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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(17): 177201, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412280

RESUMO

Graphene can develop large magnetic moments in custom-crafted open-shell nanostructures such as triangulene, a triangular piece of graphene with zigzag edges. Current methods of engineering graphene nanosystems on surfaces succeeded in producing atomically precise open-shell structures, but demonstration of their net spin remains elusive to date. Here, we fabricate triangulenelike graphene systems and demonstrate that they possess a spin S=1 ground state. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy identifies the fingerprint of an underscreened S=1 Kondo state on these flakes at low temperatures, signaling the dominant ferromagnetic interactions between two spins. Combined with simulations based on the meanfield Hubbard model, we show that this S=1 π paramagnetism is robust and can be turned into an S=1/2 state by additional H atoms attached to the radical sites. Our results demonstrate that π paramagnetism of high-spin graphene flakes can survive on surfaces, opening the door to study the quantum behavior of interacting π spins in graphene systems.

2.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463696

RESUMO

Eigenstate multifractality is a distinctive feature of noninteracting disordered metals close to a metal-insulator transition, whose properties are expected to extend to superconductivity. While multifractality in three dimensions (3D) only develops near the critical point for specific strong-disorder strengths, multifractality in 2D systems is expected to be observable even for weak disorder. Here we provide evidence for multifractal features in the superconducting state of an intrinsic, weakly disordered single-layer NbSe2 by means of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. The superconducting gap, characterized by its width, depth, and coherence peaks' amplitude, shows a characteristic spatial modulation coincident with the periodicity of the quasiparticle interference pattern. The strong spatial inhomogeneity of the superconducting gap width, proportional to the local order parameter in the weak-disorder regime, follows a log-normal statistical distribution as well as a power-law decay of the two-point correlation function, in agreement with our theoretical model. Furthermore, the experimental singularity spectrum f(α) shows anomalous scaling behavior typical from 2D weakly disordered systems.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999431

RESUMO

The electronic properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) can be precisely tuned by chemical doping. Here we demonstrate that amino (NH2) functional groups attached at the edges of chiral GNRs (chGNRs) can efficiently gate the chGNRs and lead to the valence band (VB) depopulation on a metallic surface. The NH2-doped chGNRs are grown by on-surface synthesis on Au(111) using functionalized bianthracene precursors. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy resolves that the NH2 groups significantly upshift the bands of chGNRs, causing the Fermi level crossing of the VB onset of chGNRs. Through density functional theory simulations we confirm that the hole-doping behavior is due to an upward shift of the bands induced by the edge NH2 groups.

4.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 9936-9943, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381315

RESUMO

Controlling the spin of metal atoms embedded in molecular systems is a key step toward the realization of molecular electronics and spintronics. Many efforts have been devoted to explore the influencing factors dictating the survival or quenching of a magnetic moment in a metal-organic molecule, and among others, the spin control by axial ligand attachments is the most promising. Herein, from the interplay of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging/manipulation and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements together with density functional theory calculations, we successfully demonstrate that a Ni trimer within a metal-organic motif acquires a net spin promoted by the adsorption of an on-top Br atom. The spin localization in the trimetal centers bonded to Br was monitored via the Kondo effect. The removal of the Br ligand resulted in the switch from a Kondo ON to a Kondo OFF state. The magnetic state induced by the Br ligand is theoretically attributed to the enhanced Br 4pz and Ni 3dz2 states due to the charge redistribution. The manipulation strategy reported here provides the possibility to explore potential applications of spin-tunable structures in spintronic devices.

5.
Chemphyschem ; 20(18): 2305-2310, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328365

RESUMO

Within the collection of surface-supported reactions currently accessible for the production of extended molecular nanostructures under ultra-high vacuum, Ullmann coupling has been the most successful in the controlled formation of covalent single C-C bonds. Particularly advanced control of this synthetic tool has been obtained by means of hierarchical reactivity, commonly achieved by the use of different halogen atoms that consequently display distinct activation temperatures. Here we report on the site-selective reactivity of certain carbon-halogen bonds. We use precursor molecules halogenated with bromine atoms at two non-equivalent carbon atoms and found that the Ullmann coupling occurs on Au(111) with a remarkable predilection for one of the positions. Experimental evidence is provided by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and core level photoemission spectroscopy, and a rationalized understanding of the observed preference is obtained from density functional theory calculations.

