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1.
Emerg Med J ; 37(1): 2-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians frequently assess risk of acute cardiac events (ACEs) in patients with undifferentiated chest pain. Such estimates have been shown to have moderate to high sensitivity for ACE but are conservative. Little is known about the factors implicitly used by physicians to determine the pretest probability of risk. This study sought to identify the accuracy of physician risk estimates for ACE in patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and to identify the demographic and clinical information emergency physicians use in their determination of patient risk. METHODS: This study used data from two prospective studies of consenting adult patients presenting to the ED with symptoms of possible acute coronary syndrome. ED physicians estimated the pretest probability of ACE. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of physician risk estimates. Logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a correlation between physicians' estimated risk and ACE. RESULTS: Increasing age, male sex, abnormal ECG features, heavy/crushing chest pain and risk factors were correlated with physician risk estimates. Physician risk estimates were consistently found to be higher than the expected proportion of ACE from the sampled population. CONCLUSION: Physicians systematically overestimate ACE risk. A range of factors are associated with physician risk estimates. These include factors strongly predictive of ACE, such as age and ECG characteristics. They also include other factors that have been shown to be unreliable predictors of ACE in an ED setting, such as typicality of pain and risk factors.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e029360, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the annual pharmaceutical costs for patients with stable coronary artery disease, using Australian administrative data, comparing patients who had undergone interventional treatment with those had not. We also aimed to compare the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) prescription in the real-world, with recommended guidelines. DESIGN: An observational study using administrative data. PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the QSkin study, a population-based prospective study assessing skin cancer risk. Participants were invited from the Queensland population, not based on perceived skin cancer risk, and had consented to future use of their data for approved research projects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We calculated 12-month costs of pharmaceutical therapy for coronary artery disease for patients in each of three clinically relevant groups: medical therapy only, following coronary stent implantation and following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We measured the duration of DAPT following stent implantation and total duration of DAPT, where it was prescribed, in the medical therapy only group. RESULTS: Estimated mean annual pharmaceutical costs were highest in the stent group at AUD$1920, compared with AUD$1481 in the medical therapy group, and AUD$881 in the coronary artery bypass group. There were similar rates of prescriptions of symptom relief drugs following stent insertion, compared with the medical therapy only group. The median duration of DAPT in the stent group was 16, and 31 months in the medical therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that despite the common expectation that the burden of medical therapy is reduced following coronary stent insertion for stable coronary artery disease, this does not occur in practice. Many patients also appear to continue DAPT longer than guidelines recommend, which may put them at unnecessarily elevated risk of bleeding events.

3.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1437-1447, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to derive and externally validate a 0/2-h algorithm using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI)-Access assay. METHODS: We enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 2 prospective diagnostic studies using central adjudication. Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis, including all available medical information including cardiac imaging. hs-cTnI-Access concentrations were measured at presentation and after 2 h in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 164 of 1131 (14.5%) patients in the derivation cohort. Rule-out by the hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm was defined as 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <4 ng/L in patients with an onset of chest pain >3 h (direct rule-out) or a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <5 ng/L and an absolute change within 2 h <5 ng/L in all other patients. Derived thresholds for rule-in were a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration ≥50 ng/L (direct rule-in) or an absolute change within 2 h ≥20 ng/L. In the derivation cohort, these cutoffs ruled out 55% of patients with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 99.4% (95% CI, 96.5-99.9), and ruled in 30% of patients with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 73% (95% CI, 66.1-79). In the validation cohort, AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 88 of 1280 (6.9%) patients. These cutoffs ruled out 77.9% of patients with an NPV of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 97.7% (95% CI, 92.0-99.7), and ruled in 5.8% of patients with a PPV of 77% (95% CI, 65.8-86) in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Safety and efficacy of the l hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm for triage toward rule-out or rule-in of AMI are very high. TRIAL REGISTRATION: APACE, NCT00470587; ADAPT, ACTRN1261100106994; IMPACT, ACTRN12611000206921.

