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1.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857937

RESUMO

We present an ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) investigation of the tautomeric equilibrium for aqueous solutions of glycine and acetone at realistic experimental conditions. Metadynamics is used to accelerate proton migration among tautomeric centers. Due to the formation of complex water-ion structures involved the proton dynamics in the aqueous environment, standard enhanced sampling approaches may face severe limitations in providing a general description of the phenomenon. Recently, we developed a set of Collective Variables (CVs) designed to study protons transfer reactions in complex condensed systems [Grifoni et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2019, 116(10), 4054-4057]. In this work we applied this approach to study proton dissociation dynamics leading to tautomeric interconversion of biologically and chemically relevant prototypical systems, namely glycine and acetone in water. Although relatively simple from a chemical point of view, the results show that even for these small systems complex reaction pathways and non-trivial conversion dynamics are observed. The generality of our method allows obtaining these results without providing any prior information on the dissociation dynamics but only the atomic species that can exchange protons in the process. Our results agree with literature estimates and demonstrate the general applicability of this method in the study of tautomeric reactions.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(2): 026001, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701329

RESUMO

We present a method to sample reactive pathways via biased molecular dynamics simulations in trajectory space. We show that the use of enhanced sampling techniques enables unconstrained exploration of multiple reaction routes. Time correlation functions are conveniently computed via reweighted averages along a single trajectory and kinetic rates are accessed at no additional cost. These abilities are illustrated analyzing a model potential and the umbrella inversion of NH_{3} in water. The algorithm allows a parallel implementation and promises to be a powerful tool for the study of rare events.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(15): 6373-6381, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672983

RESUMO

The koff values of ligands unbinding to proteins are key parameters for drug discovery. Their predictions based on molecular simulation may under- or overestimate experiment in a system- and/or technique-dependent way. Here we use an established method-infrequent metadynamics, based on the AMBER force field-to compute the koff of the ligand iperoxo (in clinical use) targeting the muscarinic receptor M2. The ligand charges are calculated by either (i) the Amber standard procedure or (ii) B3LYP-DFT. The calculations using (i) turn out not to provide a reasonable estimation of the transition-state free energy. Those using (ii) differ from experiment by 2 orders of magnitude. On the basis of B3LYP DFT QM/MM simulations, we suggest that the observed discrepancy in (ii) arises, at least in part, from the lack of electronic polarization and/or charge transfer in biomolecular force fields. These issues might be present in other systems, such as DNA-protein complexes.

4.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(8): 5279-5286, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551636

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of gas solubility in a liquid is crucial in many areas of chemistry, and a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism of the gas solvation continues to be an active area of research. Here, we extend the idea of the constant chemical potential molecular dynamics (CµMD) approach to the calculation of the gas solubility in the liquid under constant gas chemical potential conditions. As a representative example, we utilize this method to calculate the isothermal solubility of carbon dioxide in water. Additionally, we provide microscopic insight into the mechanism of solvation that preferentially occurs in areas of the surface where the hydrogen network is broken.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(13): 5076-5080, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510225

RESUMO

We introduce an enhanced sampling method that is based on constructing a model probability density from which a bias potential is derived. The model relies on the fact that in a physical system most of the configurations visited can be grouped into isolated metastable islands. With each island we associate a distribution that is fitted to a Gaussian mixture. The different distributions are linearly combined together with coefficients that are computed self-consistently. This leads to an integrated procedure for discovering new metastable states, exploring reaction pathways, computing free energy differences, and estimating reaction rates.

6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(11): 5839-5848, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427326

RESUMO

We provide an atomic-level description of the structure and dynamics of the UUCG RNA stem-loop by combining molecular dynamics simulations with experimental data. The integration of simulations with exact nuclear Overhauser enhancements data allowed us to characterize two distinct states of this molecule. The most stable conformation corresponds to the consensus three-dimensional structure. The second state is characterized by the absence of the peculiar non-Watson-Crick interactions in the loop region. By using machine learning techniques we identify a set of experimental measurements that are most sensitive to the presence of non-native states. We find that although our MD ensemble, as well as the consensus UUCG tetraloop structures, are in good agreement with experiments, there are remaining discrepancies. Together, our results show that (i) the MD simulation overstabilize a non-native loop conformation, (ii) eNOE data support its presence with a population of ≈10% and (iii) the structural interpretation of experimental data for dynamic RNAs is highly complex, even for a simple model system such as the UUCG tetraloop.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Movimento , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Entropia , RNA/química
7.
J Chem Phys ; 152(17): 171102, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384858

