% and 98.1%, respectively. Relapse occurred in 5% (n = 9) of patients at a median of 9.1 months (range, 4.6-27.2 months) from therapy. Two patients presented with symptoms prompting imaging in follow-up. Within 2 years after therapy, 376 PET-CT scans and 3325 CT scans were performed, yielding an average of 2.1 PET-CTs and 18.6 CTs per patient. Of the initial 179 patients, 113 had follow-up conducted beyond 2 years post-therapy; an average of 2.7 PET-CTs and 33.2 CTs were performed. In the 2-year post-therapy period, 463 scans were performed per relapse detected. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of patients with ESHL who responded completely to frontline therapy, the relapse rate was low. Routine imaging surveillance lacks clinical benefit in this patient population.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Adulto Jovem
10.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(6): 1380-1387, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971032

RESUMO

In 2 randomized phase 3 trials BR resulted in longer progression-free survival (PFS) than frontline R-CHOP in patients with indolent and mantle cell lymphoma. However, in subset analyses of follicular lymphoma (FL), the results were incongruent. We conducted a retrospective matched-pair analysis to compare the outcome of patients with advanced stage FL, receiving frontline BR (N = 73) or R-CHOP (N = 73), matched by age, gender, stage, and FL International Prognostic Index score. On multivariable analysis, baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) >13 was associated with use of R-CHOP (p = .001). After a median follow-up of 69 months for the BR arm and 126 months for the R-CHOP arm, 5-year PFS was 80% and 70%, respectively (p = .07). After adjusting for SUVmax >13, the trend for better PFS in BR was not maintained. Prospective studies are needed to validate the role of pretreatment SUVmax as a stratification factor in future randomized therapeutic trials in FL.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/efeitos adversos
11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(13): 3132-3137, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288594

RESUMO

The MLL3 gene has been shown to be recurrently mutated in many malignancies including in families with acute myeloid leukemia. We demonstrate that many MLL3 variant calls made by exome sequencing are false positives due to misalignment to homologous regions, including a region on chr21, and can only be validated by long-range PCR. Numerous other recurrently mutated genes reported in COSMIC and TCGA databases have pseudogenes and cannot also be validated by conventional short read-based sequencing approaches. Genome-wide identification of pseudogene regions demonstrates that frequency of these homologous regions is increased with sequencing read lengths below 200 bps. To enable identification of poor quality sequencing variants in prospective studies, we generated novel genome-wide maps of regions with poor mappability that can be used in variant calling algorithms. Taken together, our findings reveal that pseudogene regions are a source of false-positive mutations in cancers.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Algoritmos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Éxons/genética , Reações Falso-Positivas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Pseudogenes/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 41, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014360

RESUMO

Despite major scientific discoveries and novel therapies over the past four decades, the treatment outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially in the adult patient population remain dismal. In the past few years, an increasing number of targets such as CD33, CD123, CLL-1, CD47, CD70, and TIM3, have been developed for immunotherapy of AML. Among them, CLL-1 has attracted the researchers' attention due to its high expression in AML while being absent in normal hematopoietic stem cell. Accumulating evidence have demonstrated CLL-1 is an ideal target for AML. In this paper, we will review the expression of CLL-1 on normal cells and AML, the value of CLL-1 in diagnosis and follow-up, and targeting CLL-1 therapy-based antibody and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy as well as providing an overview of CLL-1 as a target for AML.


