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1.
Zootaxa ; 4732(4): zootaxa.4732.4.9, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230243

RESUMO

Frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus are direct developing frogs grouped into five subgenera and 192 species, with a geographic distribution primarily centered in the Caribbean (Padial et al. 2014). Eleutherodactylus species inhabit a variety of environments such as tropical and temperate forests, and scrub, where they occupy different microhabitats including caves, floors rich in leaf litter, cracks and cavities of limestone and volcanic outcrops (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2015). Mexico harbors 33 species of Eleutherodactylus (AmphibiaWeb 2018), most of them distributed in central-western and southwestern Mexico (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2015).

2.
Science ; 367(6484)2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193294

RESUMO

Lambert et al question our retrospective and holistic epidemiological assessment of the role of chytridiomycosis in amphibian declines. Their alternative assessment is narrow and provides an incomplete evaluation of evidence. Adopting this approach limits understanding of infectious disease impacts and hampers conservation efforts. We reaffirm that our study provides unambiguous evidence that chytridiomycosis has affected at least 501 amphibian species.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Micoses , Anfíbios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Ecol Evol ; 9(9): 5206-5218, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110673

RESUMO

Species recovery after forest disturbance is a highly studied topic in the tropics, but considerable debate remains on the role of secondary forests as biodiversity repositories, especially regarding the functional and phylogenetic dimensions of biodiversity. Also, studies generally overlook how alpha and beta diversities interact to produce gamma diversity along successional gradients.We used a metacommunity approach to assess how species sorting (i.e., environmental filtering) and mass effect (i.e., source-sink dynamics) affect 14 complementary metrics of amphibian taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity along a successional gradient in southern Mexico. As amphibians have narrow environmental tolerances and low dispersal capabilities, we expected that species sorting may be relatively more important than mass effect in structuring amphibian communities.Between 2010 and 2012, we sampled frogs, salamanders, and caecilians in 23 communities distributed in four successional stages: young (2-5 years old) and intermediate (13-28 years old) secondary forests, old-growth forest fragments, and old-growth continuous forest. We assessed 15 ecologically relevant functional traits per species and used a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny.We recorded 1,672 individuals belonging to 30 species and 11 families. Supporting our expectations from the species sorting perspective, from the poorest (younger forests) to the best quality (continuous forest) scenarios, we observed (a) an increase in alpha diversity regardless of species abundances; (b) a clear taxonomic segregation across successional stages; (c) an increase in functional richness and dispersion; (d) an increase in mean phylogenetic distance and nearest taxon index; and (e) a reduction in mean nearest taxon distance. However, 10 species occurred in all successional stages, resulting in relatively low beta diversity. This supports a mass effect, where interpatch migrations contribute to prevent local extinctions and increase compositional similarity at the regional scale.Our findings indicate that amphibian metacommunities along forest successional gradients are mainly structured by species sorting, but mass effects may also play a role if high levels of forest cover are conserved in the region. In fact, secondary forests and forest fragments can potentially safeguard different aspects of amphibian diversity, but their long-term conservation value requires preventing additional deforestation.

4.
Science ; 363(6434): 1459-1463, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923224

RESUMO

Anthropogenic trade and development have broken down dispersal barriers, facilitating the spread of diseases that threaten Earth's biodiversity. We present a global, quantitative assessment of the amphibian chytridiomycosis panzootic, one of the most impactful examples of disease spread, and demonstrate its role in the decline of at least 501 amphibian species over the past half-century, including 90 presumed extinctions. The effects of chytridiomycosis have been greatest in large-bodied, range-restricted anurans in wet climates in the Americas and Australia. Declines peaked in the 1980s, and only 12% of declined species show signs of recovery, whereas 39% are experiencing ongoing decline. There is risk of further chytridiomycosis outbreaks in new areas. The chytridiomycosis panzootic represents the greatest recorded loss of biodiversity attributable to a disease.


