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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2722, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976164

RESUMO

The mechanism by which anti-cancer immunity shapes early carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) is unknown. In this study, we characterize the immune contexture of invasive lung ADC and its precursors by transcriptomic immune profiling, T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing and multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF). Our results demonstrate that anti-tumor immunity evolved as a continuum from lung preneoplasia, to preinvasive ADC, minimally-invasive ADC and frankly invasive lung ADC with a gradually less effective and more intensively regulated immune response including down-regulation of immune-activation pathways, up-regulation of immunosuppressive pathways, lower infiltration of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and anti-tumor helper T cells (Th), higher infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs), decreased T cell clonality, and lower frequencies of top T cell clones in later-stages. Driver mutations, chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) and aberrant DNA methylation may collectively impinge host immune responses and facilitate immune evasion, promoting the outgrowth of fit subclones in preneoplasia into dominant clones in invasive ADC.

2.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972311

RESUMO

Little is known of the geospatial architecture of individual cell populations in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) evolution. Here, we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of 186,916 cells from 5 early-stage LUADs and 14 multi-region normal lung tissues of defined spatial proximities from the tumors. We show that cellular lineages, states, and transcriptomic features geospatially evolve across normal regions to LUADs. LUADs also exhibit pronounced intratumor cell heterogeneity within single sites and transcriptional lineage-plasticity programs. T regulatory cell phenotypes are increased in normal tissues with proximity to LUAD, in contrast to diminished signatures and fractions of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, antigen-presenting macrophages and inflammatory dendritic cells. We further find that the LUAD ligand-receptor interactome harbors increased expression of epithelial CD24 which mediates pro-tumor phenotypes. These data provide a spatial atlas of LUAD evolution, and a resource for identification of targets for its treatment.

3.
Pathol Res Pract ; 220: 153382, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The pulmonary vascular remodeling in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is poorly understood and animal models are lacking. Type V collagen (COLV) is elevated in SSc and is implicated in the pathogenesis, and immunization with human COLV induces SSc-like skin and lung changes in rabbits and mice. Here we tested the hypothesis that COLV immunization will induce pathological and functional changes that phenocopy SSc-associated pulmonary vascular disease. METHODS: Pulmonary vascular changes in rabbits immunized with human COLV were extensively characterized by a combination of histology, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Physiologic changes induced by COLV in explanted pulmonary artery rings were evaluated. The pattern of histopathologic alterations and gene expression induced in immunized rabbits were compared to those in SSc patients. RESULTS: COLV immunization was accompanied by striking pulmonary vascular abnormalities, characterized by reduced capillary density, perivascular inflammation, endothelial cell injury and collagen accumulation, that closely phenocopy changes seen in SSc patients. Moreover, pulmonary arteries from immunized rabbits showed impaired ex vivo vascular relaxation. Expression of COL5A2 was significantly increased in the lungs from immunized rabbits (p = 0.02), as well as in patients with SSc (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: COLV immunity in rabbits is associated with marked vascular remodeling in the lung that phenocopies early-stage human SSc-associated pulmonary vascular disease. COLV immunization therefore represents a novel approach to model SSc pulmonary vascular pathology. Moreover, our findings suggest that COLV might represent a novel pathogenic autoantigen in SSc and future studies with the present model should be developed for possible association with PAH.

4.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 504-514, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603241

RESUMO

Ipilimumab improves clinical outcomes when combined with nivolumab in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy and impact on the immune microenvironment in operable NSCLC remain unclear. We report the results of the phase 2 randomized NEOSTAR trial (NCT03158129) of neoadjuvant nivolumab or nivolumab + ipilimumab followed by surgery in 44 patients with operable NSCLC, using major pathologic response (MPR) as the primary endpoint. The MPR rate for each treatment arm was tested against historical controls of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The nivolumab + ipilimumab arm met the prespecified primary endpoint threshold of 6 MPRs in 21 patients, achieving a 38% MPR rate (8/21). We observed a 22% MPR rate (5/23) in the nivolumab arm. In 37 patients resected on trial, nivolumab and nivolumab + ipilimumab produced MPR rates of 24% (5/21) and 50% (8/16), respectively. Compared with nivolumab, nivolumab + ipilimumab resulted in higher pathologic complete response rates (10% versus 38%), less viable tumor (median 50% versus 9%), and greater frequencies of effector, tissue-resident memory and effector memory T cells. Increased abundance of gut Ruminococcus and Akkermansia spp. was associated with MPR to dual therapy. Our data indicate that neoadjuvant nivolumab + ipilimumab-based therapy enhances pathologic responses, tumor immune infiltrates and immunologic memory, and merits further investigation in operable NSCLC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4530, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633208

