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1.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(1): 45-51, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778509

RESUMO

Pregnancy and childbirth present a specific challenge to the maternal cardiovascular system. Pre-existing cardiac diseases, or cardiac diseases that occur during pregnancy, are associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality for both mother and baby. In recent decades, cardiac disease has emerged as a leading cause of maternal death in most high income countries, including Australia and New Zealand. The burden of cardiac disease in pregnancy is likely to be growing due to an increase in adult survivors with congenital heart disease embarking on pregnancy coupled with demographic shifts in the age and cardiovascular risk factors of women giving birth and the persisting high incidence of acute rheumatic fever in First Nations women. There is widespread consensus that the best obstetric and neonatal outcomes in women with cardiac disease are delivered by a strategy of carefully coordinated multidisciplinary care. Australia and New Zealand currently lack nationally agreed strategies for clinical practice and service delivery for women with heart disease in pregnancy. This state-of-the-art review summarises some of the key issues faced in relation to prevention, diagnosis, treatment and health service delivery in this patient group and concludes with suggested priorities for policy and research.

2.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(1): 144-153, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy amongst cardiac transplant recipients are limited in the current literature. METHODS: We describe five pregnancies in three cardiac transplant recipients managed between a tertiary centre for obstetric medicine and an associated state-wide transplant centre between 2014-2018, and provide a narrative review of the literature. RESULTS: Pre-conception counselling was undertaken. There were no recent rejection episodes and all women demonstrated good baseline cardiac function. Median maternal age was 27 years (range 23-38 yrs.). Median time from transplantation to pregnancy was 5 years (range 2-14 yrs.). All women were managed with modified immunosuppressant regimens and multidisciplinary care. Cardiac function, tacrolimus levels and renal function were closely monitored with frequent monitoring for common complications of pregnancy. There were no maternal or fetal deaths. There was no evidence of graft rejection and no deterioration in cardiac function. Tacrolimus doses were increased to maintain therapeutic targets. Gestational diabetes occurred in three women and cholestasis of pregnancy occurred in one. Each infant was delivered by vaginal delivery. One mother had postpartum haemorrhage in both pregnancies. Pre-eclampsia did not occur. Median gestation at delivery was 37 weeks (range 35+4-40+5 days) with two preterm deliveries. One (1) infant was born with low birth weight. One (1) infant had jaundice requiring phototherapy. All infants were breastfed. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy in transplant recipients confers risk to the mother and fetus. Pre-conception counselling, immunosuppressant tailoring and regular monitoring are paramount to avoid rejection and possible teratogenic complications. Favourable pregnancy outcomes are achievable with specialist multidisciplinary care.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(15): e015490, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750301

RESUMO

Background The prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women of child-bearing age is rising. Data on pregnancies however are scarce. The objective is to describe the pregnancy outcomes in these women. Methods and Results The European Society of Cardiology-EURObservational Research Programme ROPAC (Registry of Pregnancy and Cardiac Disease) is a prospective registry in which data on pregnancies in women with heart disease were collected from 138 centers in 53 countries. Pregnant women with preexistent and pregnancy-onset IHD were included. Primary end point were maternal cardiac events. Secondary end points were obstetric and fetal complications. There were 117 women with IHD, of which 104 had preexisting IHD. Median age was 35.5 years and 17.1% of women were smoking. There was no maternal mortality, heart failure occurred in 5 pregnancies (4.8%). Of the 104 women with preexisting IHD, 11 women suffered from acute coronary syndrome during pregnancy. ST-segment‒elevation myocardial infarction were more common than non‒ST-segment‒elevation myocardial infarction, and atherosclerosis was the most common etiology. Women who had undergone revascularization before pregnancy did not have less events than women who had not. There were 13 women with pregnancy-onset IHD, in whom non‒ST-segment‒elevation myocardial infarction was the most common. Smoking during pregnancy was associated with acute coronary syndrome. Caesarean section was the primary mode of delivery (55.8% in preexisting IHD, 84.6% in pregnancy-onset IHD) and there were high rates of preterm births (20.2% and 38.5%, respectively). Conclusions Women with IHD tolerate pregnancy relatively well, however there is a high rate of ischemic events and these women should therefore be considered moderate- to high-risk. Ongoing cigarette smoking is associated with acute coronary syndrome during pregnancy.