5.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e022755, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac disease in pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal death in high-income countries. Evidence-based guidelines to assist in planning and managing the healthcare of affected women is lacking. The objective of this research was to produce the first qualitative metasynthesis of the experiences of pregnant women with existing or acquired cardiac disease to inform improved healthcare services. METHOD: We conducted a systematic search of peer-reviewed publications in five databases to investigate the decision-making processes, supportive strategies and healthcare experiences of pregnant women with existing or acquired cardiac disease, or of affected women contemplating pregnancy. Identified publications were screened for duplication and eligibility against selection criteria, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We then undertook a thematic analysis of the data relating to women's experiences extracted from each publication to inform new healthcare practices and communication. RESULTS: Eleven studies from six countries were included in our meta-synthesis. Four themes were revealed. Women with congenital and acquired heart disease identified situations where they had either taken charge of decision-making, lacked control or experienced emotional uncertainty when making decisions. Some women were risk aware and determined to take care of themselves in pregnancy while others downplayed the risks. Women with heart disease acknowledged the importance of specific social support measures during pregnancy and after child birth, and reported a spectrum of healthcare experiences. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of integrated and tailored healthcare services and information for women with cardiac disease in pregnancy. The experiences of women synthesised in this research has the potential to inform new evidence-based guidelines to support the decision-making needs of women with cardiac disease in pregnancy. Shared decision-making must consider communication across the clinical team. However, coordinated care is challenging due to the different specialists involved and the limited clinical evidence concerning effective approaches to managing such complex care.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/psicologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Medo , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Participação do Paciente , Autonomia Pessoal , Gravidez , Autocuidado , Apoio Social , Incerteza
6.
CMAJ ; 190(33): E974-E984, 2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) may assist triage and clinical decision-making in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome; however, this could result in the misclassification of risk because of analytical variation or laboratory error. We sought to evaluate a new laboratory-based risk-stratification tool that incorporates tests for hs-cTn, glucose level and estimated glomerular filtration rate to identify patients at risk of myocardial infarction or death when presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: We constructed the clinical chemistry score (CCS) (range 0-5 points) and validated it as a predictor of 30-day myocardial infarction (MI) or death using data from 4 cohort studies involving patients who presented to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. We calculated diagnostic parameters for the CCS score separately using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). RESULTS: For the combined cohorts (n = 4245), 17.1% of participants had an MI or died within 30 days. A CCS score of 0 points best identified low-risk participants: the hs-cTnI CCS had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 99.5%-100%), with 8.9% (95% CI 8.1%-9.8%) of the population classified as being at low risk of MI or death within 30 days; the hs-cTnT CCS had a sensitivity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.2%-100%), with 10.5% (95% CI 9.6%-11.4%) of the population classified as being at low risk. The CCS had better sensitivity than hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI < 5 ng/L: 96.6%, 95% CI 95.0%-97.8%; hs-cTnT < 6 ng/L: 98.2%, 95% CI 97.0%-99.0%). A CCS score of 5 points best identified patients at high risk (hs-cTnI CCS: specificity 96.6%, 95% CI 96.0%-97.2%; 11.2% [95% CI 10.3%-12.2%] of the population classified as being at high risk; hs-cTnT CCS: specificity 94.0%, 95% CI 93.1%-94.7%; 13.1% [95% CI 12.1%-14.1%] of the population classified as being at high risk) compared with using the overall 99th percentiles for the hs-cTn assays (specificity of hs-cTnI 93.2%, 95% CI 92.3-94.0; specificity of hs-cTnT 73.8%, 95% CI 72.3-75.2). INTERPRETATION: The CCS score at the chosen cut-offs was more sensitive and specific than hs-cTn alone for risk stratification of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, nos. NCT01994577; NCT02355457.