Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 28
Filtrar
1.
Infez Med ; 27(3): 328-331, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545778

RESUMO

Bloodstream infections caused by non-albicans Candida species are increasing and echinocandins have been extensively used especially in patients with hemodynamic instability, previous antifungal treatment and hospital risk factors for intrinsic or acquired resistance to azoles. Candida glabrata resistance to echinocandins is reported and is generally associated with previous use of echinocandins; FKS gene mutations have been associated with a worse outcome. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who developed candidemia and endocarditis by C. glabrata with a newly acquired FKS mutation 24 months after successful treatment of infective endocarditis by C. glabrata with a double dosage of anidulafungin (200 mg daily) followed by oral voriconazole. Driven by high echinocandin MICs the strain taken by intraoperative cultures was further analyzed in a referral microbiology laboratory, confirming the new onset of point mutation S633P of the FKS2 gene.

3.
New Microbiol ; 42(3): 176-180, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157400

RESUMO

IgM-enriched immunoglobulins (e-IgM) may be useful in patients with severe acute bacterial infections. The evidence for the administration of e-IgM is not extensive and a definitive consensus has never been reached on its best use in patients with acute infections as well as in critically ill patients. However, the official indication in several countries, including Italy, is quite wide and mainly refers to supportive treatment of patients with acute severe bacterial infections. A multidisciplinary meeting of Italian Experts in Infectious Diseases, Anesthesia and Critical Care, Pneumology, Microbiology and Oncohaematology aimed to produce a statement on the best practical methodological score that could improve the use of e-IgM in patients with different infections, variable severity of disease and etiology. The Expert Panel reviewed the literature and the available guidelines, discussed the experience and eventually proposed to adapt the PIRO score to the practical methodological needs of a simple tool that could guide the administration of e-IgM.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Imunoglobulina M , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/administração & dosagem , Itália , Sepse/terapia
4.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
6.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 46(3): 176-183, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140512

RESUMO

Objective: Management of pain, agitation and delirium (PAD) remains to be a true challenge in critically ill patients. The pharmacological proprieties of dexmedetomidine (DEX) make it an ideal candidate drug for light and cooperative sedation, but many practical questions remain unanswered. This structured consensus from 17 intensivists well experienced on PAD management and DEX use provides indications for the appropriate use of DEX in clinical practice. Methods: A modified RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used. In four predefined patient populations, the clinical scenarios do not properly cope by the current recommended pharmacological strategies (except DEX), and the possible advantages of DEX use were identified and voted for agreement, after reviewing literature data. Results: Three scenarios in medical patients, five scenarios in patients with acute respiratory failure undergoing non-invasive ventilation, three scenarios in patients with cardiac surgery in the early postoperative period and three scenarios in patients with overt delirium were identified as challenging with the current PAD strategies. In these scenarios, the use of DEX was voted as potentially useful by most of the panellists owing to its specific pharmacological characteristics, such as conservation of cognitive function, lack of effects on the respiratory drive, low induction of delirium and analgesia effects. Conclusion: DEX might be considered as a first-line sedative in different scenarios even though conclusive data on its benefits are still lacking.

7.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 84(6): 731-746, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405671

RESUMO

Light sedation, corresponding to a Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale between 0 and -1 is a priority of modern critical care practice. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective, central, α2-adrenoceptor agonist, is increasingly administered in the intensive care units (ICUs) as an effective drug to induce light sedation, analgesia and a quasi-physiological sleep in critically ill patients. Although in general dexmedetomidine is well tolerated, side effects as bradycardia, hypertension, and hypotension may occur. Although a general dosing range is suggested, different ICU patients may require different and highly precise titration that may significantly vary due to neurological status, cardio-respiratory function, base-line blood pressure, heart rate, liver efficiency, age and co-administration of other sedatives. This review analyzes the use of dexmedetomidine in different settings including pediatric, adult, medical and surgical patients starting with some considerations on delirium prevention and sleep quality in critically ill patients and how dexmedetomidine may contribute to these crucial aspects. Dexmedetomidine use in specific sub-populations with unique characteristics will be detailed, with a special attention to a safe use.

8.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(2): 279-280, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340720

RESUMO

Owing to an oversight by the authors, Figure 2 in this article was not the version intended for publication. The correct Figure 2, reproduced here, features footnote symbols and Figure 2b includes three studies as described in the main text.

