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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding and transfusions affect mortality in aortic surgery. Although tranexamic acid significantly reduced bleeding in multiple settings, its role in major vascular surgery was never studied. The aim of this study was to determine if tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery. METHODS: A total of 100 patients undergoing elective open AAA repair were randomised to receive tranexamic acid (a loading dose of 500 mg and a continuous infusion of 250 mg h-1) or placebo. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss, and the secondary outcomes were the number of patients receiving red blood cells, occurrence of thromboembolic events, and mortality. Data were analysed using the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Fifty patients were randomised into each group. Median (inter-quartile range) intraoperative blood loss was 400 (300-1050) ml in the tranexamic acid group vs 500 (360-1000) ml in the placebo group (P=0.44). Transfusion rate was seven/50 (14%) in the tranexamic group vs 12/50 (24%) in the placebo group (P=0.20). No thrombosis was recorded. In a post hoc analysis, postoperative blood loss was reduced in the tranexamic group both at 4 h (60 [40-80] ml vs 100 [60-140] ml, P<0.001) and 24 h (180 [120-275] vs 275 [190-395] ml, P=0.003) after surgery. At 1 yr, three patients were dead, all in the placebo group (P=0.24) and all after 28 days. CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid did not reduce intraoperative blood loss or blood transfusions in open AAA repair, although it may reduce postoperative blood loss without increasing adverse effects. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02335359.

2.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

3.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 62, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is strongly associated with high morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. In the last years several different biological markers with higher sensitivity and specificity for the occurrence of renal impairment have been developed in order to promptly recognize and treat AKI. Nonetheless, their potential role in improving patients' outcome remains unclear since the effectiveness of an "earlier" initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is still debated. Since one large, high-quality randomized clinical trial has been recently pubblished, we decided to perform a meta-analysis of all the RCTs ever performed on "earlier" initiation of RRT versus standard RRT in critically ill patients with AKI to evaluate its effect on major outcomes. METHODS: Pertinent studies were independently searched in BioMedCentral, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of clinical trials. The following inclusion criteria were used: random allocation to treatment ("earlier" initiation of RRT versus later/standard initiation); critically ill patients. RESULTS: Ten trials randomizing 2214 patients, 1073 to earlier initiation of RRT and 1141 to later initiation were included. No difference in mortality (43.3% (465 of 1073) for those receiving early RRT and 40.8% (466 of 1141) for controls, p = 0.97) and survival without dependence on RRT (3.6% (34 of 931) for those receiving early RRT and 4.2% (40 of 939) for controls, p = 0.51) were observed in the overall population. On the contrary, early initiation of RRT was associated with a significant reduction in hospital length of stay. No differences in occurrence of adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that early initiation of RRT in critically ill patients with AKI does not provide a clinically relevant advantage when compared with standard/late initiation.

4.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
5.
Acta Biomed ; 88(4): 450-456, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: electroconvulsive therapy is a psychiatric procedure requiring general anesthesia. The choice of the hypnotic agent is important because the success of the intervention is associated to the occurrence and duration of motor convulsion. However, all available anesthetic agents have anti-convulsant activity. We compared the effect of thiopental and propofol on seizures. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study at Mood Disorders Unit of a teaching Hospital. Fifty-six consecutive patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy were enrolled. Patients received fentanyl followed by either thiopental or propofol. We evaluated the incidence and the duration of seizure after electric stimulus at the first session of electroconvulsive therapy for each patient. Adverse perioperative effects were recorded. RESULTS: Patients were 60±12.1 years old and 64% was female. There was a statistically significant higher number of patients who had motor convulsion activity in the thiopental group when compared to the propofol group (25 vs 13, p=0.023). Seizure duration was statistically significant longer in the thiopental group than in the propofol group (35 sec vs 11 sec, p=0.046). No hemodynamic instability, oxygen desaturation episodes, prolonged recovery time from anesthesia and adverse effects related to anesthesia were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Thiopental induction has a favourable effect on seizure when compared to propofol in patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy.