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Miocárdio/química , Troponina I/análise , Troponina T/análise , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Morte , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Clin Chem ; 64(7): 1044-1053, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin I or T detected by high-sensitivity assays (hs-cTnI or hs-cTnT) confers an increased risk of adverse prognosis. We determined whether patients presenting with putatively normal, detectable cTn concentrations [> limit of detection and < upper reference limit (URL)] have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or all-cause mortality. METHODS: A prospective 5-year follow-up of patients recruited in the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cTn concentrations measured with hs-cTnI (Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Roche) assays. Cox regression models were generated with adjustment for covariates in those without MACE on presentation. Hazard ratios (HRs) for hs-cTn were calculated relative to the HRs at the median concentration. RESULTS: Of 1113 patients, 836 were without presentation MACE. Of these, 138 incurred a MACE and 169 died during a median 5.8-year follow-up. HRs for MACE at the URLs were 2.3 (95% CI, 1.7-3.2) for hs-cTnI and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3-2.4) for hs-cTnT. Corresponding HRs for mortality were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2-2.2) for hs-cTnI and 2.3 (95 % CI, 1.7-3.1) for hs-cTnT. The HR for MACE increased with increasing hs-cTn concentration similarly for both assays, but the HR for mortality increased at approximately twice the rate for hs-cTnT than hs-cTnI. Patients with hs-cTnI ≥10 ng/L or hs-cTnT ≥16 ng/L had the same percentage of MACE at 5-year follow-up (33%) as patients with presentation MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with ACS ruled out and putatively normal but detectable hs-cTnI concentrations are at similar long-term risk as those with MACE. hs-cTnT concentrations are more strongly associated with 5-year mortality than hs-cTnI.


Assuntos
Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Fatores de Risco
8.
Heart ; 104(8): 665-672, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the limit of detection of high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score combination rule-out strategy suggested within the 2016 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Chest Pain of Recent Onset guidelines and establish the optimal TIMI score threshold for clinical use. METHODS: A pooled analysis of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain and a non-ischaemic ECG, recruited into six prospective studies, from Australia, New Zealand and the UK. We evaluated the sensitivity of TIMI score thresholds from 0 to 2 alongside hs-cTnT or hs-cTnI for the primary outcome of major adverse cardiac events within 30 days. RESULTS: Data were available for 3159 patients for hs-cTnT and 4532 for hs-cTnI, of these 376 (11.9%) and 445 (9.8%) had major adverse cardiac events, respectively. Using a TIMI score of 0, the sensitivity for the primary outcome was 99.5% (95% CI 98.1% to 99.9%) alongside hs-cTnT and 98.9% (97.4% to 99.6%)%) alongside hs-cTnI, identifying 17.9% and 21.0% of patients as low risk, respectively. For a TIMI score ≤1 sensitivity was 98.9% (97.3% to 99.7%)%) alongside hs-cTnT and 98.4% (96.8% to 99.4%)%) alongside hs-cTnI, identifying 28.1% and 35.7% as low risk, respectively. For TIMI≤2, meta-sensitivity was <98% with either assay. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the rule-out strategy suggested by NICE. The TIMI score threshold suggested for clinical use is 0. The proportion of patients identified as low risk (18%-21%) and suitable for early discharge using this threshold may be sufficient to encourage change of practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: ADAPT observational study/IMPACT intervention trial ACTRN12611001069943.ADAPT-ADP randomised controlled trial ACTRN12610000766011. EDACS-ADP randomised controlled trial ACTRN12613000745741. TRUST observational study ISRCTN no. 21109279.