Assuntos
Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Receptores Mitogênicos/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos
13.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(5): e266-e275, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies suggest that conditioning therapy with busulfan plus melphalan could result in longer progression-free survival compared with melphalan alone in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous haemopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). We aimed to test this hypothesis in a randomised trial. METHODS: The primary objective of the study was to compare progression-free survival with conditioning of busulfan plus melphalan with melphalan alone in patients with multiple myeloma. Patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were eligible for cell transplantation, aged 70 years or younger, with at least stable disease, were randomly assigned (1:1) to treatment. Patients received either busulfan plus melphalan, with a test dose of busulfan 32 mg/m2 followed by pharmacokinetically adjusted doses on days -7, -6, -5, and -4 to achieve a target daily area under the curve (AUC) of 5000 mmol-minute and melphalan 70 mg/m2 per day on days -2 and -1 (total melphalan dose 140 mg/m2), or a melphalan dose of 200 mg/m2 on day -2. Randomisation was performed via a Clinical Trial Conduct Website at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The accrual is complete and final results are presented here. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01413178. FINDINGS: Between Oct 12, 2011, and March 22, 2017, 205 patients were assessed for eligibility and randomly assigned to treatment. The primary analysis of progression-free survival was measured in 202 patients who received treatment: 104 patients in the busulfan plus melphalan group and 98 patients in the melphalan alone group. 90 days after auto-HCT, 102 (98%) of 104 patients given busulfan plus melphalan and 95 (97%) of 98 patients given melphalan alone achieved partial response or better. The median follow-up in the busulfan plus melphalan group was 22·6 months (IQR 15·2-47·1) and 20·2 months (IQR 8·8-46·6) in the melphalan alone group. Median progression-free survival was 64·7 months (32·9-64·7) with busulfan plus melphalan versus 43·5 months (19·9-not estimated) with melphalan alone (hazard ratio 0·53 [95% CI 0·30-0·91]; p=0·022). There were no treatment-related deaths by day 100 in either group. Grade 2-3 mucositis was observed in 77 (74%) of 104 patients in the busulfan plus melphalan group versus 14 (14%) of 98 patients in the melphalan alone group. INTERPRETATION: These findings, if confirmed in other ongoing studies, suggest that busulfan plus melphalan could replace melphalan alone as the conditioning regimen for auto-HCT in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. FUNDING: This study was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through MD Anderson's Cancer Center Support Grant (CA016672).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adulto , Idoso , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Gradação de Tumores , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1340-1346, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763728

RESUMO

We analyzed 186 patients with lymphoma who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with fludarabine-melphalan (FM) conditioning and different types of donors (25 haploidentical [HD], 98 matched unrelated [MUD], and 63 matched related [MRD]) at our institution between September 2009 and January 2018. Patients received fludarabine 160 mg/m2 (40 mg/m2/day for 4 days) in combination with 1 dose of melphalan 140 mg/m2 (FM140) or 100 mg/m2 (FM100). Engraftment was similar among the 3 groups (92%, 89%, and 98%, respectively; P = .7). The 6-month cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 4% in the HD group, 14% in the MUD group, and 8% in the MRD group (P not significant), and the respective 3-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 5%, 16%, and 26% (P not significant). The respective 3-year nonrelapse mortality and relapse rates were 31%, 32%, and 10% (HD versus MUD, P = .9; HD versus MRD, P = .02) and 15%, 21%, and 39% (HD versus MUD, P = .4; HD versus MRD, P = .04). At 3 years, progression-free survival (PFS) was 59%, 44%, and 46% (P not significant); overall survival (OS) was 52%, 54%, and 67% (P not significant); and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival was 39%, 31%, and 24% (P not significant). No differences in the 3-year PFS (57% versus 43%; P = .3) and OS (64% versus 58%; P = .7) were seen between patients receiving FM100 and those receiving FM140. Our data demonstrate that in patients with lymphoma, ASCT with HD transplants have similar outcomes as ASCT with HLA-matched transplants, and the FM100 conditioning regimen appears to be at least as effective as the FM140 regimen.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Linfoma , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Linfoma/mortalidade , Linfoma/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados
15.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(6): 1370-1380, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628504

