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1.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim) ; 15(6): 47-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912187

RESUMO

Intestinal cystic pneumatosis is a pathological entity of strange presentation, characterized by the presence of extraluminal gas located at the level of the submucosa and/or subserosa of the intestinal walls, forming cystic lesions that generally vary from 0.5 to 2.0 cm presenting an incidence around 0.03% in the general population. We present the case of a patient who presented to the emergency department for sudden abdominal pain, diffuse signs of peritoneal irritation, and a history of previous laparotomy for perforated gastric ulcer as the only relevant history. An X-ray was performed showing pneumoperitoneum, with subsequent histopathological diagnosis of cystic intestinal pneumatosis.

2.
Injury ; 49(12): 2290-2294, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare healing time for diaphyseal tibia fractures (OTA/AO 42 A, B, C) treated with intramedullary nailing (IMN) in one geographic cohort using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for post-operative pain control to that of another geographic cohort using opioid medications. The groups represent differing cultural approaches to post-operative pain control. We hypothesized there would be no difference in healing time. METHODS: Tibia fractures presenting at two level I trauma centers located in different countries between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2017 were retrospectively screened for enrollment. Fractures classified as OTA/AO 42 A, B, or C that were treated with IMN and had radiographic follow up to union were included. At hospital discharge, one cohort (n = 190) was prescribed NSAIDs and the other (n = 182) was prescribed opioids for pain control. Each analgesic method represented the standard of care for that location. Fracture union was defined as cortical bridging in at least 3 out of 4 cortices on AP and lateral radiographs. The primary outcome was healing time on radiographic evaluation. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in healing time between the opioid and NSAID groups: 185 vs 180.5 days respectively (p = 0.64). Both groups had similar mean age. Student t-tests were run to compare rates of tobacco use, diabetes mellitus (DM), open fractures, and polytrauma between the two groups. The opioid cohort had statistically significant higher rates of tobacco use, DM, and polytrauma. The NSAID cohort, however, had a larger number of open fractures. CONCLUSION: The difference in healing time between the NSAID and opioid groups was not statistically significant. The deleterious effect of NSAID use on fracture healing has been debated for decades. Numerous animal studies have supported this theory; however, high quality clinical studies in humans have not provided convincing evidence to substantiate this negative effect. Our study suggests that NSAIDs may be used safely and effectively in the acute phase of fracture healing without significantly increasing the risk of delayed union or nonunion. Prospective randomized studies are necessary to rule out the negative effect of NSAIDS on bone healing.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Consolidação da Fratura/fisiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Tíbia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Neurosci ; 36(14): 4000-9, 2016 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27053207

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Cortical inhibition is mediated by diverse inhibitory neuron types that can each play distinct roles in information processing by virtue of differences in their input sources, intrinsic properties, and innervation targets. Previous studies in brain slices have demonstrated considerable cell-type specificity in laminar sources of local inputs. In contrast, little is known about possible differences in distant inputs to different cortical interneuron types. We used the monosynaptic rabies virus system, in conjunction with mice expressing Cre recombinase in either parvalbumin-positive, somatostatin-positive (SST+), or vasoactive intestinal peptide-positive (VIP+) neurons, to map the brain-wide input to the three major nonoverlapping classes of interneurons in mouse somatosensory cortex. We discovered that all three classes of interneurons received considerable input from known cortical and thalamic input sources, as well as from probable cholinergic cells in the basal nucleus of Meynert. Despite their common input sources, these classes differed in the proportion of long-distance cortical inputs originating from deep versus superficial layers. Similar to their laminar differences in local input, VIP+ neurons received inputs predominantly from deep layers while SST+ neurons received mostly superficial inputs. These classes also differed in the amount of input they received. Cortical and thalamic inputs were greatest onto VIP+ interneurons and smallest onto SST+ neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: These results indicate that all three major interneuron classes in the barrel cortex integrate both feedforward and feedback information from throughout the brain to modulate the activity of the local cortical circuit. However, differences in laminar sources and magnitude of distant cortical input suggest differential contributions from cortical areas. More input to vasoactive intestinal peptide-positive (VIP+) neurons than to somatostatin-positive (SST+) neurons suggests that disinhibition of the cortex via VIP+ cells, which inhibit SST+ cells, might be a general feature of long-distance corticocortical and thalamocortical circuits.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Núcleo Basal de Meynert/citologia , Núcleo Basal de Meynert/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Camundongos , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/citologia , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Córtex Somatossensorial/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Tálamo/citologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/metabolismo
4.
Neuron ; 79(2): 347-60, 2013 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23810541

RESUMO

The striatum integrates information from multiple brain regions to shape motor learning. The two major projection cell types in striatum target different downstream basal ganglia targets and have opposing effects on motivated behavior, yet differential innervation of these neuronal subtypes is not well understood. To examine whether input specificity provides a substrate for information segregation in these circuits, we used a monosynaptic rabies virus system to generate brain-wide maps of neurons that form synapses with direct- or indirect-pathway striatal projection neurons. We discovered that sensory cortical and limbic structures preferentially innervated the direct pathway, whereas motor cortex preferentially targeted the indirect pathway. Thalamostriatal input, dopaminergic input, as well as input from specific cortical layers, was similar onto both pathways. We also confirm synaptic innervation of striatal projection neurons by the raphe and pedunculopontine nuclei. Together, these findings provide a framework for guiding future studies of basal ganglia circuit function.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/química , Corpo Estriado/química , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Rede Nervosa/química , Vias Neurais/química , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/química
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(50): 21848-53, 2010 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21115815

