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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17298, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574854

RESUMO

Recently, studies have shown significant association between the rs2000999 polymorphism in the haptoglobin-encoding gene (HP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels, which are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. However, the association of rs2000999 with serum lipids in Latin American diabetic populations is still uncharacterized. Here, we analyzed the association of rs2000999 with TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and LDL-C levels in 546 Mexican adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in 654 controls without T2D. In this observational case-control study we included adults from 4 centers of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City recruited from 2012 to 2015. TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides (TG), and glucose levels were measured by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The variant rs2000999 was genotyped using TaqMan real time polymerase chain reaction. The percentage of Native-American ancestry showed a negative association with the rs2000999 A allele. In contrast, the rs2000999 A allele had a strong positive association with European ancestry, and to a lesser extent, with African ancestry. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the variant rs2000999 and lipid concentrations, using different genetic models. Under codominant and recessive models, rs2000999 was significantly associated with TC and LDL-C levels in the T2D group and in controls without T2D. In addition, the group with T2D showed a significant association between the variant and HDL-C levels. In summary, the rs2000999 A allele in Mexican population is positively associated with the percentage of European and negatively associated with Native American ancestry. Carriers of the A allele have increased levels of TC and LDL-C, independently of T2D diagnosis, and also increased concentrations of HDL-C in the T2D sample.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Haptoglobinas , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/análise , Haptoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(19): 3327-3338, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of genome-wide association studies-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of 30 studies consisting of up to 13 005 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) achieved 2-18 years old) and 15 599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1888 cases and 4689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing 18 previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene, METTL15). The variant was nominally associated with only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.

3.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 59, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Association studies in recently admixed populations are extremely useful to identify the genetic architecture of pigmentation, due to their high genotypic and phenotypic variation. However, to date only four Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have been carried out in these populations. RESULTS: We present a GWAS of skin pigmentation in an admixed sample from Cuba (N = 762). Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis including the Cuban sample, and admixed samples from Cape Verde, Puerto Rico and African-Americans from San Francisco. This meta-analysis is one of the largest efforts so far to characterize the genetic basis of skin pigmentation in admixed populations (N = 2,104). We identified five genome-wide significant regions in the meta-analysis, and explored if the markers observed in these regions are associated with the expression of relevant pigmentary genes in human melanocyte cultures. In three of the regions identified in the meta-analysis (SLC24A5, SLC45A2, and GRM5/TYR), the association seems to be driven by non-synonymous variants (rs1426654, rs16891982, and rs1042602, respectively). The rs16891982 polymorphism is strongly associated with the expression of the SLC45A2 gene. In the GRM5/TYR region, in addition to the rs1042602 non-synonymous SNP located on the TYR gene, variants located in the nearby GRM5 gene have an independent effect on pigmentation, possibly through regulation of gene expression of the TYR gene. We also replicated an association recently described near the MFSD12 gene on chromosome 19 (lead variant rs112332856). Additionally, our analyses support the presence of multiple signals in the OCA2/HERC2/APBA2 region on chromosome 15. A clear causal candidate is the HERC2 intronic variant rs12913832, which has a profound influence on OCA2 expression. This variant has pleiotropic effects on eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. However, conditional and haplotype-based analyses indicate the presence of other variants with independent effects on melanin levels in OCA2 and APBA2. Finally, a follow-up of genome-wide signals identified in a recent GWAS for tanning response indicates that there is a substantial overlap in the genetic factors influencing skin pigmentation and tanning response. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis of skin pigmentation GWAS in recently admixed populations provides new insights about the genetic architecture of this complex trait.

4.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 40: 201-209, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889526

RESUMO

SNP analysis is of paramount importance in forensic genetics. The development of new technologies in next-generation sequencing allowed processing a large number of markers in various samples simultaneously. Although SNPs are less informative than STRs, they present lower mutation rates and perform better when using degraded samples. Some SNP systems were developed for forensic usage, such as the SNPforID 52-plex, from the SNPforID Consortium, containing 52 bi-allelic SNPs for human identification. In this paper we evaluated the informativeness of this system in a Brazilian population sample (n = 340). DNA libraries were prepared using a customized HaloPlex Target Enrichment System kit (Agilent Technologies, Inc.) and sequenced in the MiSeq Personal Sequencer platform (Illumina Inc.). The methodology presented here allowed the analysis of 51 out of 52 SNPforID markers. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were estimated, revealing high informativeness: the combined match probability and power of exclusion were 6.48 × 10-21 and 0.9997, respectively. Population admixture analysis indicates high European contribution (more than 70%) and low Amerindian contribution (less than 10%) in our population, while individual admixture analyses were consistent with the majority of individuals presenting high European contribution. This study demonstrates that the 52-plex kit is suitable for forensic cases in a Brazilian population, presenting results comparable with those obtained using a 16 STR panel.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(7): 1212-1224, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624610