4.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(7): e105-e110, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601022

RESUMO

A pandemic of Coronavirus-19 disease was declared by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The pandemic is expected to place unprecedented demand on health service delivery. This position statement has been developed by the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand to assist clinicians to continue to deliver rapid and safe evaluation of patients presenting with suspected acute cardiac syndrome at this time. The position statement complements, and should be read in conjunction with, the National Heart Foundation of Australia & Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand: Australian Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes 2016: Section 2 'Assessment of Possible Cardiac Chest Pain'.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Cardiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Cardiologia/métodos , Cardiologia/organização & administração , Cardiologia/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Médicas
5.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560184

RESUMO

Adoption of High-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) assays by hospitals worldwide is increasing. We sought to determine the effects of a simultaneous state-wide hs-cTn assay introduction on the implementing health service. A quasi-experimental pre-post design was used. Participants included all adult patients presenting to 21 Australian hospitals who had troponin testing commenced within the Emergency Department (ED). Data were collected for 124,357 episodes of care between 30 April 2018 and 23 April 2019; six months pre- and six months post-implementation of the assay. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes included ED LOS, 90-day cardiovascular mortality, elevated troponin, diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), admission to a cardiology ward, invasive cardiac procedures, and total hospital costs. Following hs-cTn implementation, there was a 1.9-h (95% CI: -2.9 to -1.0 h) reduction in overall LOS. This equated to a cost saving of over 9 million Australian dollars per year. There was no increase in diagnosis of AMI, invasive cardiac procedures or ward admissions. The use of hs-cTn assays facilitates important benefits for health services by enabling more rapid evaluation protocols within the ED. This benefit may be considerable given the large cohort of emergency patients with possible ACS.