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina/metabolismo , Bioensaio , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Queensland , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Circulation ; 137(4): 354-363, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to safely reduce length of stay for emergency department patients with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have had mixed success. Few system-wide efforts affecting multiple hospital emergency departments have ever been evaluated. We evaluated the effectiveness of a nationwide implementation of clinical pathways for potential ACS in disparate hospitals. METHODS: This was a multicenter pragmatic stepped-wedge before-and-after trial in 7 New Zealand acute care hospitals with 31 332 patients investigated for suspected ACS with serial troponin measurements. The implementation was a clinical pathway for the assessment of patients with suspected ACS that included a clinical pathway document in paper or electronic format, structured risk stratification, specified time points for electrocardiographic and serial troponin testing within 3 hours of arrival, and directions for combining risk stratification and electrocardiographic and troponin testing in an accelerated diagnostic protocol. Implementation was monitored for >4 months and compared with usual care over the preceding 6 months. The main outcome measure was the odds of discharge within 6 hours of presentation RESULTS: There were 11 529 participants in the preimplementation phase (range, 284-3465) and 19 803 in the postimplementation phase (range, 395-5039). Overall, the mean 6-hour discharge rate increased from 8.3% (range, 2.7%-37.7%) to 18.4% (6.8%-43.8%). The odds of being discharged within 6 hours increased after clinical pathway implementation. The odds ratio was 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-2.6). In patients without ACS, the median length of hospital stays decreased by 2.9 hours (95% confidence interval, 2.4-3.4). For patients discharged within 6 hours, there was no change in 30-day major adverse cardiac event rates (0.52% versus 0.44%; P=0.96). In these patients, no adverse event occurred when clinical pathways were correctly followed. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of clinical pathways for suspected ACS reduced the length of stay and increased the proportions of patients safely discharged within 6 hours. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/ (Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry). Unique identifier: ACTRN12617000381381.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/normas , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Hospitalização , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Troponina/sangue
10.
Emerg Med Australas ; 30(1): 47-54, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a modified Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score to effectively risk stratify patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at two metropolitan EDs. Data were obtained during patient interview. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) within 30 days of presentation. Two separate modifications of the TIMI score were developed. These scores were compared to the original TIMI in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and diagnostic accuracy statistics (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values). RESULTS: Of 1760 patients, 364 (20.7%) experienced 30 day MACE. The first modified TIMI score was a simplified TIMI (s-TIMI) including four variables: age ≥65 years, three or more risk factors, high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTnI) and electrocardiogram changes. The second score included the same four variables plus two Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) variables (systolic blood pressure and estimated glomerular filtration rate). This score was termed the GRACE TIMI (g-TIMI). s-TIMI had a lower sensitivity compared to the original TIMI score (93.41 and 96.98%), but higher specificity (45.49 and 24.50%). The g-TIMI had a sensitivity of 98.90% and specificity of 14.90%. CONCLUSIONS: Attempts to modify the TIMI score yielded two scores with added predictive utility in comparison to the original TIMI model. The addition of GRACE variables (g-TIMI) increased sensitivity for MACE, but decreased the specificity of the model. The s-TIMI score yielded good specificity but had sensitivity that would not be acceptable by emergency physicians. The s-TIMI may be useful as part of an accelerated chest pain protocol.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/classificação , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/normas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dor no Peito/complicações , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Triagem/métodos , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
11.