RESUMO

Interpretation of genetic association results is difficult because signals often lack biological context. To generate hypotheses of the functional genetic etiology of complex cardiometabolic traits, we estimated the genetically determined component of gene expression from common variants using PrediXcan (1) and determined genes with differential predicted expression by trait. PrediXcan imputes tissue-specific expression levels from genetic variation using variant-level effect on gene expression in transcriptome data. To explore the value of imputed genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) models across different ancestral populations, we evaluated imputed expression levels for predictive accuracy genome-wide in RNA sequence data in samples drawn from European-ancestry and African-ancestry populations and identified substantial predictive power using European-derived models in a non-European target population. We then tested the association of GReX on 15 cardiometabolic traits including blood lipid levels, body mass index, height, blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, RR interval, fibrinogen level, factor VII level and white blood cell and platelet counts in 15 755 individuals across three ancestry groups, resulting in 20 novel gene-phenotype associations reaching experiment-wide significance across ancestries. In addition, we identified 18 significant novel gene-phenotype associations in our ancestry-specific analyses. Top associations were assessed for additional support via query of S-PrediXcan (2) results derived from publicly available genome-wide association studies summary data. Collectively, these findings illustrate the utility of transcriptome-based imputation models for discovery of cardiometabolic effect genes in a diverse dataset.


Assuntos
Previsões/métodos , Metaboloma/genética , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(1): 23-32, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mexico has one of the highest prevalence of childhood obesity in the world. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for obesity have identified multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in populations of European, East Asian, and African descent. The contribution of these loci to obesity in Mexican children is unclear. We assessed the transferability of 98 obesity loci in Mexican children and fine-mapped the association signals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 405 and 390 Mexican children with normal weight and obesity. Participants were genotyped with a genome-wide dense SNP array designed for Latino populations, allowing for the analysis of GWAS index SNPs as well as fine-mapping SNPs, totaling 750 SNPs covering 98 loci. Two genetic risk scores (GRS) were constructed: a "discovery GRS" and a "best-associated GRS", representing the number of effect alleles at the GWAS index SNPs and at the best-associated SNPs after fine-mapping for each subject. RESULTS: Seventeen obesity loci were significantly associated with obesity, and five had fine-mapping SNPs significantly better associated with obesity than their corresponding GWAS index SNPs in Mexican children. Six obesity-associated SNPs significantly departed from additive to dominant (N = 5) or recessive (N = 1) models, and a significant interaction was found between rs274609 (TNNI3K) and rs1010553 (ITIH4) on childhood obesity risk. The best-associated GRS was significantly more associated with childhood obesity (OR = 1.21 per additional risk allele [95%CI:1.17-1.25], P = 4.8 × 10-25) than the discovery GRS (OR = 1.05 per additional risk allele [95%CI:1.02-1.08], P = 8.0 × 10-4), and was also associated with waist-to-hip ratio, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and triglyceride levels, the association being mediated by obesity. An overall depletion of obesity risk alleles was observed in Mexican children with normal weight when compared to GWAS discovery populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates a partial transferability of GWAS obesity loci in Mexican children, and supports the pertinence of post-GWAS fine-mapping experiments in the admixed Mexican population.

