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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314891

RESUMO

The indisputable contribution of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis of melanoma is widely recognized. In the last quinquennium, new data concerning specific melanoma subtypes have come to light. The dermatoscopic morphology of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) has been extensively investigated in the literature. Atypical network, irregular dots, irregular globules, irregular streaks and irregular blotch correspond to histopathologic alterations at the level of the junction, blue-white veil and atypical vessels suggest intradermal growth, whereas regression structures, negative network and white shiny streaks might reflect junctional or dermal alterations. The list of melanoma specific criteria has been recently updated to include features that typify early melanoma, such as irregular hyperpigmented areas and prominent skin markings and features seen in melanoma on sun damaged skin such as angulated lines. Nodular melanoma lacks most of the aforementioned criteria and is typified by the coexistence of blue and black color, atypical vessels and pink color. Lentigo maligna dermatoscopic criteria mainly develop at the outline of the follicular openings. However, at an early stage these features might be very subtle and the diagnosis should be based on the exclusion of benign tumors (inverse approach). Acral lentiginous melanoma is typified by a parallel ridge pattern, but also SSM criteria should be taken into consideration. The diagnosis of subungual melanoma is based on the assessment of the color and characteristics of the pigmented nail band. For the diagnosis of mucosal melanoma, the assessment of colors is more informative than the assessment of structures and the detection of blue, white or gray should raise the suspicion of melanoma. White shiny streaks and regression structures are the most common features of desmoplastic melanoma. The diagnosis of nevoid melanoma might be highly challenging and require information on the lesion's history. Melanoma on small- and medium-sized congenital nevi is typified by an eccentric location of the suspicious area, negative network and gray angulated lines. Recent advances in knowledge on the dermatoscopic characteristics of peculiar subtypes of the tumor significantly enrich the diagnostic armamentarium of clinicians. The challenge of the forthcoming years is to better characterize biologically aggressive melanomas and to optimize the screening strategies so as to identify them.

2.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14414, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064345

RESUMO

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in white skin individuals. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, but several other therapeutic choices are available and might also be efficient and cost-effective in selected cases of low-risk BCC or when surgery is complicate or contraindicated. The aim of the current study was to analyze the applied treatments for BCC in the real-life practice of a tertiary hospital, and investigate factors associated to the tumor and the patients that might influence the treatment selection of clinicians. Data on all BCCs treated from 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2019 were extracted. A total of 751 BCCs from 585 patients were included. The baseline characteristics of patients and tumors, the type of applied treatment and the histopathologic report when available were analyzed. Most tumors were located on the head/neck (64.2%). The most frequently applied treatment was surgical excision (580/751, 77.2%). In 22.8% of tumors a nonsurgical treatment was selected. The most frequently selected alternative treatments were, imiquimod, cryosurgery, their combination (immunocryosurgery), and vismodegib. A pretreatment diagnosis of superficial BCC was associated with a 12-fold increased probability of selecting a nonsurgical treatment except of vismodegib. Every added year of age increased the probability of selecting a nonsurgical treatment by 3-fold. Every added mm of diameter increased the possibility of vismodegib use by 4%. Surgery is the most frequently applied BCC treatment, but nonsurgical modalities do also have an essential role in real settings.

3.
Cureus ; 12(7): e9496, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879820

RESUMO

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) represents one of the most devastating ophthalmic emergencies, since the inner two-thirds of the retina lose their blood supply. The acute obstruction of the central retinal artery is characterized by severe, sudden and unilateral painless visual loss and usually occurs secondary to an embolus of cardiovascular origin. A paradoxical thromboembolic event of the central retinal artery through patent foramen ovale is an exceptionally unusual clinical entity as well as a great diagnostic challenge since the source of initial thrombus formation requires extensive investigation. Herein, we aim to describe a patient with no significant comorbidities who experienced a paradoxical thromboembolic episode of central retinal artery associated with patent foramen ovale.