Ann Emerg Med ; 71(4): 439-451.e3, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248334

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: This diagnostic accuracy study describes the performance of 5 accelerated chest pain pathways, calculated with the new Beckman's Access high-sensitivity troponin I assay. METHODS: High-sensitivity troponin I was measured with presentation and 2-hour blood samples in 1,811 patients who presented to an emergency department (ED) in Australia. Patients were classified as being at low risk according to 5 rules: modified accelerated diagnostic protocol to assess patients with chest pain symptoms using troponin as the only biomarker (m-ADAPT), the Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score (EDACS) pathway, the History, ECG, Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) pathway, the No Objective Testing Rule, and the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule. Endpoints were 30-day acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome. Measures of diagnostic accuracy for each rule were calculated. RESULTS: Data included 96 patients (5.3%) with acute myocardial infarction and 139 (7.7%) with acute coronary syndrome. The new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule and No Objective Testing Rule had high sensitivity for acute myocardial infarction (100%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 96.2% to 100% for both) and acute coronary syndrome (98.6% [95% CI 94.9% to 99.8%] and 99.3% [95% CI 96.1% to 100%]). The m-ADAPT, EDACS, and HEART pathways also yielded high sensitivity for acute myocardial infarction (96.9% [95% CI 91.1% to 99.4%] for m-ADAPT and 97.9% [95% CI 92.7% to 99.7%] for EDACS and HEART), but lower sensitivity for acute coronary syndrome (≤95.0% for all). The m-ADAPT, EDACS, and HEART rules classified more patients as being at low risk (64.3%, 62.5%, and 49.8%, respectively) than the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule and No Objective Testing Rule (28.2% and 34.5%, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this cohort with a low prevalence of acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome, using the Beckman's Access high-sensitivity troponin I assay with the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule or No Objective Testing Rule enabled approximately one third of patients to be safely discharged after 2-hour risk stratification with no further testing. The EDACS, m-ADAPT, or HEART pathway enabled half of ED patients to be rapidly referred for objective testing.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Queensland/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
12.
Med J Aust ; 207(5): 195-200, 2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the safety and efficacy of the Improved Assessment of Chest pain Trial (IMPACT) protocol, a strategy for accelerated assessment of patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with chest pain. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: IMPACT was an intervention trial at a single tertiary referral hospital (Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital) during February 2011 - March 2014. 1366 prospectively recruited patients presenting to the ED with symptoms of suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were stratified into groups at low, intermediate or high risk of an ACS. INTERVENTION: High risk patients were treated according to NHFA/CSANZ guidelines. Low and intermediate risk patients underwent troponin testing (sensitive assay) 0 and 2 hours after presentation. Intermediate risk patients underwent objective testing after the second troponin test; low risk patients were discharged without further objective testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was an ACS within 30 days of presentation. Secondary outcomes were ED and hospital lengths of stay (LOS). RESULTS: The IMPACT protocol stratified 244 (17.9%) patients to low risk, 789 (57.7%) to intermediate risk, and 333 (24.4%) to high risk categories. The overall 30-day ACS rate was 6.6%, but there were no ACS events in the low risk group, and 14 (1.8%) in the intermediate risk group. The median hospital LOS was 5.1 hours (IQR, 4.2-5.6 h) for low risk and 7.7 hours (IQR, 6.1-21 h) for intermediate risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: The IMPACT protocol safely and efficiently allowed a large proportion of patients presenting to EDs with chest pain to undergo accelerated assessment for risk of an ACS. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000206921.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Nova Zelândia , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina/análise
13.
Med J Aust ; 207(5): 201-205, 2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hospital length of stay (LOS) and admission rates before and after implementation of an evidence-based, accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP) for patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with chest pain. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental design, with interrupted time series analysis for the period October 2013 - November 2015. Setting, participants: Adults presenting with chest pain to EDs of 16 public hospitals in Queensland. INTERVENTION: Implementation of the ADP by structured clinical re-design. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: hospital LOS. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: ED LOS, hospital admission rate, proportion of patients identified as being at low risk of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). RESULTS: Outcomes were recorded for 30 769 patients presenting before and 23 699 presenting after implementation of the ADP. Following implementation, 21.3% of patients were identified by the ADP as being at low risk for an ACS. Following implementation of the ADP, mean hospital LOS fell from 57.7 to 47.3 hours (rate ratio [RR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) and mean ED LOS for all patients presenting with chest pain fell from 292 to 256 minutes (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.89). The hospital admission rate fell from 68.3% (95% CI, 59.3-78.5%) to 54.9% (95% CI, 44.7-67.6%; P < 0.01). The estimated release in financial capacity amounted to $2.3 million as the result of reduced ED LOS and $11.2 million through fewer hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing an evidence-based ADP for assessing patients with chest pain was feasible across a range of hospital types, and achieved a substantial release of health service capacity through reductions in hospital admissions and ED LOS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Queensland/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/classificação
14.