7.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 168 Suppl 67: 4-26, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408154

RESUMO

Like many highly variable human traits, more than a dozen genes are known to contribute to the full range of skin color. However, the historical bias in favor of genetic studies in European and European-derived populations has blinded us to the magnitude of pigmentation's complexity. As deliberate efforts are being made to better characterize diverse global populations and new sequencing technologies, better measurement tools, functional assessments, predictive modeling, and ancient DNA analyses become more widely accessible, we are beginning to appreciate how limited our understanding of the genetic bases of human skin color have been. Novel variants in genes not previously linked to pigmentation have been identified and evidence is mounting that there are hundreds more variants yet to be found. Even for genes that have been exhaustively characterized in European populations like MC1R, OCA2, and SLC24A5, research in previously understudied groups is leading to a new appreciation of the degree to which genetic diversity, epistatic interactions, pleiotropy, admixture, global and local adaptation, and cultural practices operate in population-specific ways to shape the genetic architecture of skin color. Furthermore, we are coming to terms with how factors like tanning response and barrier function may also have influenced selection on skin throughout human history. By examining how our knowledge of pigmentation genetics has shifted in the last decade, we can better appreciate how far we have come in understanding human diversity and the still long road ahead for understanding many complex human traits.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Pigmentação da Pele , Antropologia Física , Antiporters/genética , Genética Populacional , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11422, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061702

RESUMO

Cuba is the most populated country in the Caribbean and has a rich and heterogeneous genetic heritage. Here, we take advantage of dense genomic data from 860 Cuban individuals to reconstruct the genetic structure and ancestral origins of this population. We found distinct admixture patterns between and within the Cuban provinces. Eastern provinces have higher African and Native American ancestry contributions (average 26% and 10%, respectively) than the rest of the Cuban provinces (average 17% and 5%, respectively). Furthermore, in the Eastern Cuban region, we identified more intense sex-specific admixture patterns, strongly biased towards European male and African/Native American female ancestries. Our subcontinental ancestry analyses in Cuba highlight the Iberian population as the best proxy European source population, South American and Mesoamerican populations as the closest Native American ancestral component, and populations from West Central and Central Africa as the best proxy sources of the African ancestral component. Finally, we found complex admixture processes involving two migration pulses from both Native American and African sources. Most of the inferred Native American admixture events happened early during the Cuban colonial period, whereas the African admixture took place during the slave trade and more recently as a probable result of large-scale migrations from Haiti.


Assuntos
Demografia , Genética Populacional , Cuba , Feminino , Pool Gênico , Variação Genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Migração Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Adv Pharmacol ; 83: 133-154, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801573

RESUMO

Pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics (PGx) relies on human genetic diversity. In this review we initially examine the PGx implications of human demographic history and genetic diversity, and highlight results from recent studies on the worldwide distribution of common and rare variants in pharmacogenes. The abundance of rare variants implies that a substantial effort will be required to identify their putative functional effects and to develop reliable algorithms for PGx-guided prescription. Furthermore, variants in all pharmacogenes relevant to a drug treatment must be considered. This implies a shift of the current paradigm of PGx-informed prescription based on genotyping a few common variants in selected genes toward comprehensive sequencing approaches. The following sections deal with the impact of population admixture on PGx diversity focusing on Latin America, where a kaleidoscopic combination of individual proportions of Native American, European, and sub-Saharan African ancestries prevails. We illustrate this diversity by contrasting Brazil and Mexico, the two most populous countries in Latin America, and show that population average admixture proportions are not predictive of the corresponding proportions at the individual level. As a consequence of admixture, the genetic differentiation of common pharmacogenetic variants in Latin Americans is much attenuated in comparison to their most relevant ancestral populations. Finally, we review data for tacrolimus and warfarin to illustrate the opportunities and challenges presented by Latin American populations for PGx studies and clinical implementation.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Farmacogenética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , América Latina , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17105, 2017 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29213072

RESUMO

The effect of Copy Number Variants (CNVs) on Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) remains little explored. The present study characterized large rare CNVs in 686 T2D and 194 non-T2D subjects of Mexican ancestry genotyped using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 5.0. Rare CNVs with ≥ 100 kb length were identified using a stringent strategy based on merging CNVs calls generated using Birdsuit, iPattern and PennCNV algorithms. We applied three different strategies to evaluate the distribution of CNVs in the T2D and non-T2D samples: 1) Burden analysis, 2) Identification of CNVs in loci previously associated to T2D, and 3) Identification of CNVs observed only in the T2D group. In the CNV burden analysis, the T2D group showed a higher proportion of CNVs, and also a higher proportion of CNVs overlapping at least one gene than the non T2D group. Five of the six loci previously associated with T2D had duplications or deletions in the T2D sample, but not the non-T2D sample. A gene-set analysis including genes with CNVs observed only in the T2D group highlighted gene-sets related with sensory perception (olfactory receptors, OR) and phenylpyruvate tautomerase/dopachrome isomerase activity (MIF and DDT genes).


