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1.
TH Open ; 3(1): e2-e9, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249975

RESUMO

Objectives In patients with suspected venous thromboembolism (VTE), the D-dimer assay is commonly utilized as part of the workup. The assay is primarily used to determine whether to proceed with radiographic imaging. We compared D-dimer levels in patients suspected of having VTE. We hypothesized that higher D-dimer values predict a higher likelihood of subsequent VTE diagnosis. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of a multinational, prospective observational study of low- to intermediate-risk adult patients presenting to the emergency department with suspicion of VTE. Demographic and clinical data were collected in a structured manner. Advanced imaging including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography, and ventilation/perfusion scanning was obtained at the discretion of the treating physicians. Imaging was evaluated by board-certified radiologists in real time. D-dimer values' bins were evaluated using a logistic regression model. Results We evaluated 1,752 patients for suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT), with 191 (10.4%) DVT positive. We evaluated 1,834 patients for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE), with 108 (5.9%) PE positive. Higher D-dimer values in both groups were associated with higher likelihood of subsequent VTE diagnosis, with D-dimer values > 3,999 ng/mL in both groups having the highest incidence of VTE. More than 50% of those patients were VTE positive. Conclusions Increasing D-dimer values predict increased likelihood of being found VTE positive in this patient population. Among those in the highest D-dimer category, > 3,999 ng/mL, over half of patients were VTE positive. Further research could determine additional nuance in D-dimer as a tool to work up suspected VTE.

2.
Acad Emerg Med ; 26(6): 657-669, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether a protocol combining risk stratification, treatment with the direct-acting oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban, and defined follow-up is associated with a greater proportion of patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) treated as outpatients, without hospital admission. METHODS: We performed a multicenter study of patients diagnosed with VTE (pulmonary embolism [PE] or deep vein thrombosis [DVT]) in two urban EDs, 18 months before and 18 months after implementation of an outpatient VTE treatment protocol. Patients with radiographically confirmed acute VTE were eligible. Our primary outcome was the proportion of VTE patients discharged from the ED or observation unit (i.e., without hospital admission). We performed subgroup analyses according to hospital, DVT and PE, and low-risk PE. We also assessed 7- and 30-day mortality, major bleeding, and returns to the ED. We compared proportions using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: We enrolled 2,212 patients, 1,081 (49%) before protocol and 1,131 (51%) after protocol. Mean age (59 years vs. 60 years), female sex (49% vs. 49%), other demographics, comorbid illness, and PE risk stratification were similar before and after. After protocol, more VTE (35% from 26%, p < 0.001), PE (18% from 12%, p = 0.002), low-risk PE (28% from 18%, p < 0.001), and DVT (60% from 49%, p = 0.002) patients were treated as outpatients. Mortality, bleeding, and returns to ED were rare and did not increase after protocol. CONCLUSIONS: A treatment protocol combining risk-stratification, rivaroxaban treatment and defined follow-up is associated with an increase in PE and DVT patients treated as outpatients, with no increase in adverse outcomes.

3.
Thromb Res ; 166: 63-70, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656169

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine the test characteristics of an automated INNOVANCE D-dimer assay for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in emergency department (ED) patients using standard and age-adjusted cut-offs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, international, multicenter study of consecutive patients with suspected DVT or PE in 24 centers (18 USA, 6 Europe). Evaluated patients had low or intermediate Wells PE or DVT scores. For the standard cut-off, a D-dimer result <500 ng/ml was negative. For the age adjusted cut-off, we used the formula: Age (years) ∗ 10. The diagnostic standard was imaging demonstrating PE or DVT within 3 months. We calculated test characteristics using standard methods. We also explored modifications of the age adjustment multiplier. RESULTS: We included 3837 patients and excluded 251. The mean age of patients evaluated for PE (n = 1834) was 48 ±â€¯16 years, with 676 (37%) male, and 1081 (59%) white. The mean age of evaluated for DVT (n = 1752) was 53 ±â€¯16 years, with 710 (41%) male, and 1172 (67%) white. D-dimer test characteristics for PE were: sensitivity 98.0%, specificity 55.4%, negative predictive value (NPV) 99.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) 11.4%, and for DVT were: sensitivity 92.0%, specificity 44.8%, NPV 98.8%, PPV 10.3%. Age adjustment increased specificity (59.6% [PE], 51.1% [DVT]), but increasing the age-adjustment multiplier decreased sensitivity without increasing specificity. CONCLUSIONS: INNOVANCE D-dimer is highly sensitive and can exclude PE and DVT in ED patients with low- and intermediate- pre-test probability. Age-adjustment increases specificity, without increasing false negatives.