RESUMO

Immune profiling is becoming a vital tool for identifying predictive and prognostic markers for translational studies. The study of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in paraffin tumor tissues such as malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) could yield insights to actionable targets to improve patient outcome. Here, we optimized and tested a new immune-profiling method to characterize immune cell phenotypes in paraffin tissues and explore the co-localization and spatial distribution between the immune cells within the TME and the stromal or tumor compartments. Tonsil tissues and tissue microarray (TMA) were used to optimize an automated nine-color multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) panel to study the TME using eight antibodies: PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD8, Foxp3, CD68, KI67, and pancytokeratin. To explore the potential role of the cells into the TME with this mIF panel we applied this panel in twelve MPM cases to assess the multiple cell phenotypes obtained from the image analysis and well as their spatial distribution in this cohort. We successful optimized and applied an automated nine-color mIF panel to explore a small set of MPM cases. Image analysis showed a high degree of cell phenotype diversity with immunosuppression patterns in the TME of the MPM cases. Mapping the geographic cell phenotype distribution in the TME, we were able to identify two distinct, complex immune landscapes characterized by specific patterns of cellular distribution as well as cell phenotype interactions with malignant cells. Successful we showed the optimization and reproducibility of our mIF panel and their incorporation for comprehensive TME immune profiling into translational studies that could refine our ability to correlate immunologic phenotypes with specific patterns of cells distribution and distance analysis. Overall, this will improve our ability to understand the behavior of cells within the TME and predict new treatment strategies to improve patient outcome.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1413-1422, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is terminal in most patients with locally advanced stage disease. We aimed to assess the antitumour activity and safety of neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy for resectable stage IIIA NSCLC. METHODS: This was an open-label, multicentre, single-arm phase 2 trial done at 18 hospitals in Spain. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically documented treatment-naive American Joint Committee on Cancer-defined stage IIIA NSCLC that was deemed locally to be surgically resectable by a multidisciplinary clinical team, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received neoadjuvant treatment with intravenous paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under curve 6; 6 mg/mL per min) plus nivolumab (360 mg) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle, for three cycles before surgical resection, followed by adjuvant intravenous nivolumab monotherapy for 1 year (240 mg every 2 weeks for 4 months, followed by 480 mg every 4 weeks for 8 months). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 24 months, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all patients who received neoadjuvant treatment, and in the per-protocol population, which included all patients who had tumour resection and received at least one cycle of adjuvant treatment. Safety was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03081689, and is ongoing but no longer recruiting patients. FINDINGS: Between April 26, 2017, and Aug 25, 2018, we screened 51 patients for eligibility, of whom 46 patients were enrolled and received neoadjuvant treatment. At the time of data cutoff (Jan 31, 2020), the median duration of follow-up was 24·0 months (IQR 21·4-28·1) and 35 of 41 patients who had tumour resection were progression free. At 24 months, progression-free survival was 77·1% (95% CI 59·9-87·7). 43 (93%) of 46 patients had treatment-related adverse events during neoadjuvant treatment, and 14 (30%) had treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse; however, none of the adverse events were associated with surgery delays or deaths. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were increased lipase (three [7%]) and febrile neutropenia (three [7%]). INTERPRETATION: Our results support the addition of neoadjuvant nivolumab to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with resectable stage IIIA NSCLC. Neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy could change the perception of locally advanced lung cancer as a potentially lethal disease to one that is curable. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763065