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Odorantes/genética
11.
PeerJ ; 5: e3951, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109912

RESUMO

Background: Currently, there is limited knowledge about the genetics underlying pigmentary traits in East Asian populations. Here, we report the results of the first genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color) in individuals of East Asian ancestry. Methods: We obtained quantitative skin pigmentation measures (M-index) in the inner upper arm of the participants using a portable reflectometer (N = 305). Quantitative measures of iris color (expressed as L*, a* and b* CIELab coordinates) were extracted from high-resolution iris pictures (N = 342). We also measured the color differences between the pupillary and ciliary regions of the iris (e.g., iris heterochromia). DNA samples were genotyped with Illumina's Infinium Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA) and imputed using the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 samples as reference haplotypes. Results: For skin pigmentation, we did not observe any genome-wide significant signal. We followed-up in three independent Chinese samples the lead SNPs of five regions showing multiple common markers (minor allele frequency ≥ 5%) with good imputation scores and suggestive evidence of association (p-values < 10-5). One of these markers, rs2373391, which is located in an intron of the ZNF804B gene on chromosome 7, was replicated in one of the Chinese samples (p = 0.003). For iris color, we observed genome-wide signals in the OCA2 region on chromosome 15. This signal is driven by the non-synonymous rs1800414 variant, which explains 11.9%, 10.4% and 6% of the variation observed in the b*, a* and L* coordinates in our sample, respectively. However, the OCA2 region was not associated with iris heterochromia. Discussion: Additional genome-wide association studies in East Asian samples will be necessary to further disentangle the genetic architecture of pigmentary traits in East Asian populations.

12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(10): 1180-1193, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549072

RESUMO

The evidence for a relationship between serum vitamin D levels and nonskeletal health outcomes is inconsistent. The validity of single or predicted measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is unknown, as levels of this biomarker are highly seasonally variable. We compared models of 25(OH)D measured at baseline, at multiple time points throughout the year, and averaged over the year among 309 persons in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (43°N latitude) during 2009-2013. Information and blood samples were collected every 2 months. Baseline and average 25(OH)D concentrations were correlated (r = 0.88). Major factors associated with 25(OH)D level were similar across models and included race/ethnicity (concentrations in non-European groups were lower than those in Europeans), vitamin D supplement use of ≥1,000 IU/day (18.9 nmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.1, 21.8) vs. no supplement use in a full data set with all factors), and the presence of the group-specific component/vitamin D binding protein gene (GC/DBP) rs4588 functional polymorphism (AA vs. CC: -16.7 nmol/L (95% CI: -26.2, -7.1); CA vs. CC: -10.7 nmol/L (95% CI: -14.9, -6.5)). Most factors had similar associations in Europeans and non-Europeans. Genetic factors may play a greater role in average 25(OH)D concentrations. Prediction models for 25(OH)D are challenging and population-specific, but use of genetic factors along with a few common population-relevant, quantifiable nongenetic factors with strong associations may be the most feasible approach to vitamin D assessment over time.


Assuntos
Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0172880, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28245265