6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(5): 1767-1773, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The link between ventilation strategies and perioperative outcomes remains one of the fundamental paradigms of thoracic anaesthesia. During one-lung ventilation (OLV), one lung is excluded from gas exchange and ventilation is directed at the dependent lung. The authors hypothesised that the use of low tidal volumes (VT) during OLV provides adequate gas exchange and improves postoperative outcome. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. SETTING: Thoracic surgery. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing OLV. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors performed a meta-analysis of all randomized trials on low versus high VT during OLV in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Outcomes of the study were gas exchange and airway pressures during and after OLV, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), and hospital stay (HLOS). Fourteen randomized trials were selected, but only a few of them contained one outcome of interest. Low VT was associated with lower arterial oxygen tension, lower airway pressures, and higher arterial carbon dioxide tension at specific time points during OLV. Low VT was associated with preserved gas exchange after OLV, lower incidence of pulmonary infiltrations, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Incidences of PPCs and HLOS were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The use of low VT reduces airway pressure but worsens gas exchange during OLV. Preservation of postoperative oxygenation and reduction in infiltrates suggest a lung-protective modality with no demonstrable impact on PPCs and HLOS.


Assuntos
Ventilação Monopulmonar/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Gasometria/métodos , Gasometria/tendências , Humanos , Ventilação Monopulmonar/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/tendências
7.
Anesth Analg ; 124(2): 456-464, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099320

RESUMO

Bispectral Index Scale (BIS)-guided closed-loop delivery of anesthetics has been extensively studied. We performed a meta-analysis of all the randomized clinical trials comparing efficacy and performance between BIS-guided closed-loop delivery and manually controlled administration of total IV anesthesia. Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of clinical trials were searched for pertinent studies. Inclusion criteria were random allocation to treatment and closed-loop delivery systems versus manually controlled administration of total IV anesthesia in any surgical setting. Exclusion criteria were duplicate publications and nonadult studies. Twelve studies were included, randomly allocating 1284 patients. Use of closed-loop anesthetic delivery systems was associated with a significant reduction in the dose of propofol administered for induction of anesthesia (mean difference [MD] = 0.37 [0.17-0.57], P for effect <0.00001, P for heterogeneity = 0.001, I = 74%) and a significant reduction in recovery time (MD = 1.62 [0.60-2.64], P for effect <0.0001, P for heterogeneity = 0.06, I = 47%). The target depth of anesthesia was preserved more frequently with closed-loop anesthetic delivery than with manual control (MD = -15.17 [-23.11 to -7.24], P for effect <0.00001, P for heterogeneity <0.00001, I = 83%). There were no differences in the time required to induce anesthesia and the total propofol dose. Closed-loop anesthetic delivery performed better than manual-control delivery. Both median absolute performance error and wobble index were significantly lower in closed-loop anesthetic delivery systems group (MD = 5.82 [3.17-8.46], P for effect <0.00001, P for heterogeneity <0.00001, I = 90% and MD = 0.92 [0.13-1.72], P for effect = 0.003, P for heterogeneity = 0.07, I = 45%). When compared with manual control, BIS-guided anesthetic delivery of total IV anesthesia reduces propofol requirements during induction, better maintains a target depth of anesthesia, and reduces recovery time.


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa/instrumentação , Anestesia Intravenosa/métodos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia com Circuito Fechado , Monitores de Consciência , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 500 clinicians from 61 countries. INTERVENTIONS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify published literature about nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, showing a statistically significant impact on mortality. A consensus conference of experts discussed eligible papers. The interventions identified by the conference then were submitted to colleagues worldwide through a web-based survey. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors identified 11 interventions contributing to increased survival (perioperative hemodynamic optimization, neuraxial anesthesia, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, selective decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin for tight glycemic control, preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, levosimendan, volatile agents, and remote ischemic preconditioning) and 2 interventions showing increased mortality (beta-blocker therapy and aprotinin). Interventions then were voted on by participating clinicians. Percentages of agreement among clinicians in different countries differed significantly for 6 interventions, and a variable gap between evidence and clinical practice was noted. CONCLUSIONS: The authors identified 13 nonsurgical interventions that may decrease or increase perioperative mortality, with variable agreement by clinicians. Such interventions may be optimal candidates for investigation in high-quality trials and discussion in international guidelines to reduce perioperative mortality.