9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference. INTERVENTIONS: The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Consenso , Humanos , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(2): 167-178, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29204670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polymyxin B-immobilized hemoperfusion (PMX-HP) is an adjuvant therapy for sepsis or septic shock that clears circulating endotoxin. Prior trials have shown that PMX-HP improves surrogate endpoints. We aimed to conduct an evidence synthesis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PMX-HP in critically ill adult patients with sepsis or septic shock. METHODS: We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Health Technology Assessment Database, CINAHL, "Igaku Chuo Zasshi", the National Institute of Health Clinical Trials Register, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry, the reference lists of retrieved articles, and publications by manufacturers of PMX-HP. The primary outcomes were 28-day all-cause mortality, the number of patients with at least one serious adverse event, and organ dysfunction scores. The GRADE methodology for the certainty of evidence was used. RESULTS: Six trials (857 participants; weighted mean age 62.5 years) proved eligible. Patient-oriented primary outcomes were assessed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for 28-day mortality associated with PMX-HP was 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.36; I 2 = 25%; n = 797]. The pooled RR for adverse events was 2.17 (95% CI 0.68-6.94; I 2 = 0%; n = 717). Organ dysfunction scores over 24-72 h after PMX-HP treatment did not change significantly (standardized mean difference - 0.26; 95% CI - 0.64 to 0.12; I 2 = 78%; n = 797). The certainty of the body of evidence was judged as low for both benefit and harm using the GRADE methodology. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently insufficient evidence to support the routine use of PMX-HP to treat patients with sepsis or septic shock. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42016038356).

11.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach.DESIGN:A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.SETTING:A web-based international consensus conference.PARTICIPANTS:More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference.INTERVENTIONS:The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions.CONCLUSIONS:This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.(AU)


Assuntos
Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Período Perioperatório/métodos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26253809

RESUMO

Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) used for the treatment of masculine erectile dysfunction and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH). Sildenafil causes vasodilatation; relax of the smooth muscle and reduction of pulmonary arterial pressure. In the liver cytocrome P450 metabolizes sildenafil into its active metabolite, N-desmethyl sildenafil. The determination of plasma levels of sildenafil and N-desmethyl sildenafil could be useful for therapy optimization and pharmacokinetic studies. We have developed and validated a new method for the quantification of sildenafil and its metabolite in human plasma by rapid protein precipitation extraction, using an UPLC system, coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric detector (UPLC-MS/MS). The calibration range was fitted at least square model (r(2)≥0.999), with an accuracy and an intra- and inter-day RSD% (Relative Standard Deviation), both for sildenafil and N-desmethyl sildenafil, lower than 15%, as required by the FDA guidelines; LLOQ, LLOD, ULOQ were 3.9ng/mL, 1.95ng/mL and 1000ng/mL, respectively, for both analytes. Matrix effect, expressed as mean percent deviation of peak areas, was in the range between 2.6% and 5.8%, lower than 15% as required by guidelines. The mean recovery was 83.2 % for sildenafil and 84.5% for N-desmethyl sildenafil. This method has successfully been applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study of sildenafil and N-desmethyl sildenafil in patients with PAH undergoing cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/sangue , Citrato de Sildenafila/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Intensive Care Med ; 41(4): 650-6, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25573500

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Motion-mode (MM) echography allows precise measurement of diaphragmatic excursion when the ultrasound beam is parallel to the diaphragmatic displacement. However, proper alignment is difficult to obtain in patients after cardiac surgery; thus, measurements might be inaccurate. A new imaging modality named the anatomical motion-mode (AMM) allows free placement of the cursor through the numerical image reconstruction and perfect alignment with the diaphragmatic motion. Our goal was to compare MM and AMM measurements of diaphragmatic excursion in cardiac surgical patients. METHODS: Cardiac surgical patients were studied after extubation. The excursions of the right and left hemidiaphragms were measured by two operators, an expert and a trainee, using MM and AMM successively, according to a blinded, randomized, crossover sequence. Values were averaged over three consecutive respiratory cycles. The angle between the MM and AMM cursors was quantified for each measurement. RESULTS: Fifty patients were studied. The mean (±SD) angle between the MM and AMM cursors was 37° ± 16°. The diaphragmatic excursion as measured by experts was 1.8 ± 0.7 cm using MM and 1.5 ± 0.5 cm using AMM (p < 0.001). Overall, the diaphragmatic excursion as estimated by MM was larger than the value obtained with AMM in 75 % of the measurements. Bland-Altman analysis showed tighter limits of agreement between experts and trainees with AMM [bias: 0.0 cm; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.8 cm] than with MM (bias: 0.0 cm; 95 % CI: 1.4 cm). CONCLUSION: MM overestimates diaphragmatic excursion in comparison to AMM in cardiac surgical patients. Using MM may lead to a lack of recognition of diaphragmatic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Diafragma/fisiologia , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Ultrassonografia
14.
JAMA ; 312(21): 2244-53, 2014 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25265449