RESUMO

We carried out an admixture mapping study of lipid traits in two samples from Mexico City. Native American locus ancestry was significantly associated with triglyceride levels in a broad region of chromosome 11 overlapping the BUD13, ZNF259 and APOA5 genes. In our fine-mapping analysis of this region using dense genome-wide data, rs964184 is the only marker included in the 99% credible set of SNPs, providing strong support for rs964184 as the causal variant within this region. The frequency of the allele associated with increased triglyceride concentrations (rs964184-G) is between 30-40% higher in Native American populations from Mexico than in European populations. The evidence currently available for this variant indicates that it may be exerting its effect through three potential mechanisms: 1) modification of enhancer activity, 2) regulation of the expression of several genes in cis and/or trans, or 3) modification of the methylation patterns of the promoter of the APOA5 gene.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-V/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Americanos Mexicanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 160(4): 570-81, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main goals of this study are to 1) quantitatively measure skin, hair, and iris pigmentation in a diverse sample of individuals, 2) describe variation within and between these samples, and 3) demonstrate how quantitative measures can facilitate genotype-phenotype association tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We quantitatively characterize skin, hair, and iris pigmentation using the Melanin (M) Index (skin) and CIELab values (hair) in 1,450 individuals who self-identify as African American, East Asian, European, Hispanic, or South Asian. We also quantify iris pigmentation in a subset of these individuals using CIELab values from high-resolution iris photographs. We compare mean skin M index and hair and iris CIELab values among populations using ANOVA and MANOVA respectively and test for genotype-phenotype associations in the European sample. RESULTS: All five populations are significantly different for skin (P <2 × 10(-16) ) and hair color (P <2 × 10(-16) ). Our quantitative analysis of iris and hair pigmentation reinforces the continuous, rather than discrete, nature of these traits. We confirm the association of three loci (rs16891982, rs12203592, and rs12913832) with skin pigmentation and four loci (rs12913832, rs12203592, rs12896399, and rs16891982) with hair pigmentation. Interestingly, the derived rs12203592 T allele located within the IRF4 gene is associated with lighter skin but darker hair color. DISCUSSION: The quantitative methods used here provide a fine-scale assessment of pigmentation phenotype and facilitate genotype-phenotype associations, even with relatively small sample sizes. This represents an important expansion of current investigations into pigmentation phenotype and associated genetic variation by including non-European and admixed populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:570-581, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Cor de Olho/genética , Cor de Cabelo/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Análise de Variância , Antropologia Física , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 26(8): 363-9, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27136043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several algorithms have been proposed to reduce the genotyping effort and cost, while retaining the accuracy of N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) phenotype prediction. Data from the 1000 Genomes (1KG) project and an admixed cohort of Black Brazilians were used to assess the accuracy of NAT2 phenotype prediction using algorithms based on paired single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1041983 and rs1801280) or a tag SNP (rs1495741). METHODS: NAT2 haplotypes comprising SNPs rs1801279, rs1041983, rs1801280, rs1799929, rs1799930, rs1208 and rs1799931 were assigned according to the arylamine N-acetyltransferases database. Contingency tables were used to visualize the agreement between the NAT2 acetylator phenotypes on the basis of these haplotypes versus phenotypes inferred by the prediction algorithms. RESULTS: The paired and tag SNP algorithms provided more than 96% agreement with the 7-SNP derived phenotypes in Europeans, East Asians, South Asians and Admixed Americans, but discordance of phenotype prediction occurred in 30.2 and 24.8% 1KG Africans and in 14.4 and 18.6% Black Brazilians, respectively. Paired SNP panel misclassification occurs in carriers of NATs haplotypes *13A (282T alone), *12B (282T and 803G), *6B (590A alone) and *14A (191A alone), whereas haplotype *14, defined by the 191A allele, is the major culprit of misclassification by the tag allele. CONCLUSION: Both the paired SNP and the tag SNP algorithms may be used, with economy of scale, to infer NAT2 acetylator phenotypes, including the ultra-slow phenotype, in European, East Asian, South Asian and American populations represented in the 1KG cohort. Both algorithms, however, perform poorly in populations of predominant African descent, including admixed African-Americans, African Caribbeans and Black Brazilians.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Acetilação , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo
16.
Curr Diab Rep ; 16(5): 41, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007718

RESUMO

Although disproportionately affected by increasing rates of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemias, Hispanic populations are underrepresented in efforts to understand genetic susceptibility to these disorders. Where research has been undertaken, these populations have provided substantial insight into identification of novel risk-associated genes and have aided in the ability to fine map previously described risk loci. Genome-wide analyses in Hispanic and trans-ethnic populations have resulted in identification of more than 40 replicated or novel genes with significant effects for type 2 diabetes or lipid traits. Initial investigations into rare variant effects have identified new risk-associated variants private to Hispanic populations, and preliminary results suggest metagenomic approaches in Hispanic populations, such as characterizing the gut microbiome, will enable the development of new predictive tools and therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. Future genome-wide studies in expanded cohorts of Hispanics are likely to result in new insights into the genetic etiology of metabolic health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lipídeos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Metagenoma , Fatores de Risco
17.
R Soc Open Sci ; 3(1): 150424, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26909168