Assuntos
Consenso , Assistência Perioperatória/mortalidade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 562-568, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27988091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) are among the most common complications after noncardiac surgery. Men, smokers, and elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure are more likely to experience PPC. The majority of patients undergoing vascular surgery belong in these categories and are at higher risk of developing PPC. Moreover, the surgical site is one of the most important risk factors associated with PPC, and aortic surgery carries the highest risk. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain an additional understanding of the real incidence of PPC after open abdominal aortic surgery and the impact of PPC on survival. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Hospitals PARTICIPANTS: Patients who underwent open abdominal aortic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A literature search was performed on BioMedCentral, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Register of clinical trials. All prospective or retrospective studies reporting data on PPC after open abdominal aortic surgery were included. Co-primary endpoints were the PPC rate and the correlation between PPC and perioperative mortality. The secondary endpoint was the difference in the PPC rate and mortality between elective and urgent surgery. Data on 269,637 patients from 213 studies were analyzed. The overall median incidence of PPC was 10.3% (interquartile range 5.55%-19.1%). Pneumonia, respiratory insufficiency, prolonged mechanical ventilation, need for unplanned mechanical ventilation, atelectasis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions were the most common PPC reported in the literature. Occurrence of PPC was associated with postoperative mortality (r = 0.65, p<0.01) and was significantly higher in urgent procedures (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of PPC after open abdominal aortic surgery is high and is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Anestesia , Mortalidade
11.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-34731

RESUMO

Objective: Out of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedure every year, morethan 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. We decided to update a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. Design and Setting: A web-based international consensus conference. Participants: 500 hundred clinicians from 61 countries. Interventions: A systematic literature search was performed to identify published literature aboutnonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence showing a statistically significant impact on mortality. Eligible papers were discussed by a Consensus Conference of experts. The interventions identified by the conference were then submitted to colleagues worldwide through aweb-based survey...(AU)


Assuntos
Assistência Perioperatória , Mortalidade , Anestesia , Consenso , Cuidados Críticos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27625000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotid endarterectomy remains the most effective surgical treatment for reducing the risk of stroke in patients with significant carotid stenosis. In fact, endovascular approach is associated with a higher incidence of perioperative and long-term minor stroke when compared to carotid endarterectomy although long-term functional outcome and risk of major stroke are similar. However, advanced age resulted to be associated with an increased risk of complications after carotid endarterectomy. Therefore we decided to evaluate the outcome of carotid endarterectomy in octogenarians in our high-volume centre. METHODS: Data of all patients who underwent CEA between June 2009 and December 2014 were retrospectively recorded. Patients were categorized as <80 and ≥80 years of age. Propensity score matching based on baseline clinical variables was performed to correct for any bias. Primary outcome was the difference in combined stroke and death. Secondary outcomes included incidence of myocardial infarction, surgical reintervention, unplanned intensive care unit admission and length of hospital stay (LOS). RESULTS: A total of 2,463 carotid endarterectomies were performed, including 439 patients ≥80 years of age. After propensity score adjustment all octogenarians were matched one-to-one to younger patients. No differences in combined stroke and death were found (1.10% in octogenarians vs. 0.46% in younger patients; p=0.45). Octogenarians had an increased length of hospital stay when compared to younger patients (3.1±0.7 vs. 3.4±1.3 days; p=0.0001). No differences in other secondary outcomes were found. CONCLUSIONS: Age ≥ 80 years doesn't entail an increased perioperative risk after carotid endarterectomy. Hence, surgical carotid revascularization in octogenarians can be regarded as a safe and viable alternative to best medical therapy alone when performed in high-volume centers.