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: No effective pharmaceutical agents have yet been identified to treat acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fenoldopam reduces the need for renal replacement therapy in critically ill cardiac surgery patients with acute kidney injury. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study from March 2008 to April 2013 in 19 cardiovascular intensive care units in Italy. We randomly assigned 667 patients admitted to intensive care units after cardiac surgery with early acute kidney injury (≥50% increase of serum creatinine level from baseline or oliguria for ≥6 hours) to receive fenoldopam (338 patients) or placebo (329 patients). We used a computer-generated permuted block randomization sequence for treatment allocation. All patients completed their follow-up 30 days after surgery, and data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. INTERVENTIONS: Continuous infusion of fenoldopam or placebo for up to 4 days with a starting dose of 0.1 µg/kg/min (range, 0.025-0.3 µg/kg/min). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was the rate of renal replacement therapy. Secondary end points included mortality (intensive care unit and 30-day mortality) and the rate of hypotension during study drug infusion. RESULTS: The study was stopped for futility as recommended by the safety committee after a planned interim analysis. Sixty-nine of 338 patients (20%) allocated to the fenoldopam group and 60 of 329 patients (18%) allocated to the placebo group received renal replacement therapy (P = .47). Mortality at 30 days was 78 of 338 (23%) in the fenoldopam group and 74 of 329 (22%) in the placebo group (P = .86). Hypotension occurred in 85 (26%) patients in the fenoldopam group and in 49 (15%) patients in the placebo group (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery, fenoldopam infusion, compared with placebo, did not reduce the need for renal replacement therapy or risk of 30-day mortality but was associated with an increased rate of hypotension. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00621790.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Fenoldopam/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda , Idoso , Creatinina , Estado Terminal , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fenoldopam/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estados Unidos , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
15.
J Chemother ; 25(6): 376-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24090648

RESUMO

Candidemia is associated with high mortality rate especially in critically ill (ICU) patients with septic shock and echinocandins such as anidulafungin are recommended as first-line treatment. Available pharmacokinetic studies of anidulafungin in healthy volunteers and in patients with renal or hepatic impairment showed that no dose adjustment is needed even in patients receiving standard intermittent haemodialysis. However, few data are available with continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH). In this study, the pharmacokinetic of anidulafungin was studied in two ICU patients with candidemia and septic shock undergoing CVVH. Both patients had satisfactory parameters of C(max) (9.04 and 5.68 mg/l, respectively), area under the curve (AUC) (95.18 and 67.48 mg/l h) and C(min) (2.61 and 1.43 mg/l). AUC/MIC ratio and C(max)/MIC values were: 11887 and 8435; 1130.25 and 710, for patients 1 and 2, respectively. Our data confirm that in patients with septic shock anidulafungin presents only mild pharmacokinetic changes compared to data reported during CVVH alone.