Assuntos
Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Bioensaio , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
4.
JAMA Dermatol ; 154(5): 529-536, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453872

RESUMO

Importance: Each year, cellulitis leads to 650 000 hospital admissions and is estimated to cost $3.7 billion in the United States. Previous literature has demonstrated a high misdiagnosis rate for cellulitis, which results in unnecessary antibiotic use and health care cost. Objective: To determine whether dermatologic consultation decreases duration of hospital stay or intravenous antibiotic treatment duration in patients with cellulitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in a large urban tertiary care hospital between October 2012 and January 2017, with 1-month follow-up duration. Patients were randomized to the control group, which received the standard of care (ie, treatment by primary medicine team), or the intervention group, which received dermatology consultation. Medical chart review of demographic information and hospital courses was performed. Adult patients hospitalized with presumed diagnosis of cellulitis were eligible. A total of 1300 patients were screened, 1125 were excluded, and 175 were included. Statistical analysis was employed to identify significant outcome differences between the 2 groups. Interventions: Dermatology consultation within 24 hours of hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Length of hospital stay and duration of intravenous antibiotic treatment. Results: Of 175 participants, 70 (40%) were women and 105 (60%) were men. The mean age was 58.8 years. Length of hospital stay was not statistically different between the 2 groups. The duration of intravenous antibiotic treatment (<4 days: 86.4% vs 72.5%; absolute difference, 13.9%; 95% CI, 1.9%-25.9%; P = .04) and duration of total antibiotic treatment was significantly lower in patients who had early dermatology consultation (<10 days: 50.6% vs 32.5%; absolute difference, 18.1%; 95% CI, 3.7%-32.5%; P = .01). Clinical improvement at 2 weeks was significantly higher for those in the intervention group (79 [89.3%] vs 59 [68.3%]; absolute difference, 21.0%; 95% CI, 9.3%-32.7%; P < .001). There was no significant difference in 1-month readmission rate between the groups (4 [4.5%] vs 6 [6.9%]; absolute difference, -2.4%; 95% CI, -9.3% to 4.5%; P = .54). In the intervention group, the rate of cellulitis misdiagnosis was 30.7% (27 of 88 participants). Among the entire cohort, 101 (57.7%) patients were treated with courses of antibiotics longer than what is recommended by guidelines. Conclusions and Relevance: Early dermatologic consultation can improve outcomes in patients with suspected cellulitis by identifying alternate diagnoses, treating modifiable risk factors, and decreasing length of antibiotic treatment. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01706913.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Celulite (Flegmão)/diagnóstico , Celulite (Flegmão)/terapia , Dermatologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto , Idoso , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 45(3): 123-129, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402686