4.
Cureus ; 12(5): e7938, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499978

RESUMO

Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH), an exceptionally rare clinical entity, results from the rupture of epigastric arteries or tear of the rectus abdominis muscle itself. Spontaneous RSH represents a potentially life-threatening bleeding complication in anticoagulated patients with distinct characteristics. The non-specific nature of RSH clinical manifestations renders RSH a kaleidoscopic disease that may be misdiagnosed. The widespread use of anticoagulants for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis or therapy is among the most commonly documented risk factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a fondaparinux-associated giant RSH in a 58-year-old Caucasian man who presented with severe pain at the right abdominal quadrant accompanied with a large ecchymosis secondary to violent cough due to a respiratory infection. The aim of our study is to broaden current knowledge regarding the predisposing factors, the pathophysiological mechanisms, and the management of this bleeding disorder.

5.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(2): 225-232, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830586

RESUMO

Scarce data are available on the effects of hospitalization on oral anticoagulation (OAC) patterns in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aimed to capture the evolving OAC patterns of patients with known non-valvular AF at high risk for stroke (CHA2DS2-Vasc score ≥ 2 for males and ≥ 3 for females) during hospitalization. A total of 561 eligible patients who were admitted to the cardiology ward of a tertiary hospital were studied. Pre- and post-hospitalization OAC patterns [vitamin-K antagonist (VKA), non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC), no OAC], changes between these patterns (initiation, switch, discontinuation, no change) and the respective patient profiles and discharge diagnoses were assessed. During hospitalization, OAC administration increased from 73.1 to 86.6% of patients (p for trend < 0.001). NOAC use increased significantly (42.2-56.1%, p for trend < 0.001), whereas VKA use remained stable (30.8-30.5%). Of patients, 17.3% initiated OAC, 7.1% switched between OACs, 3.7% discontinued OAC treatment, while the rest underwent no change in anticoagulation status. Bleeding risk, use of concomitant antiplatelet therapy and incidence of primary discharge diagnosis of AF or ST-elevation myocardial infarction differed significantly between groups of initiation, switch, discontinuation and no change in OAC therapy. In conclusion, in patients with known AF at high risk for stroke, hospitalization was associated with an increase in OAC uptake, driven mainly by NOAC initiation. Three out of 10 patients initiated, switched or discontinued OAC treatment during hospitalization and this was associated with discrete epidemiologic parameters.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Substituição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
6.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 24(3): 225-232, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proper anticoagulation is a crucial therapeutic regimen in atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the real-life anticoagulation prescriptions of AF patients upon hospital discharge. METHODS: We studied 768 patients with comorbid AF who were discharged from the cardiology ward of a tertiary hospital. We assessed the appropriateness of oral anticoagulation (OAC) regimens at discharge based on stroke risk (CHA2DS2-Vasc score), SAMe-TT2R2 (sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco, race) score for vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and European labeling for nonvitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) dosing. Logistic regression identified factors associated with suboptimal OAC use. RESULTS: Of 734 patients at significant (moderate or high) stroke risk, 107 (14.6%) were not prescribed OAC, which was administered to 23 (67.6%) of 34 patients at low risk. Nonprescribing of OAC to high-risk patients was associated with paroxysmal AF (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47-3.99, P < .001), history of major bleeding (adjusted OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.03-3.47, P = .039), and concomitant antiplatelet use (adjusted OR: 5.78, 95% CI: 3.51-9.51, P < .001). Anticoagulation control was inadequate (SAMe-TT2R2 score > 2) in 102 (50.2%) VKA-treated patients. Off-label dosing was evident in 118 (28.9%) NOAC-treated patients and was associated with a prior stroke/transient ischemic attack (adjusted OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.10-3.85, P = .023). Both outcomes were independently associated with low creatinine clearance. CONCLUSIONS: One of 6 patients with AF newly discharged from the hospital was treated discordantly for the corresponding risk of stroke. Suboptimal OAC use was evident in half of VKA regimens, twice as common compared to NOACs, and could be predicted by several clinical parameters.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Alta do Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso Off-Label , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Curr Urol ; 13(3): 125-132, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933590