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune infiltration in lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) has been associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Clinical features underlying differential responses of patients with LUADs to immunotherapy are not well understood. Here, we analyzed the association between LUAD immune infiltration and clinicopathologic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intratumoral CD3, CD8, and CD68 cell densities (tumor-associated immune cells [TAICs]) were immunohistochemically assessed in 146 surgically resected LUADs. LUADs were classified into 2 groups, low and high TAICs, based on the median values of cell densities for CD3, CD8, and CD68. Somatic mutation burden and driver gene mutation status were analyzed in a subset of the cases (n = 92). We statistically analyzed the association between the TAIC groups and various clinicopathologic and molecular variables by using the χ2/Fisher and Wilcoxon sum tests and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Patient gender, tumor size, and STK11 mutations were significantly associated with TAIC levels in LUAD. Female patients exhibited significantly elevated TAIC levels (P = .005) compared with male patients. Tumor size was inversely associated with TAIC levels (P = .012). STK11 mutated tumors were associated with lower TAICs (P = .008). Higher TAICs were consistently observed in female patients with LUADs after adjusting for stage, tumor size, and age. Multivariable regression models confirmed female gender as an independent variable associated with TAIC levels in LUAD (P = .0141). CONCLUSION: Immune infiltration in LUADs was significantly higher in female patients, warranting further exploration into the association between this clinical variable and immunotherapeutic response in LUAD.

8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biological underpinnings of the prognostic and predictive significance of a relative neutrophilia in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) are undefined. We sought to comprehensively examine the relationships between circulating and intratumoral neutrophil populations and features of the immune contexture in patients undergoing NSCLC resection. METHODS: Preoperative soluble cytokine and angiogenic factors; tumor multiplex immunofluorescence; RNA, whole exome, and T-cell receptor sequencing; and flow cytometry were analyzed for relationships with populations of circulating (from complete blood counts) and intratumoral neutrophils (transcriptional signatures) in a prospectively enrolled resected NSCLC cohort (n=66). In a historical cohort (n=1524), preoperative circulating neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were analyzed for associations with overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Circulating neutrophil populations were positively correlated with increased tumor burden, and surgical tumor resection was followed by a subsequent reduction in peripheral neutrophil counts. Expansion of the circulating neutrophil compartment was associated with increased levels of pro-granulopoietic (IL-1ß, IL-17A, TNFα, IL-6) and TH2-associated (IL-5, IL-13) cytokines. Tumors with high intratumoral neutrophil burden were marked by a blunted T-cell response characterized by reduced expression of cytotoxic T-cell genes (CD8A, CD8B, GZMA, GZMB), decreased CD3+CD8+ cell infiltration, and diminished expression of IFNγ-related genes. The associations between increased intratumoral neutrophil burden and reduced CD3+CD8+ infiltration persisted after adjustment for tumor size, histology, mutational burden, and PD-L1 expression. In 1524 patients, elevated preoperative circulating neutrophil count was independently associated with worse OS (main effect HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.68, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that neutrophil expansion reflects protumorigenic and immunosuppressive processes that manifest as worse OS in patients undergoing NSCLC resection. These results justify further investigation of therapeutic strategies targeting neutrophil-associated immune evasion.

9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(4): 1131-1138, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11)/liver kinase B1 (LKB1) have been implicated in mediating resistance to checkpoint blockade among patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. We sought to examine the associations between clinicopathologic characteristics, tumor LKB1 expression, features of the immune microenvironment, and postoperative prognosis among patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma undergoing surgical therapy. METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of patients undergoing resection of stage I to III, chemotherapy-naïve adenocarcinomas (1997 to 2008) were analyzed using tissue microarray sectioning. Sublobar resections were excluded. Intratumoral LKB1/STK11 expression was quantified as H-score. In a subset, tumor-associated immune cell populations were quantified using whole tumor sections in peritumoral and intratumoral compartments. RESULTS: In all, 104 patients met inclusion criteria. Expression of LKB1/STK11 (median H-score 102.9) was higher in women (median 123.3) than in men (100, P = .004) and in never-smokers (median 145) than in former/current smokers (100, P = .002). Expression of LKB1/STK11 was positively correlated with intratumoral infiltration of cluster of differentiation (CD) 3+ (r = 0.351, P = .005), CD4+ (r = 0.436, P < .001), and CD8+ (r = 0.263, P = .049) cells. Patients with extrathoracic recurrence had lower tumor expression of LKB1/STK11 than did other patients with recurrent disease. On multivariate analysis, low LKB1/STK11 expression remained independently associated with poor disease-free survival and distant disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Low LKB1/STK11 expression is associated with specific patient characteristics and poor postoperative prognosis in chemotherapy-naïve lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation is warranted to delineate its clinical significance in the context of evaluating novel therapeutic agents in patients with resectable disease.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/biossíntese , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The interaction between the immune system and tumor cells is an important feature for the prognosis and treatment of cancer. Multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) and multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) analyses are emerging technologies that can be used to help quantify immune cell subsets, their functional state, and their spatial arrangement within the tumor microenvironment. METHODS: The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a task force of pathologists and laboratory leaders from academic centers as well as experts from pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies to develop best practice guidelines for the optimization and validation of mIHC/mIF assays across platforms. RESULTS: Representative outputs and the advantages and disadvantages of mIHC/mIF approaches, such as multiplexed chromogenic IHC, multiplexed immunohistochemical consecutive staining on single slide, mIF (including multispectral approaches), tissue-based mass spectrometry, and digital spatial profiling are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: mIHC/mIF technologies are becoming standard tools for biomarker studies and are likely to enter routine clinical practice in the near future. Careful assay optimization and validation will help ensure outputs are robust and comparable across laboratories as well as potentially across mIHC/mIF platforms. Quantitative image analysis of mIHC/mIF output and data management considerations will be addressed in a complementary manuscript from this task force.