6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 419, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Improved assessment of chest pain trial (IMPACT) protocol is an accelerated strategy for the risk stratification and management of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain. This study sought to describe the adoption, sustainability and health services implications of implementing the IMPACT protocol. METHODS: This was a study of adult patients in a large Australian tertiary hospital who had serial troponin testing commenced within the ED. Data from two periods were utilized; the pre-implementation period (8th April 2012 to 5th April 2014) and the post-implementation period (6th April 2014 to 2nd April 2016). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients undergoing accelerated care. Secondary endpoints were ED assessment time, hospital length of stay, and costs. Data were compared in the pre- and post-implementation periods. RESULTS: The proportion of patients receiving accelerated care increased from 3% in the pre- to 34% in the post-intervention period. This increase occurred rapidly after implementation of IMPACT and was sustained over a 2-year period. For patients with troponin concentrations <99th percentile, the mean ED assessment time reduced from 12.3 h in the pre- to 10.1 h in the post-implementation period. Mean hospital length of stay was similar in the pre- and post-implementation periods (82.4 and 80.9 h). The average cost of chest pain assessment reduced from $3520 pre implementation to $3204 post implementation; a $316 reduction per patient. CONCLUSIONS: The IMPACT protocol was rapidly adopted and utilised after implementation into standard care. The initial increase in the proportion of patients undergoing accelerated assessment, followed by a plateau towards the end of the study period indicate adoption and sustainability of the IMPACT protocol over a two-year period. Modest reductions in length of stay and cost were seen after implementation. Given the large number of patients investigated for chest pain, such reductions may have substantial impact on the overall healthcare system.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
7.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 115, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mapping algorithms can be used to convert scores from a non-preference based instrument to health state utilities. The objective of this study was to develop mapping algorithms which will enable the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) scores to be converted into EQ-5D-5L utility scores that can be used in heart failure related cost utility studies. METHOD: Patients diagnosed with heart failure were recruited from Australia. Mapping algorithms were developed using both direct and indirect response mapping approach. Three model specifications were considered to predict the EQ-5D-5 L utility score using MLHFQ total score (Model 1), MLHFQ domain scores (Model 2), or MLHFQ item scores (Model 3). Six regression techniques, each of which has the capability to cope with either skewness, heteroscedasticity, ceiling effects and/or the potential presence of outliers in the data set were used to identify the optimal mapping functions for each of the three models. Goodness-of-fit of the models were assessed using six indicators. In the absence of an external validation dataset, predictive performance of was assessed using three-fold cross validation method. In the indirect response mapping, EQ. 5D 5 L responses were predicted separately using the MLHFQ item scores using ordered logit model. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients participated in the study. The lowest mean absolute error (MAE) was recorded from the multivariable fractional polynomials (MFP) model in all three-model specifications. Regarding the indirect response mapping, results showed that the performance was comparable with the direct mapping approach based on root mean squared error (RMSE) but was worse based on MAE. CONCLUSION: The MLHFQ can be mapped onto EQ-5D-5 L utilities with good predictive accuracy using both direct and indirect response mapping techniques. The reported mapping algorithms would facilitate calculation of health utility for economic evaluations related to heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Idoso , Algoritmos , Austrália , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão
8.
Emerg Med J ; 37(1): 2-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians frequently assess risk of acute cardiac events (ACEs) in patients with undifferentiated chest pain. Such estimates have been shown to have moderate to high sensitivity for ACE but are conservative. Little is known about the factors implicitly used by physicians to determine the pretest probability of risk. This study sought to identify the accuracy of physician risk estimates for ACE in patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and to identify the demographic and clinical information emergency physicians use in their determination of patient risk. METHODS: This study used data from two prospective studies of consenting adult patients presenting to the ED with symptoms of possible acute coronary syndrome. ED physicians estimated the pretest probability of ACE. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of physician risk estimates. Logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a correlation between physicians' estimated risk and ACE. RESULTS: Increasing age, male sex, abnormal ECG features, heavy/crushing chest pain and risk factors were correlated with physician risk estimates. Physician risk estimates were consistently found to be higher than the expected proportion of ACE from the sampled population. CONCLUSION: Physicians systematically overestimate ACE risk. A range of factors are associated with physician risk estimates. These include factors strongly predictive of ACE, such as age and ECG characteristics. They also include other factors that have been shown to be unreliable predictors of ACE in an ED setting, such as typicality of pain and risk factors.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Doença Aguda , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dor no Peito/mortalidade , Dor no Peito/terapia , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
9.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e029360, 2019 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the annual pharmaceutical costs for patients with stable coronary artery disease, using Australian administrative data, comparing patients who had undergone interventional treatment with those had not. We also aimed to compare the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) prescription in the real-world, with recommended guidelines. DESIGN: An observational study using administrative data. PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the QSkin study, a population-based prospective study assessing skin cancer risk. Participants were invited from the Queensland population, not based on perceived skin cancer risk, and had consented to future use of their data for approved research projects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We calculated 12-month costs of pharmaceutical therapy for coronary artery disease for patients in each of three clinically relevant groups: medical therapy only, following coronary stent implantation and following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We measured the duration of DAPT following stent implantation and total duration of DAPT, where it was prescribed, in the medical therapy only group. RESULTS: Estimated mean annual pharmaceutical costs were highest in the stent group at AUD$1920, compared with AUD$1481 in the medical therapy group, and AUD$881 in the coronary artery bypass group. There were similar rates of prescriptions of symptom relief drugs following stent insertion, compared with the medical therapy only group. The median duration of DAPT in the stent group was 16, and 31 months in the medical therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that despite the common expectation that the burden of medical therapy is reduced following coronary stent insertion for stable coronary artery disease, this does not occur in practice. Many patients also appear to continue DAPT longer than guidelines recommend, which may put them at unnecessarily elevated risk of bleeding events.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/dietoterapia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/economia , Stents Farmacológicos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/economia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/economia , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Queensland , Medição de Risco
10.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1437-1447, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to derive and externally validate a 0/2-h algorithm using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI)-Access assay. METHODS: We enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 2 prospective diagnostic studies using central adjudication. Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis, including all available medical information including cardiac imaging. hs-cTnI-Access concentrations were measured at presentation and after 2 h in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 164 of 1131 (14.5%) patients in the derivation cohort. Rule-out by the hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm was defined as 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <4 ng/L in patients with an onset of chest pain >3 h (direct rule-out) or a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <5 ng/L and an absolute change within 2 h <5 ng/L in all other patients. Derived thresholds for rule-in were a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration ≥50 ng/L (direct rule-in) or an absolute change within 2 h ≥20 ng/L. In the derivation cohort, these cutoffs ruled out 55% of patients with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 99.4% (95% CI, 96.5-99.9), and ruled in 30% of patients with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 73% (95% CI, 66.1-79). In the validation cohort, AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 88 of 1280 (6.9%) patients. These cutoffs ruled out 77.9% of patients with an NPV of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 97.7% (95% CI, 92.0-99.7), and ruled in 5.8% of patients with a PPV of 77% (95% CI, 65.8-86) in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Safety and efficacy of the l hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm for triage toward rule-out or rule-in of AMI are very high. TRIAL REGISTRATION: APACE, NCT00470587; ADAPT, ACTRN1261100106994; IMPACT, ACTRN12611000206921.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Triagem , Troponina I/sangue , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Bioensaio/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
13.
Heart ; 105(20): 1559-1567, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the setting of left bundle branch block (LBBB) present an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the incidence of AMI and diagnostic performance of specific ECG and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) criteria in patients presenting with chest discomfort to 26 emergency departments in three international, prospective, diagnostic studies. The final diagnosis of AMI was centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists according to the universal definition of myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Among 8830 patients, LBBB was present in 247 (2.8%). AMI was the final diagnosis in 30% of patients with LBBB, with similar incidence in those with known LBBB versus those with presumably new LBBB (29% vs 35%, p=0.42). ECG criteria had low sensitivity (1%-12%) but high specificity (95%-100%) for AMI. The diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations at presentation (area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.96 and AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.95), as well as that of their 0/1-hour and 0/2-hour changes, was very high. A diagnostic algorithm combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I concentrations and their absolute changes at 1 hour or 2 hours derived in cohort 1 (45 of 45(100%) patients with AMI correctly identified) showed high efficacy and accuracy when externally validated in cohorts 2 and 3 (28 of 29 patients, 97%). CONCLUSION: Most patients presenting with suspected AMI and LBBB will be found to have diagnoses other than AMI. Combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I testing at 0/1 hour or 0/2 hours allows early and accurate diagnosis of AMI in LBBB. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: APACE: NCT00470587; ADAPT: ACTRN12611001069943; TRAPID-AMI: RD001107;Results.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Bloqueio de Ramo , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Troponina I/análise , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/análise , Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Bloqueio de Ramo/epidemiologia , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento
14.
Eur Heart J ; 40(47): 3848-3855, 2019 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907409