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon clinical entity characterized by purple urine discoloration in the setting of urinary tract infections. Pa-thophysiology of PUBS has been correlated to aberrant metabolism of tryptophan. Multiple predisposing factors have been recognized, namely: female gender, advanced age, constipation, institutionalization, long-term catheter-ization, dementia and chronic kidney disease. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of all PUBS cases reported in PubMed, focusing on the predisposing factors and the microorganisms related to PUBS. Methods: We performed a search in PubMed database for articles referring to PUBS, published in English, French, Spanish and German from January 1978 until November 2017. The literature recruitment strategy was based on several keywords and Medical Subject Heading combination such as "purple urine bag syndrome" or PUBS or "urine discoloration". The finally selected articles were categorized into case reports/series (88 articles including 112 patients) and studies (10 articles including 134 patients). Demographical data as well as predisposing factors were recorded and further analyzed. Results: According to our findings, mean age of PUBS patients was 78.9 ± 12.3 years, 70.7% were female while 90.1% were suffering from constipation, 76.1% were in a bedridden situation, 45.1% were experiencing long-term catheterization, 42.8% had been diagnosed with dementia, 14.3% had recurrent urinary tract infections and 14.1% were chronic kidney disease patients. 91.3% of patients presenting with PUBS alkaline urine were observed while the most common microbe in urine cultures was E. coli. Conclusions: PUBS is considered benign process in the majority of catheterized patients. Clinicians should be aware of the syndrome that may indicate serious comorbidities.

9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 12(4): 585-590, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602760

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major factor associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. Current standard therapy includes intensive management of hyperglycemia and blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers. Despite the implementation of this strategy, DKD remains the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), mainly because of the increasing burden of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review is to evaluate the available evidence, focusing on the benefit of current treatment in the development and progression of DKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Prognóstico
10.
Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab ; 13(1): 54-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27252748

RESUMO

Parathyroid carcinoma represents an extremely rare neoplasm with diverse clinical manifestations. Herein we aimed at presenting an unique case of a young patient with late manifestations of parathyroid cancer and reviewing the relevant literature. A 45-year-old male patient presented in the Outpatient Clinic with an episode of nephrolithiasis. His personal medical history includes: recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis, laminectomy in the cervical spine due to ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and surgical resection of a giant cell tumor of the brain. Laboratory testing revealed findings of primary hyperparathyroidism (serum calcium 16,0 mmol/l phosphorus 1,46 mg/dl and parathyroid hormone/PTH 8560 pg/ml). Neck ultrasound and technetium-99 m sestamibi scan were performed showing a parathyroid tumor. Due to the persistently high serum calcium and PTH levels, the high alkaline phosphatase levels (440 IU/L) and the late manifestations of HPT, surgical excision of the tumor was performed. The tumor was identified as parathyroid carcinoma. Immediately after surgery serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normalized. The patient is on a regular follow-up program with no signs of recurrence or metastasis one year after the excision. We describe the coexistence of rare late manifestations of HPT, which had not been adequately investigated at their onset in this young patient. Therefore, increased awareness is needed in order to recognize and further investigate signs or symptoms of HPT.

11.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 27(3): 590-4, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27215256

RESUMO

Human brucellosis is considered a great example of the complexity of clinical manifestations possibly affecting multiple organs or systems. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis have been documented in few case reports and one case series. Herein, we present a case of Nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to minimal change disease in the course of acute brucellosis. A 53-year-old male farmer was admitted to our department with acute brucellosis and NS. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. Combined treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg), rifampicin (600 mg/day), and doxycycline (200 mg/day) was initiated. Complete remission of NS was achieved at the end of the fourth week. One year later, the patient remained in complete remission of NS without any sign of relapse of brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Nefrose Lipoide , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Nefrótica
12.
Hemodial Int ; 20(3): E14-E18, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833778

RESUMO

Hemodialysis patients present with a broad spectrum of specific and nonspecific skin disorders, which rarely coexist. We report an exceptional case of a hemodialysis patient that developed acquired reactive perforating collagenosis and pseudoporphyric bullous dermatosis on the basis of common skin disorders which include hyperpigmentation, pruritus, xerosis cutis, and Linsday's nails. Interestingly, our patient presented with two unusual but distinctive cutaneous dermopathies on the background of other commonly seen skin alterations. The patient was successfully treated with allopurinol and N-acetylcysteine. Avoidance of potentially triggering factors such as alcohol, sunlight exposure and certain medication was recommended. Thus, increasing clinical awareness, assiduous investigation and early treatment of skin disorders are required to improve the prognosis and quality of life in this patient population.