RESUMO

The ability to rapidly and accurately risk-stratify patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), and the availability of direct acting oral anticoagulants have reduced the need for intravenous anticoagulation for patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Emergency physicians are generally reluctant to discharge patients with VTE without defined and reliable follow up in place, and VTE patients treated with anticoagulants can be at risk for complications related to recurrent VTE and bleeding. In addition, screening for associated diseases (e.g. cancer, hypercoagulable states) may be indicated. Therefore, the outpatient treatment of low risk VTE requires coordinated effort and reliable follow up. By leveraging detailed outcome data and collaborative relationships, we have created a protocol for the safe outpatient treatment of patients with low risk DVT and PE. Our protocol is data driven and designed to address barriers to outpatient VTE management. We expect our protocol to result in improved patient satisfaction, more efficient emergency department (ED) throughput, and decreased cost. Applied nationally, the outpatient treatment of select patients with DVT and PE could have major public health and economic impact.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Assistência ao Convalescente/normas , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
6.
Acad Emerg Med ; 24(7): 814-821, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28419620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The development of pulmonary embolism response teams (PERTs) has been widely adopted nationally with the goal of providing multidisciplinary care to patients with high-risk PE. Most PERT activations originate from the emergency department (ED), while others are from the intensive care unit (ICU) or inpatient floors. It is unclear if ED PERT activations differ from non-ED PERT activation in terms of presentation, management, and outcome. METHODS: We enrolled a consecutive cohort of patients for whom PERT was activated at an urban academic medical center. We compared three groups of PERT activations based on whether the activation originated from the ED, ICU, or a non-ICU inpatient floor. We compared these groups in terms of the proportion of PERT activations that occurred during day, evening, or weekend hours and the proportion of confirmed PE. We also compared PE severity, treatment, and outcomes across locations. We tested differences using chi-square tests, with a two-tailed p-value of <0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We enrolled 561 patients, of whom 449 (79.5%) had confirmed PE. The mean ± SD age of patients with confirmed PE was 61 ± 17 years, and 300 (53.5%) were male. Activations from the ED (n = 283, 88.4%) or floor (n = 100, 74.6%) were more likely to be for confirmed PE than activations from the ICU (n = 63, 58.9%; p < 0.0001). There was a statistical difference in the time of day of PERT activation with the ED having more activations during night hours than the ICU or floors (p = 0.004). Most activations for confirmed, massive PE originated from the ICU (n = 41, 65.1%), followed by the ED (n = 82, 29%) and inpatient floors (n = 22, 22%; p < 0.0001). Most activations from the ED (n = 155, 54.8%) and floors (n = 55, 55%) were for submassive PE. The use of thrombolysis or thrombectomy was more common among ICU patients (n = 18, 33.3%), followed by ED patients (n = 53, 19.6%) and then floor patients (n = 8, 8.2%). Mortality and major bleeding events were most common among ICU patients and similar among ED and floor patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary embolism response team activations from different clinical locations differ in terms of patient presentation, PE confirmation, treatments, and outcomes. PERTs should be customized to support the different needs of each clinical area.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hemorragia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 42(8): 846-856, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27764882

RESUMO

Pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are common diagnoses in the emergency department (ED), with significant potential morbidity and mortality. As a result, historically nearly all patients with PE have been admitted to the hospital for observation and treatment. In recent years, the ability to rapidly and accurately risk stratify patients with VTE according to their risk of short-term clinical deterioration has supported outpatient treatment, and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have further facilitated this approach. This review details the historical context and operational impact of managing VTE in the outpatient setting, describes a model for outpatient management of VTE, and suggests potential areas of further inquiry.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
8.
Ann Emerg Med ; 64(5): 516-25, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24999283