RESUMO

AIMS: Reducing maternal mortality is a World Health Organization (WHO) global health goal. Although maternal deaths due to haemorrhage and infection are declining, those related to heart disease are increasing and are now the most important cause in western countries. The aim is to define contemporary diagnosis-specific outcomes in pregnant women with heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2007 to 2018, pregnant women with heart disease were prospectively enrolled in the Registry Of Pregnancy And Cardiac disease (ROPAC). Primary outcome was maternal mortality or heart failure, secondary outcomes were other cardiac, obstetric, and foetal complications. We enrolled 5739 pregnancies; the mean age was 29.5. Prevalent diagnoses were congenital (57%) and valvular heart disease (29%). Mortality (overall 0.6%) was highest in the pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) group (9%). Heart failure occurred in 11%, arrhythmias in 2%. Delivery was by Caesarean section in 44%. Obstetric and foetal complications occurred in 17% and 21%, respectively. The number of high-risk pregnancies (mWHO Class IV) increased from 0.7% in 2007-2010 to 10.9% in 2015-2018. Determinants for maternal complications were pre-pregnancy heart failure or New York Heart Association >II, systemic ejection fraction <40%, mWHO Class 4, and anticoagulants use. After an increase from 2007 to 2009, complication rates fell from 13.2% in 2010 to 9.3% in 2017. CONCLUSION: Rates of maternal mortality or heart failure were high in women with heart disease. However, from 2010, these rates declined despite the inclusion of more high-risk pregnancies. Highest complication rates occurred in women with PAH.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Previsões , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Morbidade/tendências , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 282: 93-98, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745254