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common tumor in adult patients, most of the patients have a poor prognosis even after high-intensity chemotherapy, especially for relapsed, refractory or elderly patients. Therefore, new methods are needed to change the outcomes. In recent years, an increasing number of immune-therapies are emerging where adoptive cell therapy, a special immunotherapy, has become a promising strategy for AML. Here, we review the clinical application and advancement of donor lymphocyte infusion, chimeric-antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, natural killer (NK) cell therapy and dendritic cell vaccination for AML, hopefully providing an overview of clinical aspects of advances in adoptive cell therapy for AML.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Doadores de Tecidos
16.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(5): 1039-1044, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639822

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with multiple myeloma, as it provides a graft-versus-myeloma effect alongside a myeloma-free graft. Although reduced-intensity conditioning regimens decrease nonrelapse mortality (NRM), there is a paucity of data with regard to the ideal conditioning regimen in myeloma. We conducted a retrospective comparison of 3 different preparative regimens used for allo-HCT for multiple myeloma at our institution in recent clinical trials: busulfan/fludarabine (BuFlu), fludarabine/melphalan 100 mg/m2 (FM100), and fludarabine/melphalan 140 mg/m2 (FM140). NRM, progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 years, and overall survival (OS) at 3 years were the primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints included time to engraftment, and the incidence of grades II through IV acute graft-versus-host disease and chronic graft-versus-host disease. A total of 73 patients received allo-HCT with these regimens. NRM at 3 years was seen in 3 (21%), 5 (28%), and 6 (24%) patients in the BuFlu, FM100, and FM140 groups, respectively. Three-year PFS in the BuFlu, FM100, and FM140 groups was 16% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 2.1), 26% (HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.2), and 11% (reference), respectively. Three-year OS in the BuFlu, FM100, and FM140 groups was 39% (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5 to 2.2), 43% (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.4), and 32% (reference), respectively. High-risk cytogenetics and relapsed disease prior to allo-HCT were found to be independent predictors of inferior OS on multivariate analysis, with a HR of 2.1 (P = .02) and 2.6 (P = .004), respectively. In contrast, the preparative regimen did not emerge as a predictor of PFS or OS. Durable clinical remission can be achieved in 11% to 25% of patients with multiple myeloma with the use of allo-HCT without any significant difference in the safety or efficacy of the conditioning regimen. High-risk cytogenetics and relapsed disease prior to transplant were associated with inferior PFS and OS.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Butirofenonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/mortalidade , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico
17.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(6): 839-848, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258129

RESUMO

Outcomes after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) are influenced by both disease- and patient-related factors. Here, we developed a novel prognostic model, hematopoietic cell transplant-composite risk (HCT-CR), by combining the refined disease risk index (DRI-R) and hematopoietic stem-cell transplant comorbidity/age index (HCT-CI/Age) to predict post-transplant survival for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The analysis included 942 AML/MDS patients treated with AHSCT. Patients were stratified into 4 HCT-CR risk groups: Low-risk-patients with low/intermediate DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age ≤3 (N = 272); Intermediate-risk-patients with low/intermediate DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age >3 (N = 168); High-risk-patients with high/very high DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age ≤3 (N = 284); and Very high-risk-patients with high/very high DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age >3 (N = 184). Compared with the low-risk group, intermediate, high, and very high-risk groups had a significantly increased risk of death [adjusted HR of 1.37 (P < 0.04), 2.08 (P < 0.001), and 2.92 (P < 0.001), respectively]. The concordance test showed that the HCT-CR model provided better discriminative capacity for OS prediction compared with all prior models independently, including cytogenetic risk group, DRI-R, and HCT-CI/Age model (C-indices: 0.62, 0.55, 0.60, and 0.54, respectively) (P < 0.001). In conclusion, combining disease- and patient-related factors provides better survival stratification for patients with AML/MDS receiving AHSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(4): 601-606, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337700