13.
Case Rep Endocrinol ; 2015: 139751, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26664767

RESUMO

Parathyroid carcinoma represents an extremely rare neoplasm with diverse clinical manifestations which vary from asymptomatic patients to severe complications of hypercalcemia or parathyrotoxicosis while skeletal involvement is rather common. Herein we aimed at presenting a unique case of a young patient with rare aggressive skeletal complications of parathyroid cancer that initially were misdiagnosed. Ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and skull tumor illustrates erosive bonny lesions of hyperparathyroidism that in association with previous medical history of recurrent nephrolithiasis and biochemical findings guide the diagnosis. We suggest that increased awareness and holistic approach are needed in order to recognize and further investigate signs and symptoms of hyperparathyroidism.

14.
Case Rep Nephrol ; 2015: 982575, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26301109

RESUMO

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common monogenic disorders and the leading inheritable cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Cystic and noncystic extrarenal manifestations are correlated with variable clinical presentations so that an inherited disorder is now considered a systemic disease. Kidney and liver cystic infections are the most common infectious complications in ADPKD patients. Furthermore, it is well known that ADPKD is commonly associated with colonic diverticular disease which recently has been reported to be linked to increased risk of infection on hemodialysis patients. Herein, we present a case of anterior abdominal wall abscess caused by Enterococcus faecalis in a patient with ADPKD undergoing hemodialysis. Although the precise pathway of infection remains uncertain, the previous medical history as well as the clinical course of our patient led us to hypothesize an alternative route of infection from the gastrointestinal tract through an aberrant intestinal barrier into the bloodstream and eventually to an atypical location.

15.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 47(10): 743-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25951751

RESUMO

A 74-year-old female patient with end-stage renal disease, undergoing periodic hemodialysis, was hospitalized due to infection by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii after hip replacement surgery. She was treated with tigecycline, a glycylcycline agent. Subsequently she developed coagulation disorders as substantiated by increased international normalized ratio (INR), prolonged partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and severe hypofibrinogenemia, followed by transaminasemia, cholestasis, and anemia. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed no underlying pathological entities. Tigecycline was discontinued and the patient underwent daily hemodialysis and received multiple fresh frozen plasma transfusions. Additionally, she was treated with colistin. Her clinical and laboratory status improved. We suggest that patients treated with tigecycline should be monitored for changes in INR, aPTT, and fibrinogen levels to avoid severe, life-threatening coagulation disturbances.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Acinetobacter baumannii , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/induzido quimicamente , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Minociclina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Acinetobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Colistina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Diálise Renal , Tigeciclina
16.
Hemodial Int ; 19(3): E8-E11, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25270850

RESUMO

End-stage renal disease is considered a factor predisposing to increased risk of tuberculosis with frequent extrapulmonary localization. Although extrapulmonary tuberculosis has been observed for decades, disseminated tuberculosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, remains rather neglected. We report an unusual case of an immunocompromised patient with a late diagnosis and delayed treatment of genitourinary tuberculosis that subsequently led to the diagnosis of vertebral and miliary tuberculosis (disseminating tuberculosis). Therefore, increased awareness is warranted from physicians dealing with hemodialysis patients in order to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment initiation.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Miliar/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Case Rep Emerg Med ; 2014: 164245, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25126429

RESUMO

Rectus Sheath Hematoma (RSH) represents an unusual entity which is characterized by acute abdominal pain and tender palpable abdominal mass usually, among elderly patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman admitted to our department due to acute abdominal pain and oligoanuria. The patient had recently been hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and atrial fibrillation (AF) and received both anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies. The radiological assessments revealed an extended Rectus Sheath Hematoma and bilateral hydronephrosis. Treatment of the hematoma required cessation of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, immobilization, blood and fresh frozen plasma transfusion, and administration of vasopressors. The patient recovered gradually and was discharged home fifteen (15) days later.

18.
Scand J Infect Dis ; 45(11): 888-90, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23957538

RESUMO

We report the case of a 17-y-old boy diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus infection who complained of left upper quadrant pain. A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a splenic infarct in the enlarged spleen. Other causes of splenic infarction were excluded. Thus, infectious mononucleosis may cause splenic infarction in patients without other comorbidities.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Mononucleose Infecciosa/complicações , Infarto do Baço/diagnóstico , Infarto do Baço/etiologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Radiografia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Baço/patologia
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