11.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(8): 1519-1534, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300858

RESUMO

Enhanced tumor glycolytic activity is a mechanism by which tumors induce an immunosuppressive environment to resist adoptive T cell therapy; therefore, methods of assessing intratumoral glycolytic activity are of considerable clinical interest. In this study, we characterized the relationships among tumor 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) retention, tumor metabolic and immune phenotypes, and survival in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively analyzed tumor preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) 18F-FDG uptake in 59 resected NSCLCs and investigated correlations between PET parameters (SUVMax, SUVTotal, SUVMean, TLG), tumor expression of glycolysis- and immune-related genes, and tumor-associated immune cell densities that were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Tumor glycolysis-associated immune gene signatures were analyzed for associations with survival outcomes. We found that each 18F-FDG PET parameter was positively correlated with tumor expression of glycolysis-related genes. Elevated 18F-FDG SUVMax was more discriminatory of glycolysis-associated changes in tumor immune phenotypes than other 18F-FDG PET parameters. Increased SUVMax was associated with multiple immune factors characteristic of an immunosuppressive and poorly immune infiltrated tumor microenvironment, including elevated PD-L1 expression, reduced CD57+ cell density, and increased T cell exhaustion gene signature. Elevated SUVMax identified immune-related transcriptomic signatures that were associated with enhanced tumor glycolytic gene expression and poor clinical outcomes. Our results suggest that 18F-FDG SUVMax has potential value as a noninvasive, clinical indicator of tumor immunometabolic phenotypes in patients with resectable NSCLC and warrants investigation as a potential predictor of therapeutic response to immune-based treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Glicólise , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma
12.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressive desmoplastic stroma of pancreatic cancer represents a major hurdle to developing an effective immune response. Preclinical studies in pancreatic cancer have demonstrated promising anti-tumor activity with Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition combined with programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) blockade. METHODS: This was a phase II, multicenter, open-label, randomized (1:1) clinical trial evaluating the BTK inhibitor acalabrutinib, alone (monotherapy) or in combination with the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab (combination therapy). Eligible patients were adults with histologically confirmed metastatic or locally advanced unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) ≤1 who had received at least one prior systemic therapy. Oral acalabrutinib 100 mg twice daily was administered with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg on day 1 of each 3-week cycle. Peripheral blood was analyzed for changes in immune markers, and tumors from exceptional responders were molecularly analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients were enrolled (37 monotherapy; 40 combination therapy) with a median age of 64 years; 77% had an ECOG PS of 1. The median number of prior therapies was 3 (range 1-6). Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were seen in 14.3% of patients in the monotherapy arm and 15.8% of those in the combination therapy arm. The overall response rate and disease control rate were 0% and 14.3% with monotherapy and 7.9% and 21.1% with combination therapy, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 1.4 months in both arms. Peripheral blood flow analysis demonstrated consistent reductions in granulocytic (CD15+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) over time. Two exceptional responders were found to be microsatellite stable with low tumor mutation burden, low neoantigen load and no defects in the homologous DNA repair pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of acalabrutinib and pembrolizumab was well tolerated, but limited clinical activity was seen with either acalabrutinib monotherapy or combination therapy. Peripheral reductions in MDSCs were seen. Efforts to understand and target the pancreatic tumor microenvironment should continue. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02362048.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(14): 3525-3536, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193228