RESUMO

We present a method for performing path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations for fermions and address its sign problem. PIMD simulations are widely used for studying many-body quantum systems at thermal equilibrium. However, they assume that the particles are distinguishable and neglect bosonic and fermionic exchange effects. Interacting fermions play a key role in many chemical and physical systems, such as electrons in quantum dots and ultracold trapped atoms. A direct sampling of the fermionic partition function is impossible using PIMD since its integrand is not positive definite. We show that PIMD simulations for fermions are feasible by employing our recently developed method for bosonic PIMD and reweighting the results to obtain fermionic expectation values. The approach is tested against path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations for up to seven electrons in a two-dimensional quantum dot for a range of interaction strengths. However, like PIMC, the method suffers from the sign problem at low temperatures. We propose a simple approach for alleviating it by simulating an auxiliary system with a larger average sign and obtaining an upper bound to the energy of the original system using the Bogoliubov inequality. This allows fermions to be studied at temperatures lower than would otherwise have been feasible using PIMD, as demonstrated in the case of a three-electron quantum dot. Our results extend the boundaries of PIMD simulations of fermions and will hopefully stimulate the development of new approaches for tackling the sign problem.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(20): 3963-3975, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302131

RESUMO

CO2 has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its role in the greenhouse effect and environmental management. While its reaction with water has been studied extensively, the same cannot be said for reactivity in the supercritical CO2 phase, where the conjugate acid/base equilibria proceed through different mechanisms and activation barriers. In spite of the apparent simplicity of the CO2 + H2O reaction, the collective effect of different environments has a drastic influence on the free energy profile. Enhanced sampling techniques and well-tailored collective variables provide a detailed picture of the enthalpic and entropic drivers underscoring the differences in the formation mechanism of carbonic acid in the gas, aqueous, and supercritical CO2 phases.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(8): 2998-3004, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239945

RESUMO

Designing an appropriate set of collective variables is crucial to the success of several enhanced sampling methods. Here we focus on how to obtain such variables from information limited to the metastable states. We characterize these states by a large set of descriptors and employ neural networks to compress this information in a lower-dimensional space, using Fisher's linear discriminant as an objective function to maximize the discriminative power of the network. We test this method on alanine dipeptide, using the nonlinearly separable data set composed by atomic distances. We then study an intermolecular aldol reaction characterized by a concerted mechanism. The resulting variables are able to promote sampling by drawing nonlinear paths in the physical space connecting the fluctuations between metastable basins. Lastly, we interpret the behavior of the neural network by studying its relation to the physical variables. Through the identification of its most relevant features, we are able to gain chemical insight into the process.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(7): 2731-2736, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191470

RESUMO

Metadynamics is an enhanced sampling method of great popularity, based on the on-the-fly construction of a bias potential that is a function of a selected number of collective variables. We propose here a change in perspective that shifts the focus from the bias to the probability distribution reconstruction while retaining some of the key characteristics of metadynamics, such as flexible on-the-fly adjustments to the free energy estimate. The result is an enhanced sampling method that presents a drastic improvement in convergence speed, especially when dealing with suboptimal and/or multidimensional sets of collective variables. The method is especially robust and easy to use and in fact requires only a few simple parameters to be set, and it has a straightforward reweighting scheme to recover the statistics of the unbiased ensemble. Furthermore, it gives more control of the desired exploration of the phase space since the deposited bias is not allowed to grow indefinitely and it does not push the simulation to uninteresting high free energy regions. We demonstrate the performance of the method in a number of representative examples.