RESUMO

Cardiac troponin is a sensitive and specific biomarker for acute myocardial injury and has been used in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes, and has emerged as a tool for identifying high risk individuals for primary preventive therapy. Recent evidence has emerged indicating that high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays, which allow robust detection of very low troponin concentrations, could detect subclinical injury in asymptomatic patients. On 24 March 2018, a group of cardiologists from the Asia Pacific region convened to review the data and discuss the potential utility of high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease in the general population. The group recognized the immense burden of cardiovascular disease in the Asia-Pacific region, and the limitations of current risk stratification strategies. Data demonstrates that cardiac biomarkers like hsTnI could improve risk stratification, and thresholds for hsTnI in cardiovascular disease risk classification have been developed in Caucasian populations but not validated in Asian populations. There is an urgent need to improve cardiovascular risk assessment in the Asia Pacific general population, validate the Asian threshold of high risk and prove the utility of targeting these high-risk individuals for primary preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Troponina I/sangue , Ásia/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Oceano Pacífico/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e022755, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac disease in pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal death in high-income countries. Evidence-based guidelines to assist in planning and managing the healthcare of affected women is lacking. The objective of this research was to produce the first qualitative metasynthesis of the experiences of pregnant women with existing or acquired cardiac disease to inform improved healthcare services. METHOD: We conducted a systematic search of peer-reviewed publications in five databases to investigate the decision-making processes, supportive strategies and healthcare experiences of pregnant women with existing or acquired cardiac disease, or of affected women contemplating pregnancy. Identified publications were screened for duplication and eligibility against selection criteria, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We then undertook a thematic analysis of the data relating to women's experiences extracted from each publication to inform new healthcare practices and communication. RESULTS: Eleven studies from six countries were included in our meta-synthesis. Four themes were revealed. Women with congenital and acquired heart disease identified situations where they had either taken charge of decision-making, lacked control or experienced emotional uncertainty when making decisions. Some women were risk aware and determined to take care of themselves in pregnancy while others downplayed the risks. Women with heart disease acknowledged the importance of specific social support measures during pregnancy and after child birth, and reported a spectrum of healthcare experiences. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of integrated and tailored healthcare services and information for women with cardiac disease in pregnancy. The experiences of women synthesised in this research has the potential to inform new evidence-based guidelines to support the decision-making needs of women with cardiac disease in pregnancy. Shared decision-making must consider communication across the clinical team. However, coordinated care is challenging due to the different specialists involved and the limited clinical evidence concerning effective approaches to managing such complex care.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/psicologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Medo , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Participação do Paciente , Autonomia Pessoal , Gravidez , Autocuidado , Apoio Social , Incerteza
17.
CMAJ ; 190(33): E974-E984, 2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) may assist triage and clinical decision-making in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome; however, this could result in the misclassification of risk because of analytical variation or laboratory error. We sought to evaluate a new laboratory-based risk-stratification tool that incorporates tests for hs-cTn, glucose level and estimated glomerular filtration rate to identify patients at risk of myocardial infarction or death when presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: We constructed the clinical chemistry score (CCS) (range 0-5 points) and validated it as a predictor of 30-day myocardial infarction (MI) or death using data from 4 cohort studies involving patients who presented to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. We calculated diagnostic parameters for the CCS score separately using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). RESULTS: For the combined cohorts (n = 4245), 17.1% of participants had an MI or died within 30 days. A CCS score of 0 points best identified low-risk participants: the hs-cTnI CCS had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 99.5%-100%), with 8.9% (95% CI 8.1%-9.8%) of the population classified as being at low risk of MI or death within 30 days; the hs-cTnT CCS had a sensitivity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.2%-100%), with 10.5% (95% CI 9.6%-11.4%) of the population classified as being at low risk. The CCS had better sensitivity than hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI < 5 ng/L: 96.6%, 95% CI 95.0%-97.8%; hs-cTnT < 6 ng/L: 98.2%, 95% CI 97.0%-99.0%). A CCS score of 5 points best identified patients at high risk (hs-cTnI CCS: specificity 96.6%, 95% CI 96.0%-97.2%; 11.2% [95% CI 10.3%-12.2%] of the population classified as being at high risk; hs-cTnT CCS: specificity 94.0%, 95% CI 93.1%-94.7%; 13.1% [95% CI 12.1%-14.1%] of the population classified as being at high risk) compared with using the overall 99th percentiles for the hs-cTn assays (specificity of hs-cTnI 93.2%, 95% CI 92.3-94.0; specificity of hs-cTnT 73.8%, 95% CI 72.3-75.2). INTERPRETATION: The CCS score at the chosen cut-offs was more sensitive and specific than hs-cTn alone for risk stratification of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, nos. NCT01994577; NCT02355457.