Assuntos
Anuros/microbiologia , Anuros/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Quitridiomicetos , Extinção Biológica , Micoses/veterinária , Américas/epidemiologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Austrália/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4554(2): 371-385, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790971

RESUMO

A new species of treefrog from the genus Charadrahyla is described from the cloud forest of western Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Charadrahyla sakbah sp. nov., is distinguished from the rest of the species in the genus by the large body size (81.15-85.75 mm and 67.91-73.21 mm in adult females and males respectively), axillary membrane, adult males with hypertrophied webbings between toes I and II, nuptial excrescences, one enlarged conical tubercle on either side of vent, vocal slits absent, and sexual dimorphism in the snout shape in dorsal profile (rounded and acuminate in females and males respectively). The hypertrophied webbings are a unique character among other hylids of Middle America, and are only present in C. trux, C. tecuani and the species described herein. These three species inhabit the cloud forest of the Sierra Madre del Sur, and are probably closely related. However, more detailed phylogenetic analyses are needed to define the internal relationships of the genus. The cloud forest in the Sierra Madre del Sur continues to be known for a high number of endemic species. However, the cloud forest faces several threats due to its limited distribution that make it a priority ecosystem for conservation.


Assuntos
Anuros , Florestas , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , México , Filogenia
6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211960, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753218

RESUMO

The recent decline in populations of European salamanders caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has generated worldwide concern, as it is a major threat to amphibians. Evaluation of the areas most suitable for the establishment of Bsal combined with analysis of the distribution of salamander species could be used to generate and implement biosecurity measures and protect biodiversity at sites with high salamander diversity. In this study, we identified the areas most suitable for the establishment of Bsal in Mexico. Mexico has the second-highest salamander species diversity in the world; thus, we identified areas moderately to highly suitable for the establishment of Bsal with high salamander diversity as potential hotspots for surveillance. Central and Southern Mexico were identified as high-risk zones, with 13 hotspots where 30% of Mexican salamander species occur, including range-restricted species and endangered species. We propose that these hotspots should be thoroughly monitored for the presence of Bsal to prevent the spread of the pathogen if it is introduced to the country.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos/patogenicidade , Urodelos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Demografia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , México , Vigilância da População , Urodelos/microbiologia
7.
PeerJ ; 7: e6115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627486

RESUMO

The complex geological history of Central America has been useful for understanding the processes influencing the distribution and diversity of multiple groups of organisms. Anurans are an excellent choice for such studies because they typically exhibit site fidelity and reduced movement. The objective of this work was to identify the impact of recognized geographic barriers on the genetic structure, phylogeographic patterns and divergence times of a wide-ranging amphibian species, Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni. We amplified three mitochondrial regions, two coding (COI and ND1) and one ribosomal (16S), in samples collected from the coasts of Veracruz and Guerrero in Mexico to the humid forests of Chocó in Ecuador. We examined the biogeographic history of the species through spatial clustering analyses (Geneland and sPCA), Bayesian and maximum likelihood reconstructions, and spatiotemporal diffusion analysis. Our data suggest a Central American origin of H. fleischmanni and two posterior independent dispersals towards North and South American regions. The first clade comprises individuals from Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and the sister species Hyalinobatrachium tatayoi; this clade shows little structure, despite the presence of the Andes mountain range and the long distances between sampling sites. The second clade consists of individuals from Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and eastern Honduras with no apparent structure. The third clade includes individuals from western Honduras, Guatemala, and Mexico and displays deep population structure. Herein, we synthesize the impact of known geographic areas that act as barriers to glassfrog dispersal and demonstrated their effect of differentiating H. fleischmanni into three markedly isolated clades. The observed genetic structure is associated with an initial dispersal event from Central America followed by vicariance that likely occurred during the Pliocene. The southern samples are characterized by a very recent population expansion, likely related to sea-level and climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene, whereas the structure of the northern clade has probably been driven by dispersal through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and isolation by the Motagua-Polochic-Jocotán fault system and the Mexican highlands.

8.
Microb Ecol ; 78(1): 257-267, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467714

RESUMO

Microbial symbionts are increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in organismal health across a wide range of hosts. Amphibians are unique hosts in that their skin helps to regulate the exchange of water, ions, and gases, and it plays an active role in defense against pathogens through the synthesis of anti-microbial peptides. The microbiome of amphibian skin includes a diverse community of bacteria known to defend against pathogens, including the global pandemic lineage of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis associated with mass amphibian die-offs. The relative influence of host phylogeny and environment in determining the composition of the amphibian skin microbiome remains poorly understood. We collected skin swabs from montane amphibians in Mexico and Guatemala, focusing on two genera of plethodontid salamanders and one genus of frogs. We used high throughput sequencing to characterize the skin bacterial microbiome and tested the impact of phylogeny and habitat on bacterial diversity. Our results show that phylogenetic history strongly influences the diversity and community structure of the total bacterial microbiome at higher taxonomic levels (between orders), but on lower scales (within genera and species), the effect of habitat predominates. These results add to a growing consensus that habitat exerts a strong effect on microbiome structure and composition, particularly at shallow phylogenetic scales.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Filogenia , Pele/microbiologia , Anfíbios/classificação , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Guatemala , México
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 125: 78-84, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555294

RESUMO

Mountain formation in Mexico has played an important role in the diversification of many Mexican taxa. The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in particular has served as both a cradle of diversification and conduit for dispersal. We investigated the evolutionary history of the Isthmura bellii group of salamanders, a widespread amphibian across the Mexican highlands, using sequence capture of ultraconserved elements. Results suggest that the I. bellii group probably originated in southeastern Mexico in the late Miocene and later dispersed across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and into the Sierra Madre Occidental. Pre-Pleistocene uplift of the Trans-Volcanic Belt likely promoted early diversification by serving as a mesic land-bridge across central Mexico. These findings highlight the importance of the Trans-Volcanic Belt in generating Mexico's rich biodiversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Filogenia , Urodelos/classificação , Urodelos/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Calibragem , México , Filogeografia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Zootaxa ; 4363(4): 489-505, 2017 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245387

RESUMO

Chiropterotriton is a relatively small genus that comprises 15 species with great morphological and ecological diversity. In previous studies, molecular data provided evidence for a considerable number of species that remain undescribed. In this study, we describe one new species, Chiropterotriton chico sp. nov. based on molecular and morphological characters. We present mtDNA phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood that include all described and several undescribed species. Morphometric data from eight recognized species provide evidence for the distinctiveness of the new taxon. Description of this new species adds to the already high salamander diversity of the state of Hidalgo, which is an important area for the diversification of the genus.


Assuntos
Urodelos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial , México , Filogenia
11.
PeerJ ; 4: e2694, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27896029

RESUMO

We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails. All three new species occur west of the range of T. minutissimus, which has the easternmost distribution of any member of the genus. The new species are distinguished from each other and from other named Thorius in Oaxaca by a combination of adult body size, external morphology and osteology, and by protein characters (allozymes) and differences in DNA sequences. In addition, we redescribe T. minutissimus and a related species, T. narisovalis, to further clarify the taxonomic status of Oaxacan populations and to facilitate future studies of the remaining genetically differentiated Thorius that cannot be satisfactorily assigned to any named species. Populations of all five species considered here appear to have declined dramatically over the last one or two decades and live specimens are difficult to find in nature. Thorius may be the most endangered genus of amphibians in the world. All species may go extinct before the end of this century.

12.
Zootaxa ; 4132(3): 347-63, 2016 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395676

RESUMO

In this report, we describe a new species of the Craugastor podiciferus species group from the premontane forest of the Pacific versant along the Costa Rican-Panamanian border. Mitochondrial DNA and karyotype analyses previously showed a marked genetic divergence between populations of the premontane forest of the Fila Costeña and the lowlands South Pacific Costa Rica near Panama. Analyses of the mitochondrial DNA sequences and the morphological variation revealed significant differences between the populations of the premontane forest relative to the other populations of C. stejnegerianus, including the type locality. We recognize these premontane populations as a new species and show that they differ from the typical C. stejnegerianus in the coloration of the venter, the head and the body proportions, and mtDNA divergence. With the addition of this new species, the C. podiciferus species group now contains nine species.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/genética , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho Corporal , Costa Rica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
14.
Zootaxa ; 4048(1): 57-74, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624736

RESUMO

Species of the genus Chiropterotriton are distributed through much of northern and eastern Mexico. The genus has presented taxonomic difficulties, with a number of species waiting to be described. We describe two new species, Chiropterotriton cieloensis sp. nov. and Chiropterotriton infernalis sp. nov., from the Mexican state of Tamaulipas based on both molecular and morphological data. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis for the group, with emphasis on the taxa from northern Mexico, based on mitochondrial DNA, and discuss the other species of northern Mexico, especially the wider-ranging C. multidentatus, to which the new species were formerly assigned.


Assuntos
Urodelos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , México , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Urodelos/anatomia & histologia , Urodelos/genética , Urodelos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Immunogenetics ; 67(5-6): 323-35, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25846208

RESUMO

Immune gene evolution can be critical to species survival in the face of infectious disease. In particular, polymorphism in the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) helps vertebrates combat novel and diverse pathogens by increasing the number of pathogen-derived proteins that can initiate the host's acquired immune response. In this study, we used a combination of presumably adaptive and neutral markers to investigate MHC evolution in populations of five salamander species within the Ambystoma velasci complex, a group consisting of 15 recently diverged species, several of which are endangered. We isolated 31 unique MHC class II ß alleles from 75 total individuals from five species in this complex. MHC heterozygosity was significantly lower than expected for all five species, and we found no clear relationship between number of MHC alleles and species range, life history, or level of heterozygosity. We inferred a phylogeny representing the evolutionary history of Ambystoma MHC, with which we found signatures of positive selection on the overall gene, putative peptide-binding residues, and allelic lineages. We identified several instances of trans-species polymorphism, a hallmark of balancing selection observed in other groups of closely related species. In contrast, we did not detect comparable allelic diversity or signatures of selection on neutral loci. Additionally, we identified 17 supertypes among the 44 unique Ambystoma alleles, indicating that these sequences may encode functionally distinct MHC variants. We therefore have strong evidence that positive selection is a major evolutionary force driving patterns of MHC polymorphism in this recently radiated species complex.


Assuntos
Ambystoma mexicanum/genética , Evolução Molecular , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Filogenia
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 45(4): 830-5, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25632670

RESUMO

In Mexico City, native and exotic amphibians are commonly sold through the pet trade. This study investigates the presence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in native amphibians being sold at two commercial markets and at a herpetarium in Mexico City. A total of 238 individuals (6 genera and 12 species) were tested for Bd using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. There were 197 Bd-positive individuals (prevalence 82%) from five species of amphibians. Hyla eximia from the markets had very high Bd prevalence (100%; 76/76 and 99%; 88/89) but those from the herpetarium were Bd negative (0/12). Ambystoma mexicanum from the herpetarium also had a high Bd-positive prevalence (80%; 28/35). Though A. mexicanum is nearly extinct in the wild, a commercial market continues to flourish through the pet trade. Now that captive colonies of A. mexicanum are currently used for reintroduction programs, the authors recommend quarantine to reduce spread of Bd via movement of infected animals in the trade and between colonies and via disposal of wastewater from captive collections.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos , DNA Fúngico/genética , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Parasitol ; 99(6): 1077-85, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23829181