11.
J Comput Chem ; 41(4): 290-294, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691997

RESUMO

Enhanced sampling molecular dynamics has been used to model the reduction mechanism of the antitumoral Asplatin Pt(IV) complex, c,c,t-[PtCl2(NH3)2(OH)(aspirin)] in the presence of l-ascorbic acid as reducing agent. In order to overcome the timescale problem, characteristic of many chemical reactions, we enhanced the sampling of the free energy landscape using Metadynamics. To achieve such a goal, the selection of adequate collective variables is crucial for the application of the method. Recently, a new method called Multi-Class Harmonic Linear Discriminant Analysis (MC-HLDA) has been proposed as a tool for constructing collective variables (CVs) for complex chemical processes. The method reduces the dimensionality of the variable space by generating appropriate linear combinations of several relevant chemical descriptors. The aim of this work is to assess the ability and performance of this method in describing the fundamental features of complex chemical reactions such as the Asplatin reduction mechanism in a compact, simple, and physically transparent manner. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

12.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(12): 6923-6930, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657927

RESUMO

A widespread method of crystal preparation is to precipitate it from a supersaturated solution. In such a process, control of solution concentration is of paramount importance. The nucleation process, polymorph selection, and crystal habits depend crucially on this thermodynamic parameter. When performing molecular dynamics simulations with a fixed number of molecules in the canonical ensemble, crystal growth is accompanied by a decrease in the solution concentration. This modification of the thermodynamic condition leads to significant artifacts. Inspired by the recent development of the constant chemical potential molecular dynamics simulation method by Perego et al. [ J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 142 , 144113 ] , we develop a spherical variant of it to study nucleation from solution. Our method allows determining the crystal nucleus size and nucleation rates at constant supersaturation. As an example, we study the homogeneous nucleation of sodium chloride from its supersaturated aqueous solution.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(43): 21445-21449, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591226

RESUMO

Trapped bosons exhibit fundamental physical phenomena and are at the core of emerging quantum technologies. We present a method for simulating bosons using path integral molecular dynamics. The main difficulty in performing such simulations is enumerating all ring-polymer configurations, which arise due to permutations of identical particles. We show that the potential and forces at each time step can be evaluated by using a recurrence relation which avoids enumerating all permutations, while providing the correct thermal expectation values. The resulting algorithm scales cubically with system size. The method is tested and applied to bosons in a 2-dimensional (2D) trap and agrees with analytical results and numerical diagonalization of the many-body Hamiltonian. An analysis of the role of exchange effects at different temperatures, through the relative probability of different ring-polymer configurations, is also presented.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(36): 17641-17647, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416918

RESUMO

Sampling complex free-energy surfaces is one of the main challenges of modern atomistic simulation methods. The presence of kinetic bottlenecks in such surfaces often renders a direct approach useless. A popular strategy is to identify a small number of key collective variables and to introduce a bias potential that is able to favor their fluctuations in order to accelerate sampling. Here, we propose to use machine-learning techniques in conjunction with the recent variationally enhanced sampling method [O. Valsson, M. Parrinello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 090601 (2014)] in order to determine such potential. This is achieved by expressing the bias as a neural network. The parameters are determined in a variational learning scheme aimed at minimizing an appropriate functional. This required the development of a more efficient minimization technique. The expressivity of neural networks allows representing rapidly varying free-energy surfaces, removes boundary effects artifacts, and allows several collective variables to be handled.

15.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(31): 6851-6856, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286763

RESUMO

Aqueous solutions provide a medium for many important reactions in chemical synthesis, industrial processes, environmental chemistry, and biological functions. It is an accepted fact that aqueous solvents can be direct participants in the reaction process and not act only as simple passive dielectrics. Assisting water molecules and proton wires are thus essential for the efficiency of many reactions. Here, we study the decomposition of urea into ammonia and isocyanic acid by means of enhanced ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We highlight the role of the solvent molecules and their interactions with the reactants providing a proper description of the reaction mechanism and how the water hydrogen-bond network affects the reaction dynamics. Reaction free energy and rates have been calculated taking into account this important effect.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 150(24): 244119, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255056

RESUMO

From the Ising model and the Lennard-Jones fluid to water and the iron-carbon system, phase diagrams are an indispensable tool to understand phase equilibria. Despite the effort of the simulation community, the calculation of a large portion of a phase diagram using computer simulation is still today a significant challenge. Here, we propose a method to calculate phase diagrams involving liquid and solid phases by the reversible transformation of the liquid and the solid. To this end, we introduce an order parameter that breaks the rotational symmetry and we leverage our recently introduced method to sample the multithermal-multibaric ensemble. In this way, in a single molecular dynamics simulation, we are able to compute the liquid-solid coexistence line for entire regions of the temperature and pressure phase diagram. We apply our approach to the bcc-liquid phase diagram of sodium and the fcc-bcc-liquid phase diagram of aluminum.