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Drug-related emergency department (ED) visits have steadily increased, with substance users relying heavily on the ED for medical care. The present study aims to identify clinical correlates of problematic drug use that would facilitate identification of ED patients in need of substance use treatment. METHODS: Using previously validated tests, 15,224 adult ED patients across 6 academic institutions were prescreened for drug use as part of a large randomized prospective trial. Data for 3,240 participants who reported drug use in the past 30 days were included. Self-reported variables related to demographics, substance use, and ED visit were examined to determine their correlative value for problematic drug use. RESULTS: Of the 3,240 patients, 2,084 (64.3%) met criteria for problematic drug use (Drug Abuse Screening Test score ≥ 3). Age greater than or equal to 30 years, tobacco smoking, daily or binge alcohol drinking, daily drug use, primary noncannabis drug use, resource-intense ED triage level, and perceived drug-relatedness of ED visit were highly correlated with problematic drug use. Among primary cannabis users, correlates of problematic drug use were age younger than 30 years, tobacco smoking, binge drinking, daily drug use, and perceived relatedness of the ED visit to drug use. CONCLUSION: Clinical correlates of drug use problems may assist the identification of ED patients who would benefit from comprehensive screening, intervention, and referral to treatment. A clinical decision rule is proposed. The correlation between problematic drug use and resource-intense ED triage levels suggests that ED-based efforts to reduce the unmet need for substance use treatment may help decrease overall health care costs.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/diagnóstico , Bebedeira/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acad Emerg Med ; 19(8): 934-42, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22849339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine the association of four clinical risk scores and coronary plaque burden as detected by computed tomography (CT) with the outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with acute chest pain. The hypothesis was that the combination of risk scores and plaque burden improved the discriminatory capacity for the diagnosis of ACS. METHODS: The study was a subanalysis of the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction Using Computer-Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) trial-a prospective observational cohort study. The authors enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a chief complaint of acute chest pain, inconclusive initial evaluation (negative biomarkers, nondiagnostic electrocardiogram [ECG]), and no history of coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients underwent contrast-enhanced 64-multidetector-row cardiac CT and received standard clinical care (serial ECG, cardiac biomarkers, and subsequent diagnostic testing, such as exercise treadmill testing, nuclear stress perfusion imaging, and/or invasive coronary angiography), as deemed clinically appropriate. The clinical providers were blinded to CT results. The chest pain score was calculated and the results were dichotomized to ≥10 (high-risk) and <10 (low-risk). Three risk scores were calculated, Goldman, Sanchis, and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI), and each patient was assigned to a low-, intermediate-, or high-risk category. Because of the low number of subjects in the high-risk group, the intermediate- and high-risk groups were combined into one. CT images were evaluated for the presence of plaque in 17 coronary segments. Plaque burden was stratified into none, intermediate, and high (zero, one to four, and more than four segments with plaque). An outcome panel of two physicians (blinded to CT findings) established the primary outcome of ACS (defined as either an acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina) during the index hospitalization (from the presentation to the ED to the discharge from the hospital). Logistic regression modeling was performed to examine the association of risk scores and coronary plaque burden to the outcome of ACS. Unadjusted models were individually fitted for the coronary plaque burden and for Goldman, Sanchis, TIMI, and chest pain scores. In adjusted analyses, the authors tested whether the association between risk scores and ACS persisted after controlling for the coronary plaque burden. The prognostic discriminatory capacity of the risk scores and plaque burden for ACS was assessed using c-statistics. The differences in area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and c-statistics were tested by performing the -2 log likelihood ratio test of nested models. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Among 368 subjects, 31 (8%) subjects were diagnosed with ACS. Goldman (AUC = 0.61), Sanchis (AUC = 0.71), and TIMI (AUC = 0.63) had modest discriminatory capacity for the diagnosis of ACS. Plaque burden was the strongest predictor of ACS (AUC = 0.86; p < 0.05 for all comparisons with individual risk scores). The combination of plaque burden and risk scores improved prediction of ACS (plaque + Goldman AUC = 0.88, plaque + Sanchis AUC = 0.90, plaque + TIMI AUC = 0.88; p < 0.01 for all comparisons with coronary plaque burden alone). CONCLUSIONS: Risk scores (Goldman, Sanchis, TIMI) have modest discriminatory capacity and coronary plaque burden has good discriminatory capacity for the diagnosis of ACS in patients with acute chest pain. The combined information of risk scores and plaque burden significantly improves the discriminatory capacity for the diagnosis of ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Aguda , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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