14.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 30(5): 1386-95, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27499346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Democracy-based medicine is a combination of evidence-based medicine (systematic review), expert assessment, and worldwide voting by physicians to express their opinions and self-reported practice via the Internet. The authors applied democracy-based medicine to key trials in critical care medicine. DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of literature followed by web-based voting on findings of a consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 555 clinicians from 61 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature review (via searching MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Embase) and selected all multicenter randomized clinical trials in critical care that reported a significant effect on survival and were endorsed by expert clinicians. Then they solicited voting and self-reported practice on such evidence via an interactive Internet questionnaire. Relationships among trial sample size, design, and respondents' agreement were investigated. The gap between agreement and use/avoidance and the influence of country origin on physicians' approach to interventions also were investigated. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: According to 24 multicenter randomized controlled trials, 15 interventions affecting mortality were identified. Wide variabilities in both the level of agreement and reported practice among different interventions and countries were found. Moreover, agreement and reported practice often did not coincide. Finally, a positive correlation among agreement, trial sample size, and number of included centers was found. On the contrary, trial design did not influence clinicians' agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' clinical practice and agreement with the literature vary among different interventions and countries. The role of these interventions in affecting survival should be further investigated to reduce both the gap between evidence and clinical practice and transnational differences.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Internacionalidade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Médicos
15.
Crit Care Med ; 44(12): 2139-2144, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27513539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive ventilation is a life-saving technique increasingly used to treat acute respiratory failure. Noninvasive ventilation has been applied mostly in ICUs, but several reasons brought to an increasing application of noninvasive ventilation in ordinary wards. Few articles evaluated the outcomes of patients receiving noninvasive ventilation including long-term follow-up. The aim of the present study was to assess 1-year survival rate of patients treated with noninvasive ventilation outside the ICU for acute respiratory failure of heterogeneous causes and to identify the predictors of long-term mortality. DESIGN: Prospective, observational, pragmatic study. SETTING: Ordinary wards of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients treated with noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Two-hundred and twenty-patients were enrolled. Mortality rates at 30-day, 90-days, and 1-year follow-up were 20%, 26%, and 34%. When excluding patients with "do-not-resuscitate" status, mortality rates were 13%, 19%, and 28%. The multivariate analyses identified solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic patients, and do-not-resuscitate status as independent predictors of mortality with postoperative acute respiratory failure associated with improved survival. The same predictors were confirmed when excluding do-not-resuscitate patients from the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive ventilation applied in ordinary wards was effective, with long-term outcomes not different from those reported for ICU settings. Solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic malignancies, and do-not-resuscitate status predicted mortality, whereas patients with postoperative acute respiratory failure had the best survival rate. Additional studies are required to evaluate noninvasive ventilation efficacy in the wards compared with ICU.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the differences in length of hospital stay (LOS) between patients receiving an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) approach and patients receiving conventional perioperative care in elective infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Secondary endpoints were the difference in postoperative pulmonary, renal, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications, unplanned intensive care unit admission, surgical reintervention and in-hospital mortality between groups. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, data of all patients undergoing open infrarenal AAA repair between June 2009 and December 2014 were recorded. After excluding the first month, we propensity matched 2:1 patients operated on before and after the introduction of an ERAS program (started in September 2012). RESULTS: A total of 1,034 elective open infrarenal AAA repairs were performed during the study period. Six-hundred and sixty-three patients who underwent surgery between June 2009 - September 2012 received standard perioperative care and were propensity matched with 371 patients who underwent surgery between October 2012-December 2014 after implementing ERAS approach in September 2012 in 13 patients. A statistically significant reduction in LOS (6.0 [5.5-6.5] vs 5.5 [5.4-6.5] days; p=0.021) and pulmonary complications (9.6% vs 4.7%; p=0.014) in the ERAS group were recorded. Other postoperative complications, need for unplanned intensive care unit admission, need for surgical reintervention and in-hospital mortality were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: An ERAS program is effective in reducing LOS and pulmonary complications after elective infrarenal AAA repair.

17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 30(4): 1005-14, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27238433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively assess published randomized peer-reviewed studies related to volatile agents used for sedation in intensive care unit (ICU) settings, with the hypothesis that volatile agents could reduce time to extubation in adult patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. SETTING: Intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS: Critically ill patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The BioMedCentral, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register databases of clinical trials were searched systematically for studies on volatile agents used in the ICU setting. Articles were assessed by trained investigators, and divergences were resolved by consensus. Inclusion criteria included random allocation to treatment (volatile agents versus any intravenous comparator, with no restriction on dose or time of administration) in patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Twelve studies with 934 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The use of halogenated agents reduced the time to extubation (standardized mean difference = -0.78 [-1.01 to -0.55] hours; p for effect<0.00001; p for heterogeneity = 0.18; I(2) = 32% in 7 studies with 503 patients). Results for time to extubation were confirmed in all subanalyses (eg, medical and surgical patients) and sensitivity analyses. No differences in length of hospital stay, ICU stay, and mortality were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis of randomized trials, volatile anesthetics reduced time to extubation in medical and surgical ICU patients. The results of this study should be confirmed by large and high-quality randomized controlled studies.