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nintedanib enhances the activity of chemotherapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this phase I/II study, we assessed safety and efficacy of nintedanib plus neoadjuvant chemotherapy, using major pathologic response (MPR) as primary endpoint. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had stage IB (≥4 cm)-IIIA resectable NSCLC. A safety run-in phase was followed by an expansion phase with nintedanib 200 mg orally twice a day (28 days), followed by three cycles of cisplatin (75 mg/m2), docetaxel (75 mg/m2) every 21 days plus nintedanib, followed by surgery. With 33 planned patients, the study had 90% power to detect an MPR increase from 15% to 35%. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (stages I/II/III, N = 1/8/12) were treated. One of 15 patients treated with nintedanib 200 mg achieved MPR [7%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2%-32%]. Best ORR in 20 evaluable patients was 30% (6/20, 95% CI, 12%-54%). Twelve-month recurrence-free survival and overall survival were 66% (95% CI, 47%-93%) and 91% (95% CI, 79%-100%), respectively. Most frequent treatment-related grade 3-4 toxicities were transaminitis and electrolyte abnormalities. On the basis of an interim analysis the study was discontinued for futility. Higher levels of CD3+ and cytotoxic CD3+CD8+ T cells were found in treated tumors of patients who were alive than in those who died (652.8 vs. 213.4 cells/mm2, P = 0.048; 142.3 vs. 35.6 cells/mm2, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Although tolerated, neoadjuvant nintedanib plus chemotherapy did not increase MPR rate compared with chemotherapy historical controls. Additional studies of the combination in this setting are not recommended. Posttreatment levels of tumor-infiltrating T cells were associated with patient survival. Use of MPR facilitates the rapid evaluation of neoadjuvant therapies.See related commentary by Blakely and McCoach, p. 3499.

14.
Cancer Res ; 80(10): 2056-2066, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915129

RESUMO

The spatial organization of different types of cells in tumor tissues reveals important information about the tumor microenvironment (TME). To facilitate the study of cellular spatial organization and interactions, we developed Histology-based Digital-Staining, a deep learning-based computation model, to segment the nuclei of tumor, stroma, lymphocyte, macrophage, karyorrhexis, and red blood cells from standard hematoxylin and eosin-stained pathology images in lung adenocarcinoma. Using this tool, we identified and classified cell nuclei and extracted 48 cell spatial organization-related features that characterize the TME. Using these features, we developed a prognostic model from the National Lung Screening Trial dataset, and independently validated the model in The Cancer Genome Atlas lung adenocarcinoma dataset, in which the predicted high-risk group showed significantly worse survival than the low-risk group (P = 0.001), with a HR of 2.23 (1.37-3.65) after adjusting for clinical variables. Furthermore, the image-derived TME features significantly correlated with the gene expression of biological pathways. For example, transcriptional activation of both the T-cell receptor and programmed cell death protein 1 pathways positively correlated with the density of detected lymphocytes in tumor tissues, while expression of the extracellular matrix organization pathway positively correlated with the density of stromal cells. In summary, we demonstrate that the spatial organization of different cell types is predictive of patient survival and associated with the gene expression of biological pathways. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings present a deep learning-based analysis tool to study the TME in pathology images and demonstrate that the cell spatial organization is predictive of patient survival and is associated with gene expression.See related commentary by Rodriguez-Antolin, p. 1912.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Coloração e Rotulagem , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(6): 1258-1266, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We recently reported a 17.5% objective RECIST 1.1 response rate in a phase II study of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced sarcoma (SARC028). The majority of responses occurred in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS). We sought to determine whether we can identify immune features that correlate with clinical outcomes from tumor tissues obtained pre- and on-treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pretreatment (n = 78) and 8-week on-treatment (n = 68) tumor biopsies were stained for PD-L1 and multiplex immunofluorescence panels. The density of positive cells was quantified to determine associations with anti-PD-1 response. RESULTS: Patients that responded to pembrolizumab were more likely to have higher densities of activated T cells (CD8+ CD3+ PD-1+) and increased percentage of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) expressing PD-L1 pre-treatment compared with non-responders. Pre-treatment tumors from responders also exhibited higher densities of effector memory cytotoxic T cells and regulatory T cells compared with non-responders. In addition, higher density of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrating T cells at baseline correlated with a better progression-free survival (PFS). CONCLUSIONS: We show that quantitative assessments of CD8+ CD3+ PD-1+ T cells, percentage of TAMs expressing PD-L1, and other T-cell densities correlate with sarcoma response to pembrolizumab and improved PFS. Our findings support that multiple cell types present at the start of treatment may enhance tumor regression following anti-PD-1 therapy in specific advanced sarcomas. Efforts to confirm the activity of pembrolizumab in an expansion cohort of patients with UPS/DDLPS are underway.