RESUMO

There are many textural elements that can be found in the human eye, including Fuchs' crypts, Wolfflin nodules, pigment spots, contraction furrows and conjunctival melanosis. Although iris surface features have been well-studied in populations of European ancestry, the worldwide distribution of these traits is poorly understood. In this paper, we develop a new method of characterizing iris features from photographs of the iris. We then apply this method to a diverse sample of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. All five iris features showed significant differences in frequency between the three populations, indicating that iris features are largely population dependent. Although none of the features were correlated with each other in the East and South Asian groups, Fuchs' crypts were significantly correlated with contraction furrows and pigment spots and contraction furrows were significantly associated with pigment spots in the European group. The genetic marker SEMA3A rs10235789 was significantly associated with Fuchs' crypt grade in the European, East Asian and South Asian samples and a borderline association between TRAF3IP1 rs3739070 and contraction furrow grade was found in the European sample. The study of iris surface features in diverse populations may provide valuable information of forensic, biomedical and ophthalmological interest.

18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 19429, 2016 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26780889

RESUMO

We performed genome-wide meta-analysis of lipid traits on three samples of Mexican and Mexican American ancestry comprising 4,383 individuals, and followed up significant and highly suggestive associations in three additional Hispanic samples comprising 7,876 individuals. Genome-wide significant signals were observed in or near CELSR2, ZNF259/APOA5, KANK2/DOCK6 and NCAN/MAU2 for total cholesterol, LPL, ABCA1, ZNF259/APOA5, LIPC and CETP for HDL cholesterol, CELSR2, APOB and NCAN/MAU2 for LDL cholesterol, and GCKR, TRIB1, ZNF259/APOA5 and NCAN/MAU2 for triglycerides. Linkage disequilibrium and conditional analyses indicate that signals observed at ABCA1 and LIPC for HDL cholesterol and NCAN/MAU2 for triglycerides are independent of previously reported lead SNP associations. Analyses of lead SNPs from the European Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC) dataset in our Hispanic samples show remarkable concordance of direction of effects as well as strong correlation in effect sizes. A meta-analysis of the European GLGC and our Hispanic datasets identified five novel regions reaching genome-wide significance: two for total cholesterol (FN1 and SAMM50), two for HDL cholesterol (LOC100996634 and COPB1) and one for LDL cholesterol (LINC00324/CTC1/PFAS). The top meta-analysis signals were found to be enriched for SNPs associated with gene expression in a tissue-specific fashion, suggesting an enrichment of tissue-specific function in lipid-associated loci.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Hispano-Americanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Lipídeos/sangue , México , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 29(2): 141-62, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26547379

RESUMO

In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Cor de Olho/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Iris , Polimorfismo Genético , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças da Íris/genética , Masculino , Transtornos da Pigmentação/genética
20.
Bioinformatics ; 32(2): 203-10, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26411870

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Rapid advances in genotyping and genome-wide association studies have enabled the discovery of many new genotype-phenotype associations at the resolution of individual markers. However, these associations explain only a small proportion of theoretically estimated heritability of most diseases. In this work, we propose an integrative mixture model called JBASE: joint Bayesian analysis of subphenotypes and epistasis. JBASE explores two major reasons of missing heritability: interactions between genetic variants, a phenomenon known as epistasis and phenotypic heterogeneity, addressed via subphenotyping. RESULTS: Our extensive simulations in a wide range of scenarios repeatedly demonstrate that JBASE can identify true underlying subphenotypes, including their associated variants and their interactions, with high precision. In the presence of phenotypic heterogeneity, JBASE has higher Power and lower Type 1 Error than five state-of-the-art approaches. We applied our method to a sample of individuals from Mexico with Type 2 diabetes and discovered two novel epistatic modules, including two loci each, that define two subphenotypes characterized by differences in body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. We successfully replicated these subphenotypes and epistatic modules in an independent dataset from Mexico genotyped with a different platform. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: JBASE is implemented in C++, supported on Linux and is available at http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼goldenberg/JBASE/jbase.tar.gz. The genotype data underlying this study are available upon approval by the ethics review board of the Medical Centre Siglo XXI. Please contact Dr Miguel Cruz at mcruzl@yahoo.com for assistance with the application. CONTACT: anna.goldenberg@utoronto.ca SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Epistasia Genética , Fenótipo , Teorema de Bayes , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , México , Relação Cintura-Quadril
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