Emerg Med Australas ; 29(6): 664-671, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many meta-analyses have provided synthesised likelihood ratio data to aid clinical decision-making. However, much less has been published on how to safely combine clinical information in practice. We aimed to explore the benefits and risks of pooling clinical information during the ED assessment of suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Clinical information on 1776 patients was collected within a randomised trial conducted across five South Australian EDs between July 2011 and March 2013. Bayes theorem was used to calculate patient-specific post-test probabilities using age- and gender-specific pre-test probabilities and likelihood ratios corresponding to the presence or absence of 18 clinical factors. Model performance was assessed as the presence of adverse cardiac outcomes among patients theoretically discharged at a post-test probability less than 1%. RESULTS: Bayes theorem-based models containing high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-troponin) outperformed models excluding hs-troponin, as well as models utilising TIMI and GRACE scores. In models containing hs-troponin, a plateau in improving discharge safety was observed after the inclusion of four clinical factors. Models with fewer clinical factors better approximated the true event rate, tended to be safer and resulted in a smaller standard deviation in post-test probability estimates. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that there is a definable point where additional information becomes uninformative and may actually lead to less certainty. This evidence supports the concept that clinical decision-making in the assessment of suspected acute coronary syndrome should be focused on obtaining the least amount of information that provides the highest benefit for informing the decisions of admission or discharge.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Admissão do Paciente/normas , Troponina T/análise , Troponina T/sangue
15.
BMJ Open ; 7(6): e013653, 2017 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate hospital-specific health economic implications of different protocols using high-sensitivity troponin I for the assessment of patients with chest pain. DESIGN: A cost prediction model and an economic microsimulation were developed using a cohort from a single centre recruited as part of the (ADAPT) trial, a prospective observational trial conducted from 2008 to 2011. The model was populated with 40 000 bootstrapped samples in five high-sensitivity troponin I-enabled algorithms versus standard care. SETTING: Adult emergency department (ED) of a tertiary referral hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Data were available for 938 patients who presented to the ED with at least 5 min of symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. The analyses included 719 patients with complete data. MAIN OUTCOMES/MEASURES: This study examined direct hospital costs, number of false-negative and false-positive cases in the assessment of acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: High-sensitivity troponin I-supported algorithms increased diagnostic accuracy from 90.0% to 94.0% with an average cost reduction per patient compared with standard care of $490. The inclusion of additional criteria for accelerated rule-out (limit of detection and the modified 2-hour ADAPT trial rules) avoided 7.5% of short-stay unit admissions or 25% of admissions to a cardiac ward. Protocols using high-sensitivity troponin I alone or high-sensitivity troponin I within accelerated diagnostic algorithms reduced length of stay by 6.2 and 13.6 hours, respectively. Overnight stays decreased up to 43%. Results were seen for patients with non-acute coronary syndrome; no difference was found for patients with acute coronary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: High-sensitivity troponin I algorithms are likely to be cost-effective on a hospital level compared with sensitive troponin protocols. The positive effect is conferred by patients not diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome. Implementation could improve referral accuracy or facilitate safe discharge. It would decrease costs and provide significant hospital benefits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The original ADAPT trial was registered with the Australia-New Zealand Clinical trials Registry, ACTRN12611001069943.