RESUMO

The helminth parasite fauna of the hylid frog Pseudacris hypochondriaca in several localities along the Baja California Peninsula in northwestern Mexico is presented. The helminth fauna consists of 4 species of nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, a larval form of an Ascaridid, 2 new species belonging to the genera Rhabdias and Cosmocercoides), and 1 species of digenean ( Gorgoderina sp.). The new species of Rhabdias represents the 88th species assigned to the genus and the third species described from Mexican anurans. Also, the species of Cosmocercoides represents the 20th species assigned to the genus and the first representative of this genus described from Mexico.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridídios/classificação , Infecções por Rhabditida/veterinária , Rhabditoidea/classificação , Animais , Ascaridídios/anatomia & histologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Feminino , Intestinos/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Rhabditida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rhabditida/parasitologia , Rhabditoidea/anatomia & histologia
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(23): 9385-90, 2013 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23650365

RESUMO

Understanding the evolutionary history of microbial pathogens is critical for mitigating the impacts of emerging infectious diseases on economically and ecologically important host species. We used a genome resequencing approach to resolve the evolutionary history of an important microbial pathogen, the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which has been implicated in amphibian declines worldwide. We sequenced the genomes of 29 isolates of Bd from around the world, with an emphasis on North, Central, and South America because of the devastating effect that Bd has had on amphibian populations in the New World. We found a substantial amount of evolutionary complexity in Bd with deep phylogenetic diversity that predates observed global amphibian declines. By investigating the entire genome, we found that even the most recently evolved Bd clade (termed the global panzootic lineage) contained more genetic variation than previously reported. We also found dramatic differences among isolates and among genomic regions in chromosomal copy number and patterns of heterozygosity, suggesting complex and heterogeneous genome dynamics. Finally, we report evidence for selection acting on the Bd genome, supporting the hypothesis that protease genes are important in evolutionary transitions in this group. Bd is considered an emerging pathogen because of its recent effects on amphibians, but our data indicate that it has a complex evolutionary history that predates recent disease outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to consider the contemporary effects of Bd in a broader evolutionary context and identify specific mechanisms that may have led to shifts in virulence in this system.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Evolução Biológica , Quitridiomicetos/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Variação Genética , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Micoses/veterinária , Filogenia , Américas , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Análise Citogenética , Hibridização Genética/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Micoses/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Mol Ecol ; 22(1): 111-29, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23062080

RESUMO

Modern analytical methods for population genetics and phylogenetics are expected to provide more accurate results when data from multiple genome-wide loci are analysed. We present the results of an initial application of parallel tagged sequencing (PTS) on a next-generation platform to sequence thousands of barcoded PCR amplicons generated from 95 nuclear loci and 93 individuals sampled across the range of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) species complex. To manage the bioinformatic processing of this large data set (344 330 reads), we developed a pipeline that sorts PTS data by barcode and locus, identifies high-quality variable nucleotides and yields phased haplotype sequences for each individual at each locus. Our sequencing and bioinformatic strategy resulted in a genome-wide data set with relatively low levels of missing data and a wide range of nucleotide variation. structure analyses of these data in a genotypic format resulted in strongly supported assignments for the majority of individuals into nine geographically defined genetic clusters. Species tree analyses of the most variable loci using a multi-species coalescent model resulted in strong support for most branches in the species tree; however, analyses including more than 50 loci produced parameter sampling trends that indicated a lack of convergence on the posterior distribution. Overall, these results demonstrate the potential for amplicon-based PTS to rapidly generate large-scale data for population genetic and phylogenetic-based research.


Assuntos
Ambystoma/genética , Genética Populacional , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Loci Gênicos , Haplótipos
20.
Zookeys ; (185): 55-71, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22577313

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) from the Sierra de Juárez and Sierra Mixe of Oaxaca, Mexico. Bolitoglossa chinantecasp. n. is distinguished from the three other species in the subgenus Nanotriton by its more robust body, by having substantial numbers of maxillary teeth and differences in relative head width, foot width, and limb length. The new species occurs in sympatry with Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) rufescens at the type locality. The description of another species of salamander from the Sierra de Juárez is noteworthy, given the already high plethodontid salamander species richness of the region.

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