6.
Nano Lett ; 19(5): 3288-3294, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964303

RESUMO

We report on the fabrication and transport characterization of atomically precise single-molecule devices consisting of a magnetic porphyrin covalently wired by graphene nanoribbon electrodes. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope was utilized to contact the end of a GNR-porphyrin-GNR hybrid system and create a molecular bridge between the tip and sample for transport measurements. Electrons tunneling through the suspended molecular heterostructure excited the spin multiplet of the magnetic porphyrin. The detachment of certain spin centers from the surface shifted their spin-carrying orbitals away from an on-surface mixed-valence configuration, recovering its original spin state. The existence of spin-polarized resonances in the free-standing systems and their electrical addressability is the fundamental step in the utilization of carbon-based materials as functional molecular spintronics systems.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 200, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643120

RESUMO

Turning graphene magnetic is a promising challenge to make it an active material for spintronics. Predictions state that graphene structures with specific shapes can spontaneously develop magnetism driven by Coulomb repulsion of π-electrons, but its experimental verification is demanding. Here, we report on the observation and manipulation of individual magnetic moments in graphene open-shell nanostructures on a gold surface. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we detect the presence of single electron spins localized around certain zigzag sites of the carbon backbone via the Kondo effect. We find near-by spins coupled into a singlet ground state and quantify their exchange interaction via singlet-triplet inelastic electron excitations. Theoretical simulations picture how electron correlations result in spin-polarized radical states with the experimentally observed spatial distributions. Extra hydrogen atoms bound to radical sites quench their magnetic moment and switch the spin of the nanostructure in half-integer amounts. Our work demonstrates the intrinsic π-paramagnetism of graphene nanostructures.

8.
ACS Nano ; 12(11): 11161-11168, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371049

RESUMO

Vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures composed of 2D semiconductors have attracted great attention. Most of these include hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as either a substrate, an encapsulant, or a tunnel barrier. However, reliable synthesis of large-area and epitaxial 2D heterostructures incorporating BN remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of nominal monolayer (ML) MoSe2 on h-BN/Rh(111) by molecular beam epitaxy, where the MoSe2/h-BN layer system can be transferred from the growth substrate onto SiO2. The valence band structure of ML MoSe2/h-BN/Rh(111) revealed by photoemission electron momentum microscopy ( kPEEM) shows that the valence band maximum located at the K point is 1.33 eV below the Fermi level ( EF), whereas the energy difference between K and Γ points is determined to be 0.23 eV, demonstrating that the electronic properties, such as the direct band gap and the effective mass of ML MoSe2, are well preserved in MoSe2/h-BN heterostructures.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(16): 167001, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756947

RESUMO

We show that the magnetic ordering of coupled atomic dimers on a superconductor is revealed by their intragap spectral features. Chromium atoms on the superconductor ß-Bi_{2}Pd surface display Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states, detected as pairs of intragap excitations in tunneling spectra. By means of atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope's tip, we form Cr dimers with different arrangements and find that their intragap features appear either shifted or split with respect to single atoms. These spectral variations are associated with the magnetic coupling, ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, of the dimer, as confirmed by density functional theory simulations. The striking qualitative differences between the observed tunneling spectra prove that intragap Shiba states are extremely sensitive to the magnetic ordering on the atomic scale.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(10): 2510-2517, 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688007

RESUMO

The challenge of synthesizing graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with atomic precision is currently being pursued along a one-way road, based on the synthesis of adequate molecular precursors that react in predefined ways through self-assembly processes. The synthetic options for GNR generation would multiply by adding a new direction to this readily successful approach, especially if both of them can be combined. We show here how GNR synthesis can be guided by an adequately nanotemplated substrate instead of by the traditionally designed reactants. The structural atomic precision, unachievable to date through top-down methods, is preserved by the self-assembly process. This new strategy's proof-of-concept compares experiments using 4,4''-dibromo-para-terphenyl as a molecular precursor on flat Au(111) and stepped Au(322) substrates. As opposed to the former, the periodic steps of the latter drive the selective synthesis of 6 atom-wide armchair GNRs, whose electronic properties have been further characterized in detail by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, angle resolved photoemission, and density functional theory calculations.