17.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(8): 4507-4515, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314521

RESUMO

Disentangling the mechanistic details of a chemical reaction pathway is a hard problem that often requires a considerable amount of chemical intuition and a component of luck. Experiments struggle in observing short-life metastable intermediates, while computer simulations often rely upon a good initial guess. In this work, we propose a method that, from the simulations of a reactant and a product state, searches for reaction mechanisms connecting the two by exploring the configuration space through metadynamics, a well-known enhanced molecular dynamics method. The key quantity underlying this search is based on the use of an approach called harmonic linear discriminant analysis which allows a systematic construction of collective variables. Given the reactant and product states, we choose a set of descriptors capable of discriminating between the two states. In order to not prejudge the results, generic descriptors are introduced. The fluctuations of the descriptors in the two states are used to construct collective variables. We use metadynamics in an exploratory mode to discover the intermediates and the transition states that lead from reactant to product. The search is at first conducted at a low theory level. The calculation is then refined, and the energy of the intermediates and transition states discovered during metadynamics is computed again using a higher level of theory. The method's aim is to offer a simple reaction mechanism search procedure that helps in saving time and is able to find unexpected mechanisms that defy well established chemical paradigms. We apply it to two reactions, showing that a high level of complexity can be hidden even in seemingly trivial and small systems. The method can be applied to larger systems, such as reactions in solution or catalysis.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(24): 245501, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322390

RESUMO

Ice nucleation is a process of great relevance in physics, chemistry, technology, and environmental sciences; much theoretical effort has been devoted to its understanding, but it still remains a topic of intense research. We shed light on this phenomenon by performing atomistic based simulations. Using metadynamics and a carefully designed set of collective variables, reversible transitions between water and ice are able to be simulated. We find that water freezes into a stacking disordered structure with the all-atom transferable intermolecular potential with 4 points/ice (TIP4P/ice) model, and the features of the critical nucleus of nucleation at the microscopic level are revealed. We have also estimated the ice nucleation rates along with other nucleation parameters at different undercoolings. Our results are in agreement with recent experimental and other theoretical works, and they confirm that nucleation is preceded by a large increase in tetrahedrally coordinated water molecules.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(13): 3727-3731, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244270

RESUMO

Free energy sampling methods allow studying the full dynamics of activated processes. Unfortunately, the affordable accuracy of the potential describing the energy and forces of the system is usually rather low. Here we introduce a new method that by combining metadynamics and free energy perturbation allows calculating accurate quantum chemical free energies for chemical reactions. To prove the effectiveness of this new approach we study the SN2 reaction of CH3F + Cl- → CH3Cl + F- in vacuo and solvated by water. Comparisons are made with harmonic transition-state theory to show how this method could provide accurate equilibrium and rate constants for complex systems.

20.
J Chem Phys ; 150(20): 204103, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153166

RESUMO

An important characteristic that determines the behavior of a solute in water is whether it is hydrophobic or hydrophilic. The traditional classification is based on chemical experience and heuristics. However, this does not reveal how the local environment modulates this important property. We present a local fingerprint for hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity inspired by the two body contribution to the entropy. This fingerprint is an inexpensive, quantitative, and physically meaningful way of studying hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity that only requires as input the water-solute radial distribution functions. We apply our fingerprint to octanol, benzene, and 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Our measure of hydrophilicity is coherent with chemical experience, and moreover, it also shows how the character of an atom can change as its environment is changed. Finally, we use the fingerprint as a collective variable in a funnel metadynamics simulation of a host-guest system. The fingerprint serves as a desolvation collective variable that enhances transitions between the bound and unbound states.


Assuntos
Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Metano/química , Peptídeos/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Termodinâmica
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