Assuntos
Equinocandinas/farmacocinética , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anidulafungina , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Equinocandinas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemofiltração/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 27(6): 1384-98, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24103711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify all interventions that increase or reduce mortality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and to establish the agreement between stated beliefs and actual practice in this setting. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic literature review and international web-based survey. PARTICIPANTS: More than 300 physicians from 62 countries. INTERVENTIONS: Several databases, including MEDLINE/PubMed, were searched with no time limits (updated February 14, 2012) to identify all the drugs/techniques/strategies that fulfilled all the following criteria: (a) published in a peer-reviewed journal, (b) dealing with critically ill adult patients with or at risk for acute kidney injury, and (c) reporting a statistically significant reduction or increase in mortality. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 18 identified interventions, 15 reduced mortality and 3 increased mortality. Perioperative hemodynamic optimization, albumin in cirrhotic patients, terlipressin for hepatorenal syndrome type 1, human immunoglobulin, peri-angiography hemofiltration, fenoldopam, plasma exchange in multiple-myeloma-associated AKI, increased intensity of renal replacement therapy (RRT), CVVH in severely burned patients, vasopressin in septic shock, furosemide by continuous infusion, citrate in continuous RRT, N-acetylcysteine, continuous and early RRT might reduce mortality in critically ill patients with or at risk for AKI; positive fluid balance, hydroxyethyl starch and loop diuretics might increase mortality in critically ill patients with or at risk for AKI. Web-based opinion differed from consensus opinion for 30% of interventions and self-reported practice for 3 interventions. CONCLUSION: The authors identified all interventions with at least 1 study suggesting a significant effect on mortality in patients with or at risk of AKI and found that there is discordance between participant stated beliefs and actual practice regarding these topics.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Internet , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Assistência Perioperatória
17.
Anesthesiology ; 119(4): 880-9, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23820186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines suggest a plateau pressure (PPLAT) of 30 cm H(2)O or less for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, but ventilation may still be injurious despite adhering to this guideline. The shape of the curve plotting airway pressure versus time (STRESS INDEX) may identify injurious ventilation. The authors assessed accuracy of PPLAT and STRESS INDEX to identify morphological indexes of injurious ventilation. METHODS: Indexes of lung aeration (computerized tomography) associated with injurious ventilation were used as a "reference standard." Threshold values of PPLAT and STRESS INDEX were determined assessing the receiver-operating characteristics ("training set," N = 30). Accuracy of these values was assessed in a second group of patients ("validation set," N = 20). PPLAT and STRESS INDEX were partitioned between respiratory system (Pplat,Rs and STRESS INDEX,RS) and lung (PPLAT,L and STRESS INDEX,L; esophageal pressure; "physiological set," N = 50). RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity of PPLAT of greater than 30 cm H(2)O were 0.06 (95% CI, 0.002-0.30) and 1.0 (95% CI, 0.87-1.00). PPLAT of greater than 25 cm H(2)O and a STRESS INDEX of greater than 1.05 best identified morphological markers of injurious ventilation. Sensitivity and specificity of these values were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.35-0.97) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.43-0.95) for PPLAT greater than 25 cm H(2)O versus 0.88 (95% CI, 0.47-1.00) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.21-0.79) for STRESS INDEX greater than 1.05. Pplat,Rs did not correlate with PPLAT,L (R(2) = 0.0099); STRESS INDEX,RS and STRESS INDEX,L were correlated (R(2) = 0.762). CONCLUSIONS: The best threshold values for discriminating morphological indexes associated with injurious ventilation were Pplat,Rs greater than 25 cm H(2)O and STRESS INDEX,RS greater than 1.05. Although a substantial discrepancy between Pplat,Rs and PPLAT,L occurs, STRESS INDEX,RS reflects STRESS INDEX,L.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 26(5): 764-72, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22726656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With more than 220 million major surgical procedures performed annually, perioperative interventions leading to even minor mortality reductions would save thousands of lives per year. This international consensus conference aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions that increase or reduce perioperative mortality as suggested by randomized evidence. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: More than 1,000 physicians from 77 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference. INTERVENTIONS: Systematic literature searches (MEDLINE/PubMed, June 8, 2011) were used to identify the papers with a statistically significant effect on mortality together with contacts with experts. Interventions were considered eligible for evaluation if they (1) were published in peer-reviewed journals, (2) dealt with a nonsurgical intervention (drug/technique/strategy) in adult patients undergoing surgery, and (3) provided a statistically significant mortality increase or reduction as suggested by a randomized trial or meta-analysis of randomized trials. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fourteen interventions that might change perioperative mortality in adult surgery were identified. Interventions that might reduce mortality include chlorhexidine oral rinse, clonidine, insulin, intra-aortic balloon pump, leukodepletion, levosimendan, neuraxial anesthesia, noninvasive respiratory support, hemodynamic optimization, oxygen, selective decontamination of the digestive tract, and volatile anesthetics. In contrast, aprotinin and extended-release metoprolol might increase mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Future research and health care funding should be directed toward studying and evaluating these interventions.


Assuntos
Assistência Perioperatória/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/mortalidade , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
20.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 12(3): 374-8, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21183505

RESUMO

Candidemia is a well-recognized complication of hospital stay, especially in critically ill patients. There is not a general consensus that predictors for candidemia in cardiosurgical intensive care unit (cICU) are different from a general ICU and it has been reported that cardiopulmonary bypass time is a specific risk factor in the cICU. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the main predictors for candidemia in patients admitted to the cICU. Included patients were adults admitted between July 2005 and December 2007 with an ICU-length of stay (ICU-LOS) ≥48 hours after cardiac surgery. Exclusion criteria were solid organ or bone marrow transplants, previous diagnosis of candidemia or other invasive infections and ICU stay before surgery. A multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors. Among 1955 patients admitted to the cICU, 345 were enrolled. Only 26 patients (1.3%) had candidemia after an ICU-LOS of 20 days (inter-quartile range, IQR 8-49 days). Total parenteral nutrition [odds ratio (OR)=9.56; confidence interval (CI)=1.741-52.534], severe sepsis (OR=4.20; CI=1.292-13.667), simplified acute physiology score II (OR=1.16; CI=1.052-1.278) and ICU-LOS >20 days (OR=6.38; CI=1.971-20.660) were independent predictors of candidemia. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery developed candidemia late after cICU admission and the independent predictors were similar to the general ICU.


Assuntos
Candidemia/microbiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candidemia/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA