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Climacteric ; 25(2): 195-202, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323137


BACKGROUND: Dementia is a major public health problem. Estrogen is a regulator of the central nervous system and its deficit could be involved in cognitive decline in older women. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association of bilateral oophorectomy, menopause hormone therapy (MHT) and other factors on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHOD: The case-control study included 941 otherwise healthy postmenopausal women aged 60 years and over from six Latin American countries. Personal and family data were recorded and MCI was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA). RESULTS: Average age, years of education and body mass index were 66.1 ± 5.8 years, 12.4 ± 5.0 years and 26.0 ± 4.3 kg/m2, respectively. A total of 30.2% had undergone bilateral oophorectomy and 40.3% had used MHT. A total of 232 women (24.7%) had MCI. The prevalence of MCI was higher in women with intact ovaries and non-MHT users as compared to MHT users (29.3% vs. 11.7% [odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.51]). Among oophorectomized women, MCI prevalence was higher among non-MHT users as compared to MHT users (45.2% vs. 12.8% [OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.10-0.32]). Logistic regression analysis determined that the variables associated with MCI were age >65 years (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.20-2.38), parity (having >2 children; OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.21-2.37), bilateral oophorectomy (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.09-2.24), hypertension (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.01-1.96), being sexually active (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.40-0.79), education >12 years (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.32-0.65) and MHT use (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.21-0.46). CONCLUSION: Age, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and hypertension are independent factors associated with MCI; contrary to this, higher educational level, maintaining sexual activity and using MHT are protective factors.

Disfunção Cognitiva , Hipertensão , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovariectomia
Int J Sports Med ; 37(10): 807-12, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27286181


This study aimed to analyze perceptual, metabolic and mechanical responses to sprint training sessions. 9 male high-level sprinters performed 40 m running sprints up to a loss of 3% in speed, with 4 min rests between sets. Perceptual (rating of perceived exertion, RPE), mechanical (speed and countermovement jump height loss) and metabolic (blood lactate and ammonia) parameters were measured pre-exercise and after each sprint was performed. Relationships between the variables were calculated with a 90% confidence interval. Jump height loss showed almost perfect relationships with both blood lactate (r=0.96 (0.95 to 0.97)) and ammonia (r=0.95 (0.94 to 0.95)), whereas speed loss, number of sprints performed and RPE values showed large-very large relationships with blood lactate and ammonia. Furthermore, an almost perfect curvilinear relationship was observed between lactate and ammonia concentrations (R(2)=0.96 (0.95 to 0.97)). These results suggest that countermovement jump (CMJ) height can be used to quantify the fatigue induced during a typical sprint training session, and may prove a useful tool to facilitate individualized load monitoring. The results indicate that the CMJ is a better monitor of metabolic fatigue than traditional measures.

Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Amônia/sangue , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
Biomed Opt Express ; 5(10): 3443-9, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25360363


An Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) system was developed and optimized to image 3D tissue engineered products based in hydrogels. We develop pre-reconstruction algorithms to get the best result from the reconstruction procedure, which include correction of the illumination and determination of sample center of rotation (CoR). Existing methods for CoR determination based on the detection of the maximum variance of reconstructed slices failed, so we develop a new CoR search method based in the detection of the variance sharpest local maximum. We show the capabilities of the system to give quantitative information of different types of hydrogels that may be useful in its characterization.

Waste Manag ; 30(10): 1957-65, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20580883


The effect of co-compost application from sewage sludge and pruning waste, on quality and quantity of soil organic carbon (SOC) in four Mediterranean agricultural soils (South Spain), was studied in soil microcosm conditions. Control soil samples (no co-compost addition) and soils treated with co-composts to a rate equivalent of 140 Mg ha(-1) were incubated for 90 days at two temperatures: 5 and 35 degrees C. The significances of incubation temperature and the addition of co-compost, on the evolution of the different fractions of SOC, were studied using a 2(3) factorial design. The co-compost amendment increased the amounts of humic fractions: humic acids (HA) (1.9 times), fulvic acids (FA) (3.3 times), humin (1.5 times), as well as the free organic matter (1.4 times) and free lipids (21.8 times). Incubation of the soils enhanced its biological activity mainly in the amended soils and at 35 degrees C, leading to progressive SOC mineralization and humification, concomitant to the preferential accumulation of HA. The incubation results show large differences depending on temperature and soil types. This fact allows us to select suitable organic amendment for the soil when a rapid increase in nutrients through mineralization is preferred, or in cases intending the stabilization and preservation of the SOC through a process of humification. In soils with HA of more than 5 E(4)/E(6) ratio, the incubation temperature increased rates of mineralization and humification, whereas lower temperatures limited the extent of both processes. In these soils the addition of co-compost in spring or summer is the most recommendable. In soils with HA of lower E(4)/E(6) ratio (<5), the higher temperature favoured mineralization but not humification, whereas the low temperature maintained the SOC levels and even increased the HA/FA ratio. In these soils the moment of addition of organic amendment should be decided depending on the effect intended. On the other hand, the lower the SOC content in the original soil, the greater are the changes observed in the SOC after amendment with co-compost. The results suggest that proper recommendations for optimum organic matter evolution after soil amendment is possible after considering a small set of characteristics of soil and the corresponding soil organic matter fractions, in particular HA.

Carbono/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Esgotos , Solo/química , Análise Discriminante , Espanha , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
Ars pharm ; 51(supl.2): 324-330, mayo 2010. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-88648


El estudio de las materias primas farmacéuticas y cosméticas de origen mineral, sus propiedades,métodos de investigación específicos, normas de obligado cumplimiento para el uso y otros nuevosámbitos y aplicaciones de carácter sanitario que se han ido abriendo con el desarrollo de la Ciencia yla Técnica durante las últimas décadas, ha sido una asignatura de obligada impartición en los estudiosde Farmacia hasta la implantación del Nuevo Grado auspiciado por la puesta en práctica del PlanBolonia.En esta Comunicación se relata la historia de la asignatura, sus diferentes denominaciones y profesoresque ha tenido; se analizan en detalle sus contenidos científicos actuales y sus retos futuros: Todo elloen el marco del papel jugado hasta el presente en la Facultad de Farmacia en la formación delfarmacéutico, y para componer una base científica y argumental, que permita analizar objetivamente lasituación actual y las perspectivas futuras(AU)

The study of pharmaceutical and cosmetic mineral raw materials, their properties, their specificresearch methods, regulating norms and test for their use, and other new applications for the humanhealth that have been opened during the last decades owing to the development of Science andTechnology, has been a obligatory subject of teaching in the Pharmacy studies of the GranadaUniversity until the implantation of the new studies of Grade promoted by the Bologna Process.This communication relates the history of the subject "Applied Geology to Pharmacy", their differentdenominations and Professors who have had, analyzes in detail the current scientific content and itsfuture lines of research and challenges. All these discussions in the context of the role that has playeduntil today in the Faculty of Pharmacy as in the training of pharmaceutics. And to compose a scientificbasis and line of thinking, which allows to objectively analyze the current situation and future of thesubject "Applied Geology to Pharmacy"(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Geologia/educação , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Indústria Cosmética , Tecnologia de Cosméticos , Educação em Farmácia/organização & administração , Educação em Farmácia/tendências , Ciências do Solo/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cristalografia/métodos
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 31(6): 235-240, nov.-dic. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-80263


ObjetivoDeterminar los efectos del estiramiento de las estructuras isquiotibiales mediante técnicas de facilitación neuromuscular propioceptiva sobre el patrón de activación del recto del abdomen durante los movimientos de flexoextensión del tronco.HipótesisEl estiramiento repetido de las estructuras isquiotibiales podría retrasar la activación del recto del abdomen durante la flexión del tronco y adelantarla durante la extensión.MetodologíaSe registraron en 11 sujetos voluntarios la activación electromiográfica del recto del abdomen y los grados de flexión de la cadera durante movimientos de flexoextensión del tronco antes y después de realizar los estiramientos. Las variables de estudio fueron los porcentajes de flexión de la cadera al inicio y al final de la contracción del recto del abdomen y la actividad electromiográfica media del músculo.ResultadosEl t-test mostró que hay diferencias significativas en el inicio y el final de la contracción del recto del abdomen (onset y offset) antes y después del estiramiento (p<0,05).ConclusiónTras un estiramiento prolongado de la musculatura isquiotibial, el recto del abdomen tarda más tiempo en activarse durante la flexión del tronco, y la contracción es de menor duración. El efecto combinado de la laxitud aumentada de las estructuras isquiotibiales y la alteración de la respuesta del recto del abdomen podría alterar los sistemas sensoriomotores de control del movimiento de la región lumbopélvica, aumentando el riesgo de lesiones(AU)

ObjectiveTo determine the effects of hamstring stretching (propioceptive neuromuscular propioception) on the muscle activation pattern of rectus abdominis (RA) during trunk flexion and extension.HypothesisRepeated hamstring stretching techniques could either delay or anticipate RA activation during trunk flexion or extension, respectively.MethodologyElectromyography activity of the rectus abdominis and grades of hip flexion during flexion-extension movements of the trunk before and after stretching hamstring muscles was recorded in 11 volunteer subjects. Study variables: RA onset, RA offset (expressed as a percentage of the maximum hip flexion value) and RA average EMG.ResultsThe paired T-test showed significant differences in RA onset and offset before and after stretching (p<0.05).ConclusionAfter prolonged hamstring muscle stretching, the rectus abdominis takes a long time to become activated during trunk flexion and the contraction is shorter. The combined effect of increased laxity of hamstring and altered response of RA after stretching might alter the sensorimotor systems of lumbopelvic region motor control, increasing the risk of injuries(AU)

Humanos , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Reto do Abdome/fisiologia , Maleabilidade , Eletromiografia
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 51(5): 445-53, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17176765


Precipitation of minerals was shown by 22 species of moderately halophilic bacteria in both solid and liquid artificial marine salts media at different concentration and different Mg2+-to-Ca2+ ratio. Precipitation of minerals was observed for all the bacteria used. When salt concentration increased, the quantity and the size of bioliths decreased, the time required for precipitation being increased. The precipitated minerals were calcite, magnesian calcite, aragonite, dolomite, monohydrocalcite, hydromagnesite and struvite in variable proportions, depending on the bacterial species, the salinity and the physical state of the medium; the Mg content of the magnesian calcite also varied according to the same parameters. The precipitated minerals do not correspond exactly to those which could be precipitated inorganically according to the saturation indices. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the formation of the bioliths is initiated by grouping of calcified cells and that the dominant final morphologies were spherulitic with fibrous radiated interiors. It was demonstrated that moderately halophilic bacteria play an active role in the precipitation of carbonates and we hypothesize about this process of biomineralization.

Minerais/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Bacillaceae/metabolismo , Precipitação Química , Cristalização , Halomonas/metabolismo , Marinomonas/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Minerais/análise , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia
Arch. med. deporte ; 19(88): 101-108, mar. 2002.
Artigo em Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-23990


Objetivo: valorar la influencia de los cambios de posición del eje de rotación del antebrazo sobre la estabilidad de la coordinación de movimientos de pronosupinación y sobre los patrones de activación de algunos de los músculos implicados. Participantes: 15 sujetos voluntarios realizaron ciclos completos de pronosupinación del antebrazo a distintas frecuencias de movimiento controladas por un metrónomo (desde 1.75Hz hasta 3.5Hz).Métodos: se registró el desplazamiento angular (grados de movimiento) durante la realización de cielos completos de pronación-supinación del antebrazo con el eje de rotación: por encima, en línea o por debajo del eje longitudinal del antebrazo; y bajo 2 modos de coordinación: p) haciendo coincidir la señal auditiva con la posición de pronación máxima y s) haciendo coincidir la señal auditiva con la posición de supinación máxima. Los tiempos en los que se produjeron las transiciones a un modo de coordinación distinto al solicitado fueron determinados para valorar la estabilidad de cada modo de coordinación. La actividad electromiográfica de los músculos pronador redondo, bíceps braquial, palmar mayor y primer radial fue registrada en 4 sujetos. Resultados: la estabilidad del modo de coordinación pronación en la señal fue mayor cuando el eje de rotación se situó por debajo del eje longitudinal del antebrazo. Por el contrario, la estabilidad del modo de coordinación supinación en la señal fue mayor cuando el eje de rotación se situó por encima. La dominancia relativa de las fases de pronación y supinación durante la rotación del antebrazo dependió mayormente del grado de participación de los músculos palmar mayor y primer radial. Conclusión: la estabilidad de los modos de coordinación estuvo supeditada al contexto mecánico. Los cambios en el contexto mecánico alteraron los patrones de activación de los músculos que contribuyen a la pronación y supinación del antebrazo, particularmente el palmar mayor (AU)

Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Supinação/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Pronação/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
Ars pharm ; 43(1/2): 23-35, ene. 2002. ilus, tab
Artigo em En | IBECS | ID: ibc-23465


Se estudian con microscopía electrónica de barrido la morfología y la ultramicrofábrica de talcos pulverizados y de preparados comerciales de "polvos de talco", con el objeto de caracterizarlos para su aplicación Farmacéutica y Cosmética. Se encuentran partículas pequeñas, partículas grandes, agregados y agregados en "bolsa", con fábricas laminares concéntricas y planares, laminares en dominios y fábricas de agregados. Estas morfologías se adquieren con el proceso de molienda, como consecuencia de la estructura cristalina y de las propiedades físicas (como dureza y exfoliación) del talco. Se consideran idóneas para el uso tópico porque favorecen la aplicación sobre la piel y permiten la adsorción de exudados debido a la porosidad y frecuencia de intersticios (AU)

Humanos , Talco/química , Talco/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Administração Tópica
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 27(9): 899-908, 2001 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11763467


Using different techniques, we studied the possible formation of ondansetron polymorphs. Ondansetron is a carbazol antiemetic that acts as a competitive, selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 serotonin receptors. The polymorphs were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results suggest that the compounds are not true crystallographic polymorphs, but instead are the product of physical structural changes in the drug, which would be of interest pharmaceutically.

Antieméticos/química , Ondansetron/química , Algoritmos , Anisotropia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Soluções
Exp Brain Res ; 131(2): 196-214, 2000 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10766272


In the first of three experiments, 11 participants generated pronation and supination movements of the forearm. in time with an auditory metronome. The metronome frequency was increased in eight steps (0.25 Hz) from a base frequency of 1.75 Hz. On alternating trials, participants were required to coordinate either maximum pronation or maximum supination with each beat of the metronome. In each block of trials, the axis of rotation was either coincident with the long axis of the forearm, above this axis, or below this axis. The stability of the pronate-on-the-beat pattern, as indexed by the number of pattern changes, and the time of onset of pattern change, was greatest when the axis of rotation of the movement was below the long axis of the forearm. In contrast, the stability of the supinate-on-the-beat pattern was greatest when the axis of rotation of the movement was above the long axis of the forearm. In a second experiment, we examined how changes in the position of the axis of rotation alter the activation patterns of muscles that contribute to pronation and supination of the forearm. Variations in the relative dominance of the pronation and supination phases of the movement cycle across conditions were accounted for primarily by changes in the activation profile of flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis longus (ECR). In the final experiment we examined how these constraints impact upon the stability of bimanual coordination. Thirty-two participants were assigned at random to one of four conditions, each of which combined an axis of rotation configuration (bottom or top) for each limb. The participants generated both inphase (both limbs pronating simultaneously, and supinating simultaneously) and antiphase (left limb pronating and right limb supinating simultaneously, and vice versa) patterns of coordination. When the position of the axis of rotation was equivalent for the left and the right limb, transitions from antiphase to inphase patterns of coordination were frequently observed. In marked contrast, when the position of the axis of rotation for the left and right limb was contradistinct, transitions from inphase to antiphase patterns of coordination occurred. The results demonstrated that when movements are performed in an appropriate mechanical context, inphase patterns of coordination are less stable than antiphase patterns.

Antebraço/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Antebraço/inervação , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Pronação/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Supinação/fisiologia
Ann Pharm Fr ; 47(1): 33-41, 1989.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2627101


A study has been carried out on the possible pharmaceutical use of spanish talcs following the normalized assays of the main european pharmacopoeia and other quantitative methods. Only the talc nr3, not processed, meets all the assays of pharmacopoeia. The samples 2 and 4 (crushed) exceed the highest tolerated content in chlorides. The talc 1 (also crushed) only meets the loss on drying. The measures of some of these assays by using quantitative methods lead to more correct results and even sometimes in opposition with those obtained by pharmacopoeia methods. The particle size estimated by shifting and sedimentation shows that the crushed talcs are silty, whereas the only talc not processed is sandy. Considering the medium sizes estimated by scanning microscopy, it can be said that the pulverization of the talcs 1, 2 and 4 is characteristic of a micronization.

Farmacopeias como Assunto , Talco/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Espanha , Talco/normas