Assuntos
Extubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos
18.
Urology ; 94: 265-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27125880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the first performance of simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy and flexible ureteroscopy carried out in tandem by 2 different surgeons in a patient with bilateral medium-sized renal calculi, describing step-by-step details of the surgical technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 46-year-old man, affected with hyperparathyroidism, was diagnosed with asymptomatic bilateral medium-sized renal stones. An abdominal noncontrast computed tomography scan revealed a left single kidney stone with a maximum diameter of 16 mm and 2 right renal stones located in the pelvis and in the lower calyx, of 21 and 19 mm in maximum diameter, respectively. A bilateral simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy on the right side and flexible ureteroscopy on the left side were therefore carried out. RESULTS: The total operative time was 80 minutes. No intra- or postoperative complications were experienced. On postoperative day 1, the creatinine serum level was stable (0.7 mg/dL); he was discharged home 48 hours later. Ureteral stents were removed 7 days after the procedure. At 2 weeks follow-up, an abdominal noncontrast computed tomography scan showed a stone-free status and no changes in renal function were detected. CONCLUSION: A simultaneous bilateral endoscopic manipulation is feasible and safe and it can be offered in the presence of medium-sized bilateral renal stones in high-volume centers by experienced surgeons.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Ureteroscopia , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 30(2): 423-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26703972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Coma/etiologia , Azul de Metileno/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Anesth Analg ; 122(1): 48-54, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26049781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedatives can impair the swallowing process. We assessed the incidence and severity of swallowing impairment in patients sedated with propofol at clinically relevant doses. We also identified factors that were predictive of swallowing impairment. METHODS: In 80 patients scheduled to undergo elective gastrointestinal endoscopy under target-controlled infusion (TCI) propofol sedation, swallowing was evaluated by glottis videoendoscopy, using the Dysphagia Severity Score (DSS) and the Penetration and Aspiration Scale (PAS). The level of sedation was assessed with the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAAS) scale. Evaluations were obtained within each patient at 3 target effect-site propofol concentrations of 2, 3, and 4 µg/mL (Marsh model). RESULTS: At 2 µg/mL TCI, the OAAS score was 2 in 21 (26.25%) patients and 1 in 59 (73.75%). The OAAS score was 1 in all patients at 3 and 4 µg/mL TCI target. At 3 µg/mL TCI target, 19 (24.36%) patients had a DSS = 3 and 18 patients (23.08%) had a PAS = 7-8 (severe swallowing impairment). DSS was associated with increasing age (5-year odds ratio [OR] 1.53 [1.22-1.93]; P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI; OR 1.24 [1.08-1.42]; P = 0.002), and TCI target (OR 15.80 [7.76-32.20]; P < 0.001). In an alternative model incorporating OAAS instead of TCI target, DSS was associated with increasing age (5-year OR 1.13 [1.02-1.24]; P = 0.014) and BMI (OR 1.08 [1.02-1.15]; P = 0.006) and decreasing OAAS (OR 0.05 [0.006-0.36]; P = 0.003). PAS was associated with increasing age (5-year OR 1.09 [1.04-1.15]; P < 0.001), BMI (OR 1.23 [1.07-1.41]; P = 0.003), and TCI target (OR 15.23 [7.45-31.16]; P < 0.001). In an alternative model incorporating OAAS instead of TCI target, PAS was associated with increasing age (5-year OR 1.14 [1.04-1.26]; P = 0.007) and BMI (OR 1.09 [1.02-1.15]; P = 0.006) and decreasing OAAS (OR 0.05 [0.006-0.41]; P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Aspiration due to swallowing impairment may occur during deep sedation produced by propofol at commonly used TCI targets. TCI targets are predictors of swallowing impairment; increased age and high BMI are concomitant risk factors.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Sedação Profunda/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Deglutição/induzido quimicamente , Deglutição/efeitos dos fármacos , Esôfago/efeitos dos fármacos , Propofol/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estado de Consciência/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Gravação em Vídeo
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