RESUMO

We describe a powerful system for revealing the direct monosynaptic inputs to specific cell types in Cre-expressing transgenic mice through the use of Cre-dependent helper virus and a modified rabies virus. We generated helper viruses that target gene expression to Cre-expressing cells, allowing us to control initial rabies virus infection and subsequent monosynaptic retrograde spread. Investigators can use this system to elucidate the connections onto a desired cell type in a high-throughput manner, limited only by the availability of Cre mouse lines. This method allows for identification of circuits that would be extremely tedious or impossible to study with other methods and can be used to build subcircuit maps of inputs onto many different types of cells within the same brain region. Furthermore, by expressing various transgenes from the rabies genome, this system also has the potential to allow manipulation of targeted neuronal circuits without perturbing neighboring cells.


Assuntos
Integrases/metabolismo , Vírus da Raiva/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Sinapses/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Vírus Auxiliares/genética , Vírus Auxiliares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Transgenes
6.
Brain Res ; 1255: 132-47, 2009 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19103178

RESUMO

In this study we investigated the neurocognitive processes underlying the control of memory retrieval. In a Think/No-Think paradigm, adopted for the use in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, participants learned word pairs and were subsequently presented with cue words and asked to either suppress or to recall the target word. During final cued recall tests for all initially learned targets, memory for the to-be-suppressed or to be-recalled items were tested. Memory for to be-recalled items was enhanced but no forgetting of to-be-suppressed items was obtained. The ERPs in the test phase were separated on the basis of prior learning success and failure, allowing separate analyses of strategic memory control, i.e. attempts to retrieve or to avoid retrieval and the outcome of these processes, i.e. successful retrieval and retrieval avoidance. An early P2 component and a parietal positivity were related to retrieval attempts and a centro-parietal N2 component was associated with attempts to avoid memory retrieval. The parietal positivity was attenuated for No-Think trials on learned items, for which item-specific memories exist. However, under the present testing conditions and in contrast to prior studies (Bergström, Velmans, de Fockert, Richardson-Klavehn, 2007) the parietal positivity was also sensitive to mere retrieval attempts. To examine whether similar neural systems are involved in the inhibitory control of unwanted memories and prepotent motor responses, a motor stopping experiment using a stop signal task was conducted with the same participants. Successful stopping was associated with an enhanced stop signal N2 that showed a similar centro-parietal scalp distribution as the aforementioned N2 to No-Think trials. As both components were significantly correlated, we assumed that some of the systems recruited to override prepotent motor responses are also involved to suppress memory retrieval.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Semântica , Adulto , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Brain Res ; 1172: 110-23, 2007 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17822684

RESUMO

The present study examined whether event-related potential (ERP) memory effects and measures of ongoing EEG activity (power and phase locking) are sensitive to varying source retrieval requirements in recognition memory. ERP old/new effects were obtained in two distinct source-memory tasks. Functionally related EEG power and phase locking effects were found in the delta and theta frequency range. A late posterior negativity (LPN) was larger for old than new responses irrespective of source accuracy. It was also larger when participants were required to judge how they had previously interacted with a recognized picture as compared to judging its study location. This result is consistent with the view that the LPN reflects processes in the service of reconstructing previous episodes by integrating recognized items with task-relevant contextual attributes, and that LPN amplitude is related to the amount of contextual features available for forming such an integrated representation. Phase locking of ongoing delta and theta activity (but not EEG power) was functionally equivalent to LPN amplitude modulations, suggesting that stimulus-induced concentration of delta and theta phases without stimulus-induced power changes may be the neural mechanism of LPN generation. In addition, sustained enhancements of phase-locking precision in the theta range were observed for erroneous and delayed source judgments, suggesting that theta-phase locking is related to the coordination of multiple cortical assemblies in highly demanding task situations.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Variação Contingente Negativa/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Análise Espectral , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 20(2): 105-17, abr.-jun. 1992. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-236887

RESUMO

En estudios previos se ha encontrado que los episodios de hipertensión con bradicardia asociada en pacientes sanos sometidos a anestesia peridural se relacionan a la ®hipovolemia relativa¼ producida por la vasodilatación de la anestesia. Tomando esta hipótesis como cierta se evaluó la actividad barorreceptora con pruebas de aumento (con neosinefrina) y disminución (con NTG) de la presión arterial en tres situaciones: A: basal, B: después de la administración de anestesia peridural baja y C: después de la corrección de hipovolemia relativa cuantificada por mediciones de presión en cuña con la administración de liquidos intravenosos. Se encontro con la anestesia peridural baja (promedio T12) un significativo aumento de la actividad vagal cuantificada por un aumento de la respuesta presora de los barorreceptores y se encontró una marcada atención de la respuesta a la hipotensión. Se observó inclusive una respuesta completamente anómala (bradicardia asociada a la hipotensión). Se concluye que la anestesia peridural produce un aumento del tono vagal y la atenuación de la respuesta a la hipotensión. Además que los hallazgos de un aumento de la FC al inicio del bloqueo peridural sumado a cambios significativos de la PCPy PVC pueden relacionarse con respuestas anómalas a la hipotensión


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Anestesia Epidural , Anestesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Sistema Cardiovascular , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Cardiovasculares
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