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Miocárdio/química , Troponina I/análise , Troponina T/análise , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Morte , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0198658, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a serious human pathogen that affects people of different ages and socio-economic levels. Although vaccination is potentially one of the most effective methods to control GAS infection and its sequelae, few prototype vaccines have been investigated in humans. In this study, we report the safety and immunogenicity of a novel acetylated peptide-protein conjugate vaccine candidate MJ8VAX (J8-DT), when delivered intramuscularly to healthy adults. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, controlled Phase I clinical trial was conducted in 10 healthy adult participants. Participants were randomized 4:1 to receive the vaccine candidate (N = 8) or placebo (N = 2). A single dose of the vaccine candidate (MJ8VAX), contained 50 µg of peptide conjugate (J8-DT) adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide and re-suspended in PBS in a total volume of 0.5 mL. Safety of the vaccine candidate was assessed by monitoring local and systemic adverse reactions following intramuscular administration. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was assessed by measuring the levels of peptide (anti-J8) and toxoid carrier (anti-DT)-specific antibodies in serum samples. RESULTS: No serious adverse events were reported over 12 months of study. A total of 13 adverse events (AEs) were recorded, two of which were assessed to be associated with the vaccine. Both were mild in severity. No local reactogenicity was recorded in any of the participants. MJ8VAX was shown to be immunogenic, with increase in vaccine-specific antibodies in the participants who received the vaccine. The maximum level of vaccine-specific antibodies was detected at 28 days post immunization. The level of these antibodies decreased with time during follow-up. Participants who received the vaccine also had a corresponding increase in anti-DT serum antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Intramuscular administration of MJ8VAX was demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic. The presence of DT in the vaccine formulation resulted in a boost in the level of anti-DT antibodies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12613000030774.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/efeitos adversos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade , Vacinas Conjugadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
19.
Clin Chem ; 64(7): 1044-1053, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin I or T detected by high-sensitivity assays (hs-cTnI or hs-cTnT) confers an increased risk of adverse prognosis. We determined whether patients presenting with putatively normal, detectable cTn concentrations [> limit of detection and < upper reference limit (URL)] have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or all-cause mortality. METHODS: A prospective 5-year follow-up of patients recruited in the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cTn concentrations measured with hs-cTnI (Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Roche) assays. Cox regression models were generated with adjustment for covariates in those without MACE on presentation. Hazard ratios (HRs) for hs-cTn were calculated relative to the HRs at the median concentration. RESULTS: Of 1113 patients, 836 were without presentation MACE. Of these, 138 incurred a MACE and 169 died during a median 5.8-year follow-up. HRs for MACE at the URLs were 2.3 (95% CI, 1.7-3.2) for hs-cTnI and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3-2.4) for hs-cTnT. Corresponding HRs for mortality were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2-2.2) for hs-cTnI and 2.3 (95 % CI, 1.7-3.1) for hs-cTnT. The HR for MACE increased with increasing hs-cTn concentration similarly for both assays, but the HR for mortality increased at approximately twice the rate for hs-cTnT than hs-cTnI. Patients with hs-cTnI ≥10 ng/L or hs-cTnT ≥16 ng/L had the same percentage of MACE at 5-year follow-up (33%) as patients with presentation MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with ACS ruled out and putatively normal but detectable hs-cTnI concentrations are at similar long-term risk as those with MACE. hs-cTnT concentrations are more strongly associated with 5-year mortality than hs-cTnI.


Assuntos
Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Fatores de Risco
20.
Circulation ; 138(10): 989-999, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining 2 signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio, and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The optimal rule-out and rule-in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule-out was compared with the European Society of Cardiology 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. RESULTS: Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the European Society of Cardiology 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule-out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6% to 24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34% to 41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value [NPV] 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 99.5% to 100%]; product: NPV 100% [95% CI, 99.5% to 100%]) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% [95% CI, 99.0-99.9%]; product: NPV 99.4% [95% CI, 98.8-99.8%]). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule-out (40% to 43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% [95% CI, 99.2-100%]; NPV validation cohort 99.5% [95% CI, 98.9-99.8%]) and rule-in (positive predictive value [PPV] original cohort 74.4% [95% Cl, 69.6-78.8%]; PPV validation cohort 84.0% [95% Cl, 79.7-87.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: New strategies combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations may significantly increase the number of patients eligible for very early and safe rule-out, but do not seem helpful for the rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL (APACE): https://www.clinicaltrial.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00470587. URL (ADAPT): www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12611001069943.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Austrália , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Nova Zelândia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
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