RESUMO

Allogeneic SCT for older patients remains challenging at least in part due to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). We conducted a prospective pilot study primarily for older patients undergoing matched unrelated donor (MUD) SCT using a reduced-intensity (RIC) melphalan-based conditioning and post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based GVHD prophylaxis with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Twenty-two patients (median age 64, IQR 58, 66) underwent RIC MUD SCT for high-risk hematological malignancies including AML/MDS (73%), CML/MPD (18%), and other (10%). Two (9%) patients had early death; the rest (100%) engrafted. After a median follow-up of 17 months, 11 patients were alive and disease-free with an estimated 2-year progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival of 48%. The cumulative incidences of grades 2-4 and 3-4 acute GVHD (aGVHD) at day + 100 and 2-years were 32 and 4%, and 59 and 24%, respectively. No cases of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) were noted. However, late acute GVHD was observed in 6 (27%) patients. In conclusion, RIC MUD SCT with melphalan-based conditioning and PTCy-based GVHD-based prophylaxis for older patients appears effective in controlling relapse. While cGVHD was not seen and early aGVHD appears controllable, a significant proportion developed late aGVHD responsible for higher NRM seen in these patients.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Doadores não Relacionados
19.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(7): 1089-1093, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446740

RESUMO

Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM) with poor long-term survival after cytotoxic chemotherapy. Many novel drugs have revolutionized the treatment algorithms for MM. The impact of targeted therapy, both pre- and post-autologous stem cell transplant (auto-HCT) remains an area of ongoing interest. In this study, we report outcomes post auto-HCT for pPCL and the impact of maintenance therapy posttransplant with novel agents.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Plasmocitária/mortalidade , Leucemia Plasmocitária/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Adulto , Idoso , Autoenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Lancet Haematol ; 5(11): e532-e542, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT) conditioning regimens that can reduce risk of relapse without increasing non-relapse mortality are needed. We aimed to test the safety of timed-sequential delivery of low-dose versus high-dose myeloablative busulfan in older patients and patients with comorbidities. METHODS: This non-stratified, open-label, randomised phase 2 trial was done at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). Patients with haematological cancers aged between 5 and 75 years were eligible to participate in the study. Patients who had HIV or uncontrollable infections were excluded. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1 by a computer-generated programme in block sizes of four) to receive a total intravenous busulfan dose to achieve an area under the curve of 16 000 µmol/min (16K group) or 20 000 µmol/min (20K group) on the basis of pharmacokinetic analysis, plus intravenous fludarabine 40 mg/m2 for 4 days. The investigators and the research nurses were masked to the block size to conceal allocation. The primary outcome was day 100 non-relapse mortality. All analyses were by modified intention to treat, including only patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. No interim analyses were planned and accrual is complete. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01572662. FINDINGS: Between April 18, 2012, and Dec 9, 2015, 98 patients were enrolled. 49 patients were randomly assigned to the 16K group and 49 to the 20K group, one of which was removed from the study before starting the intervention. Median age was 60 years (IQR 54-67). 50 (52%) patients had an HCT-specific comorbidity index score of 3 or more, and 41 (42%) had a high or very high Disease Risk Index score. Day 100 non-relapse mortality was 4% (95% CI 0-10) in the 16K group and 6% (0-13) in the 20K group (p=0·65). Infection was the most common grade 3-5 toxicity in both the 20K group (25 [52%] of 48 patients) and the 16K group (24 [49%] of 49 participants). Mucositis (nine [19%] of 48 patients vs three [6%] of 49 patients), idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (nine [19%] of 48 patients vs two [4%] of 49 patients), and culture-negative neutropenic fever (16 [33%] of 48 patients vs eight [16%] of 49 patients) were more common in the 20K group than in the 16K group. INTERPRETATION: Myeloablative doses of busulfan administered in a timed-sequential manner with fludarabine is associated with low non-relapse mortality in older patients and patients with comorbidities. Additional studies are required to show whether this approach can reduce the risk of relapse. FUNDING: Cancer Center Support Grant (US National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health).


Assuntos
Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Comorbidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
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