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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501854


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 crisis has caused prolonged and extreme demands on healthcare services. This study investigates the types and prevalence of occupational disruptions, and associated symptoms of mental illness, among Australian frontline healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A national cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 27 August and 23 October 2020. Frontline healthcare workers were invited to participate via dissemination from major health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. Data were collected on demographics, home and work situations, and validated scales of anxiety, depression, PTSD, and burnout. RESULTS: Complete responses were received from 7846 healthcare workers (82.4%). Most respondents were female (80.9%) and resided in the Australian state of Victoria (85.2%). Changes to working conditions were common, with 48.5% reporting altered paid or unpaid hours, and many redeployed (16.8%) or changing work roles (27.3%). Nearly a third (30.8%) had experienced a reduction in household income during the pandemic. Symptoms of mental illness were common, being present in 62.1% of participants. Many respondents felt well supported by their workplaces (68.3%) and believed that workplace communication was timely and useful (74.4%). Participants who felt well supported by their organisation had approximately half the risk of experiencing moderate to severe anxiety, depression, burnout, and PTSD. Half (50.4%) of respondents indicated a need for additional training in using personal protective equipment and/or caring for patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic occurred commonly in health organisations and were associated with worse mental health outcomes in the Australian health workforce. Feeling well supported was associated with significantly fewer adverse mental health outcomes. Crisis preparedness focusing on the provision of timely and useful communication and support is essential in current and future crises.

COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444469


BACKGROUND: Sudden changes in clinical practice and the altered ability to care for patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with moral distress and mental health concerns in healthcare workers internationally. This study aimed to investigate the severity, prevalence, and predictors of moral distress experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey of self-identified frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations, or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. RESULTS: 7846 complete responses were received from nurses (39.4%), doctors (31.1%), allied health staff (16.7%), or other roles (6.7%). Many participants reported moral distress related to resource scarcity (58.3%), wearing PPE (31.7%) limiting their ability to care for patients, exclusion of family going against their values (60.2%), and fear of letting co-workers down if they were infected (55.0%). Many personal and workplace predictors of moral distress were identified, with those working in certain frontline areas, metropolitan locations, and with prior mental health diagnoses at particular risk of distress. Moral distress was associated with increased risk of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout. Conversely, feeling appreciated by the community protected against these risks in healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is important for both patient safety and workforce longevity. Targeted interventions are required to prevent or minimise moral distress and associated mental health concerns in healthcare workers during COVID-19 and other crises.

COVID-19 , Pandemias , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Princípios Morais , SARS-CoV-2
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 72: 124-130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454341


OBJECTIVES: The Australian COVID-19 Frontline Healthcare Workers Study investigated coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours, and their relationship to mental health symptoms experienced by Australian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Australian HCWs were invited to participate a nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Complete responses on demographics, home and work situation, and measures of health and psychological wellbeing were received from 7846 participants. RESULTS: The most commonly reported adaptive coping strategies were maintaining exercise (44.9%) and social connections (31.7%). Over a quarter of HCWs (26.3%) reported increased alcohol use which was associated with a history of poor mental health and worse personal relationships. Few used psychological wellbeing apps or sought professional help; those who did were more likely to be suffering from moderate to severe symptoms of mental illness. People living in Victoria, in regional areas, and those with children at home were significantly less likely to report adaptive coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Personal, social, and workplace predictors of coping strategies and help-seeking behaviour during the pandemic were identified. Use of maladaptive coping strategies and low rates of professional help-seeking indicate an urgent need to understand the effectiveness of, and the barriers and enablers of accessing, different coping strategies.

Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; : 10499091211018192, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013782


BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, life-limiting illness that requires end-of-life care planning, yet remains under-served. Understanding barriers to advance care planning (ACP) from different specialties' perspectives will enable a co-ordinated, cross-disciplinary approach to improving ACP access. METHODS: Australia and New Zealand palliative care nurses were invited to complete an anonymous online cross-sectional survey. Questions tested knowledge of validated ACP-related practice indicators and canvassed perspectives on barriers to ACP in COPD. Data are described and free-text thematically analyzed. RESULTS: The 90 participants had high knowledge and positive attitudes to ACP in COPD, however, lacked consensus as to whether patients want to know their prognosis or discuss treatment options and end-of-life wishes. 59% discussed ACP in more than half their patients with COPD, and 77% and 73% routinely initiated or followed-up these discussions. Key barriers included: lack of confidence and training in COPD; reluctance to distress patients and families; referral late in the disease course; lack of consensus on referral timing; and lack of patient and clinician understanding of COPD prognoses. Many reported that lack of consensus in the treating team, paired with prognostic uncertainty, precluded timely ACP engagement. CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care nurses have substantial knowledge and positive beliefs regarding ACP, however, some beliefs and practices lack alignment with qualitative data on patients' wishes in COPD. While palliative care nurses are well placed to facilitate early implementation for patients with advanced COPD, ACP training and practice guidelines specific to COPD may increase implementation in this life-limiting disease.

Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(17): 3369-3381, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200423


Skeletal muscle is one of the largest functional tissues in the human body; it is highly plastic and responds dramatically to anabolic and catabolic stimuli, including weight training and malnutrition, respectively. Excessive loss of muscle mass, or atrophy, is a common symptom of many disease states with severe impacts on prognosis and quality of life. TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its cognate receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) are an emerging cytokine signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of muscle atrophy. Upregulation of TWEAK and Fn14 has been described in a number of atrophic and injured muscle states; however, it remains unclear whether they are contributing to the degenerative or regenerative aspect of muscle insults. The current review focuses on the expression and apparent downstream outcomes of both TWEAK and Fn14 in a range of catabolic and anabolic muscle models. Apparent changes in the signaling outcomes of TWEAK-Fn14 activation dependent on the relative expression of both the ligand and the receptor are discussed as a potential source of divergent TWEAK-Fn14 downstream effects. This review proposes both a physiological and pathological model of TWEAK-Fn14 signaling. Further research is needed on the switch between these states to develop therapeutic interventions for this pathway.

Citocina TWEAK/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Receptor de TWEAK/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Regeneração , Transdução de Sinais