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Simulação por Computador , Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Admissão do Paciente/economia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Emerg Med Australas ; 29(2): 210-216, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with ambulance use in patients with confirmed and potential acute coronary syndrome presenting to the ED. METHODS: A convenience sample of patients (n = 247) presenting to the ED from April 2014 to January 2015 with suspected acute coronary syndrome were included in the study. Data on mode of transport and patient demographics were collected from the Emergency Department Information System database. Clinical data were collected from chart records and information systems. A questionnaire assessed reasons for using a chosen method of transport, symptom timing and characteristics, acute coronary syndrome knowledge, and awareness of the National Heart Foundation Early Warning Symptoms campaign. RESULTS: Approximately half the patients (49.4%) assessed with symptoms of potential acute coronary syndrome used ambulance transport to the ED. Patients who arrived by ambulance were older than those not arriving by ambulance (mean 56.7 years vs 51.7 years, P = 0.01). Risk factors were not associated with ambulance use. Dizziness (P < 0.01), sweating (P = 0.03), nausea (P = 0.03) and vomiting (P = 0.04) were associated with increased ambulance use. Mean systolic blood pressure was lower in the ambulance group (136 mmHg, standard deviation [SD] = 19.8) than in the non-ambulance group (143 mmHg, SD = 25.9). Awareness of the National Heart Foundation Heart Attack Warning Signs campaign was not associated with ambulance use. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with possible ischaemic symptoms who are at a high risk of cardiac disease do not utilise ambulance services more than low risk patients. In general, transport to hospital using ambulance services by patients with symptoms of possible acute coronary syndrome is low despite community campaigns.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transporte de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 15(4): 169-173, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Elevated uric acid levels have been associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to assess the clinical utility of serum uric acid levels to identify patients at high risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in those who presented to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 951 adult patients who were being evaluated for ACS in a single ED. Serum uric acid was taken on presentation. Patients were followed up 30 days and 1 year after initial presentation. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of ACS within 30 days of initial attendance. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify whether elevated uric acid levels were predictive of ACS. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to identify 1-year mortality in those who were available for 1-year follow-up and Cox regression was performed to identify whether uric acid levels were an independent predictor of mortality. RESULTS: ACS was diagnosed in 88 patients and 140 patients had elevated uric acid levels. A total of 679 patients agreed to 1-year follow-up. Elevated uric acid levels were not associated with a diagnosis of ACS (p = 0.96). Patients with elevated uric acid had a higher 1-year death rate (8/101; 7.92%) compared with patients with normal uric acid levels (12/596; 2.01%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Uric acid levels lack diagnostic utility for ACS but may be useful for identifying ED patients with chest pain who are at high risk for 1-year mortality. Elevated uric acid levels correlate with the presence of other risk factors of CAD and are a marker for poor long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Int J Cardiol ; 220: 131-6, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27376569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence, onset, predictors and outcome of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA) in pregnant women with heart disease. BACKGROUND: VTA during pregnancy will cause maternal morbidity and even mortality and will have impact on fetal outcome. Insufficient data exist on the incidence and outcome of VTA in pregnancy. METHODS AND RESULTS: From January 2007 up to October 2013, 99 hospitals in 39 countries enrolled 2966 pregnancies in women with structural heart disease. Forty-two women (1.4%) developed clinically relevant VTA during pregnancy, which occurred mainly in the third trimester (48%). NYHA class >1 before pregnancy was an independent predictor for VTA. Heart failure during pregnancy was more common in women with VTA than in women without VTA (24% vs. 12%, p=0.03) and maternal mortality was respectively 2.4% and 0.3% (p=0.15). More women with VTA delivered by Cesarean section than women without VTA (68% vs. 47%, p=0.01). Neonatal death, preterm birth (<37weeks), low birthweight (<2500g) and Apgar score <7 occurred more often in women with VTA (4.8% vs. 0.3%, p=0.01; 36% vs. 16%, p=0.001; 33% vs. 15%, p=0.001 and 25% vs. 7.3%, p=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: VTA occurred in 1.4% of pregnant women with cardiovascular disease, mainly in the third trimester, and was associated with heart failure during pregnancy. NYHA class before pregnancy was predictive. VTA during pregnancy had clear impact on fetal outcome.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Taquicardia Ventricular , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/mortalidade , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/mortalidade
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