16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(2): 358-366, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High tumor mutational burden (TMB) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression are leading biomarkers in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and predict favorable response to checkpoint inhibitors. We sought to identify clinicopathologic characteristics associated with elevated TMB and PD-L1 expression among patients who underwent resection for NSCLC. METHODS: NSCLC patients undergoing primary resection (2016-2018) were prospectively enrolled in an immunogenomic profiling project. Multiplex immunofluorescence quantified densities (cells/mm2) of CD3+, CD3+CD8+, CD3+CD8+PD-1+, malignant cells (MCs), MCsPD-L1+, CD68+, CD68+PD-L1+, and CD20+ cells. Whole-exome sequencing quantified TMB (mutations/megabase). TMB and MCsPD-L1+ were dichotomized according to the median of each. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients completed multiplex immunofluorescence and whole-exome sequencing profiling. In this sample, 41.8% (23 of 55) had pathologic stage I disease. Median TMB and MCsPD-L1+ were 3.91 and 0.62 cells/mm2, respectively. TMB was higher among smokers (P = .001) and tumors with lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (P = .051). TMB was positively correlated with densities of MCsPD-L1+ (r = 0.293, P = .030), CD68+PD-L1+ (r = 0.289, P = .033), and CD20+ (r = 0.310, P = .043) cells. The density of MCsPD-L1+ was associated with increased CD3+CD8+ (r = 0.319, P = .018) and CD68+PD-L1+ (r = 0.371, P = .005) cells. Patients with PD-L1HighTMBHigh tumors (30.9%, 17 of 55) had higher intratumoral densities of CD3+, CD3+CD8+, CD68+, CD68+PD-L1+, and CD20+ cells. On multivariable analysis LVI was associated with synchronous elevated TMB and PD-L1 expression (odds ratio 3.53, P = .039). CONCLUSIONS: NSCLC tumors with elevated TMB and PD-L1 expression are associated with LVI and increased intratumoral immune cell infiltration. These findings may potentially improve patient selection for checkpoint inhibitor therapy trials in the adjuvant setting.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Idoso , Institutos de Câncer , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Mutação/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Pneumonectomia/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Texas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 351, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843013

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: OX-40 co-stimulatory signaling plays a role in mounting anti-tumor immune responses and clinical trials targeting this pathway are ongoing. However, the association of with OX-40 protein expression with clinical outcomes and pathological features in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are largely unknown. METHODS: Surgically-resected stage I-III NSCLC specimens (N = 100) were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the following immune markers: OX-40, PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD57, CD68, FOXP3, granzyme B, and ICOS. Immune-related markers mRNA expression were also assessed. We evaluated the association of OX-40 levels with major clinicopathologic variables, including molecular driver mutations. RESULTS: OX-40 IHC expression was observed in all tested tumors, predominantly localized in the membrane of the tumor immune infiltrate, and was not associated with a specific clinicopathologic or molecular subtype. High OX-40 expression levels measured by IHC median score were associated with better overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002), independent of CD3/CD8, PD-L1, and ICOS expression. High OX-40 IHC score was associated with increased expression of immune-related genes such as CD3, IFN-gamma, ICOS, CD8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL5, granzyme K. CONCLUSIONS: High OX-40 IHC expression in the tumor immune infiltrate is associated with favorable prognosis and increased levels of immune-related genes including IFN-gamma in patients with surgically resected stage I-III NSCLC. Its prognostic utility is independent of PD-L1 and other common markers of immune activation. High OX-40 expression potentially identifies a unique subgroup of NSCLC that may benefit from co-stimulation with OX-40 agonist antibodies and potentially enhance the efficacy of existing immune checkpoint therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Receptores OX40/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptores OX40/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 158(3): 911-919.e6, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ki67 is a marker for tumor proliferative activity and is known to have prognostic significance in multiple solid malignancies. We sought to characterize the relationships among Ki67 expression, immune cell infiltration, and immune checkpoint expression in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: Specimens of patients undergoing resection of stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer (1997-2012) were analyzed using tissue microarrays. Proliferative index was quantified as the percentage of malignant cells expressing Ki67. Checkpoints expressed on malignant cells (programmed death ligand 1, B7H3, B7H4, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1) and lymphocytes (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing 3, V-domain suppressor of T-cell activation, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4, lymphocyte activation gene 3, inducible T-cell co-stimulator) were analyzed in intratumoral and stromal compartments, respectively. Immune cell densities were quantified in intratumoral and peritumoral compartments in a representative subset. RESULTS: A total of 190 patients met inclusion criteria. Higher Ki67 expression was noted in squamous cell carcinoma (median 31.4% positive malignant cells vs 15.2% adenocarcinoma, P < .001), advanced-stage tumors (25.7% stages II/III vs 20.8% stage I, P = .013), and poorly differentiated tumors (28.8% vs 15.4% well/moderately, P < .001). Ki67 was positively correlated with intratumoral expression of programmed death ligand 1, B7-H3, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, and elevated stromal expression of lymphocyte activation gene 3 and inducible T-cell co-stimulator. Ki67 expression was inversely associated with intratumoral densities of CD57+ and CD4+ cells. The relationship between Ki67 and checkpoint expression was strongest in stage I tumors. Among patients with stage I, increased Ki67 was independently associated with worse overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Increased Ki67 expression is associated with biologically aggressive non-small cell lung cancer, enhanced immune checkpoint expression, and reduced intratumoral immune cell infiltration. These findings were strongest in early-stage disease and warrant further investigation in the context of novel therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Idoso , Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos B7/análise , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/química , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/análise , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/análise , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microambiente Tumoral , Inibidor 1 da Ativação de Células T com Domínio V-Set/análise
19.
J Vis Exp ; (143)2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735177

RESUMO

Continued developments in immuno-oncology require an increased understanding of the mechanisms of cancer immunology. The immunoprofiling analysis of tissue samples from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies has become a key tool for understanding the complexity of tumor immunology and discovering novel predictive biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy. Immunoprofiling analysis of tissues requires the evaluation of combined markers, including inflammatory cell subpopulations and immune checkpoints, in the tumor microenvironment. The advent of novel multiplex immunohistochemical methods allows for a more efficient multiparametric analysis of single tissue sections than does standard monoplex immunohistochemistry (IHC). One commercially available multiplex immunofluorescence (IF) method is based on tyramide-signal amplification and, combined with multispectral microscopic analysis, allows for a better signal separation of diverse markers in tissue. This methodology is compatible with the use of unconjugated primary antibodies that have been optimized for standard IHC on FFPE tissue samples. Herein we describe in detail an automated protocol that allows multiplex IF labeling of carcinoma tissue samples with a six-marker multiplex antibody panel comprising PD-L1, PD-1, CD68, CD8, Ki-67, and AE1/AE3 cytokeratins with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole as a nuclear cell counterstain. The multiplex panel protocol is optimized in an automated IHC stainer for a staining time that is shorter than that of the manual protocol and can be directly applied and adapted by any laboratory investigator for immuno-oncology studies on human FFPE tissue samples. Also described are several controls and tools, including a drop-control method for fine quality control of a new multiplex IF panel, that are useful for the optimization and validation of the technique.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Formaldeído/uso terapêutico , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 27(4): 287-294, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135534

RESUMO

Preliminary data suggest that tumor expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein in human cancers, as determined by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, may predict clinical response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. PD-L1 is not a specific tumor marker and its expression is also observed in various nonmalignant cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, causing confusion in immunohistochemistry analysis when these inflammatory cells are overlapping with tumors cells. The aim of the current study was to examine PD-L1 expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded malignant and nonmalignant cells from human tumors to establish potential characteristic patterns of PD-L1 expression in tumor tissues. We used a commercial PD-L1 clone (E1L3N) previously validated in our laboratory to characterize PD-L1 expression in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas, lung squamous cell carcinomas, malignant melanomas, renal cell carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, and ductal breast carcinomas. We observed different patterns of PD-L1 expression by malignant cells and nonmalignant cells as membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear expression. The distribution of expression was variable including the entire malignant cells population, heterogonous with random distribution, peripheral distribution, minimal expression by few cells and negative expression. Similar, nonmalignant cells showed randomly and peripherally distribution through the tumors. We concluded that the PD-L1 cell protein expression patterns and distributions are variable and differ between resected tumor specimens. The expression and distribution pattern described here provide a useful knowledgment of PD-L1 expression in tumor samples.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
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