11.
Sci Adv ; 4(2): eaaq0582, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464209

RESUMO

We report on the construction and magnetic characterization of a fully functional hybrid molecular system composed of a single magnetic porphyrin molecule bonded to graphene nanoribbons with atomically precise contacts. We use on-surface synthesis to direct the hybrid creation by combining two molecular precursors on a gold surface. High-resolution imaging with a scanning tunneling microscope finds that the porphyrin core fuses into the graphene nanoribbons through the formation of new carbon rings at chemically predefined positions. These ensure the stability of the hybrid and the extension of the conjugated character of the ribbon into the molecule. By means of inelastic tunneling spectroscopy, we prove the survival of the magnetic functionality of the contacted porphyrin. The molecular spin appears unaffected by the graphenoid electrodes, and we simply observe that the magnetic anisotropy appears modified depending on the precise structure of the contacts.

12.
Nano Lett ; 18(1): 418-423, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232951

RESUMO

Large aromatic carbon nanostructures are cornerstone materials due to their increasingly active role in functional devices, but their synthesis in solution encounters size and shape limitations. New on-surface strategies facilitate the synthesis of large and insoluble planar systems with atomic-scale precision. While dehydrogenation is usually the chemical zipping reaction building up large aromatic carbon structures, mostly benzenoid structures are being produced. Here, we report on a new cyclodehydrogenation reaction transforming a sterically stressed precursor with conjoined cove regions into a planar carbon platform by incorporating azulene moieties in their interior. Submolecular resolution STM is used to characterize this exotic large polycyclic aromatic compound on Au(111) yielding unprecedented insight into a dehydrogenative intramolecular aryl-aryl coupling reaction. The resulting polycyclic aromatic carbon structure shows a [18]annulene core hosting peculiar pore states confined at the carbon cavity.

13.
ACS Nano ; 11(7): 7355-7361, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28636331

RESUMO

We report the on-surface synthesis of 7-armchair graphene nanoribbons (7-AGNRs) substituted with nitrile (CN) functional groups. The CN groups are attached to the GNR backbone by modifying the 7-AGNR precursor. Whereas many of these groups survive the on-surface synthesis, the reaction process causes the cleavage of some CN from the ribbon backbone and the on-surface cycloisomerization of few nitriles onto pyridine rings. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and density functional theory reveal that CN groups behave as very efficient n-dopants, significantly downshifting the bands of the ribbon and introducing deep impurity levels associated with the nitrogen electron lone pairs.

14.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15175, 2017 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480879

RESUMO

A magnetic atom inside a superconductor locally distorts superconductivity. It scatters Cooper pairs as a potential with broken time-reversal symmetry, leading to localized bound states with subgap excitation energies, named Shiba states. Most conventional approaches regarding Shiba states treat magnetic impurities as point scatterers with isotropic exchange interaction. Here, we show that the number and the shape of Shiba states are correlated to the spin-polarized atomic orbitals of the impurity, hybridized with the superconductor. Using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, we spatially map the five Shiba excitations found on subsurface chromium atoms in Pb(111), resolving their particle and hole components. While particle components resemble d orbitals of embedded Cr atoms, hole components differ strongly from them. Density functional theory simulations correlate the orbital shapes to the magnetic ground state of the atom, and identify scattering channels and interactions, all valuable tools for designing atomic-scale superconducting devices.

15.
Nano Lett ; 17(1): 50-56, 2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073274

RESUMO

Bottom-up chemical reactions of selected molecular precursors on a gold surface can produce high quality graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Here, we report on the formation of quantum dots embedded in an armchair GNR by substitutional inclusion of pairs of boron atoms into the GNR backbone. The boron inclusion is achieved through the addition of a small amount of boron substituted precursors during the formation of pristine GNRs. In the pristine region between two boron pairs, the nanoribbons show a discretization of their valence band into confined modes compatible with a Fabry-Perot resonator. Transport simulations of the scattering properties of the boron pairs reveal that they selectively confine the first valence band of the pristine ribbon while allowing an efficient electron transmission of the second one. Such band-dependent electron scattering stems from the symmetry matching between the electronic wave functions of the states from the pristine nanoribbons and those localized at the boron pairs.

16.
ACS Nano ; 10(12): 10798-10807, 2016 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28024374

RESUMO

Band gap engineering in hydrogen functionalized graphene is demonstrated by changing the symmetry of the functionalization structures. Small differences in hydrogen adsorbate binding energies on graphene on Ir(111) allow tailoring of highly periodic functionalization structures favoring one distinct region of the moiré supercell. Scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that a highly periodic hydrogen functionalized graphene sheet can thus be prepared by controlling the sample temperature (Ts) during hydrogen functionalization. At deposition temperatures of Ts = 645 K and above, hydrogen adsorbs exclusively on the HCP regions of the graphene/Ir(111) moiré structure. This finding is rationalized in terms of a slight preference for hydrogen clusters in the HCP regions over the FCC regions, as found by density functional theory calculations. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the preferential functionalization of just one region of the moiré supercell results in a band gap opening with very limited associated band broadening. Thus, hydrogenation at elevated sample temperatures provides a pathway to efficient band gap engineering in graphene via the selective functionalization of specific regions of the moiré structure.

17.
ACS Nano ; 10(9): 9000-8, 2016 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548516

RESUMO

Contributing to the need for new graphene nanoribbon (GNR) structures that can be synthesized with atomic precision, we have designed a reactant that renders chiral (3,1)-GNRs after a multistep reaction including Ullmann coupling and cyclodehydrogenation. The nanoribbon synthesis has been successfully proven on different coinage metals, and the formation process, together with the fingerprints associated with each reaction step, has been studied by combining scanning tunneling microscopy, core-level spectroscopy, and density functional calculations. In addition to the GNR's chiral edge structure, the substantial GNR lengths achieved and the low processing temperature required to complete the reaction grant this reactant extremely interesting properties for potential applications.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(40): 27118-26, 2015 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26414934

RESUMO

Dicyanovinyl (DCV)-substituted oligothiophenes are promising donor materials in vacuum-processed small-molecule organic solar cells. Here, we studied the structural and the electronic properties of DCV-dimethyl-pentathiophene (DCV5T-Me2) adsorbed on Au(111) from submonolayer to multilayer coverages. Using a multi-technique experimental approach (low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy), we determined the energetic position of several affinity levels as well as ionization potentials originating from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO), evidencing a transport gap of 1.4 eV. Proof of an excitonic state was found to be a spectroscopic feature located at 0.6 eV below the LUMO affinity level. With increasing coverage photoemission from excitonic states gains importance. We were able to track the dynamics of several electronically excited states of multilayers by means of femtosecond time-resolved 2PPE. We resolved an intriguing relaxation dynamics involving four processes, ranging from sub-picosecond (ps) to several hundred ps time spans. These show a tendency to increase with increasing coverage. The present study provides important parameters such as energetic positions of transport levels as well as lifetimes of electronically excited states, which are essential for designing organic-molecule-based optoelectronic devices.

19.
Science ; 338(6108): 779-82, 2012 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23139328

RESUMO

Energy harvesting from noise is a paradigm proposed by the theory of stochastic resonances. We demonstrate that the random switching of a hydrogen (H(2)) molecule can drive the oscillation of a macroscopic mechanical resonator. The H(2) motion was activated by tunneling electrons and caused fluctuations of the forces sensed by the tip of a noncontact atomic force microscope. The stochastic molecular noise and the periodic oscillation of the tip were coupled in a concerted dynamic that drives the system into self-oscillation. This phenomenon could be a way for enhancing the transfer of energy from incoherent sources into coherent dynamics of a molecular engine.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(2): 026102, 2012 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23030183

RESUMO

Molecular switches on metal surfaces typically show very little photoreactivity. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that the ring-opening-ring-closing switch nitrospiropyran thermally and optically isomerizes to the open merocyanine form on a Bi(110) surface. Irradiation by blue light of a monolayer of spiropyran molecules leads to mixed domains of the two isomers. At large illumination intensities a photostationary state is established, indicating the bidirectional ring-opening and ring-closing reaction of these molecules on the bismuth surface. The enhanced photoactivity contrasts with the case of adsorption on other metal surfaces, probably due to the low density of states at the Fermi level of the semimetallic Bi(110) surface.

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