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1.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

3.
Behav Genet ; 49(4): 349-365, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111357

RESUMO

Studies testing the effect of single genetic variants on substance use have had modest success. This paper reviewed 39 studies using polygenic measures to test interaction with any type of environmental exposure (G×E) in alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. Studies using haplotype combinations, sum scores of candidate-gene risk alleles, and polygenic scores (PS) were included. Overall study quality was moderate, with lower ratings for the polygenic methods in the haplotype and candidate-gene score studies. Heterogeneity in investigated environmental exposures, genetic factors, and outcomes was substantial. Most studies (N = 30) reported at least one significant G×E interaction, but overall evidence was weak. The majority (N = 26) found results in line with differential susceptibility and diathesis-stress frameworks. Future studies should pay more attention to methodological and statistical rigor, and focus on replication efforts. Additional work is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the importance of G×E in the etiology of substance use.

4.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663

RESUMO

Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.

5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 5(4): 307-320, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stressful life events and maltreatment have traditionally been considered crucial in the development of conversion (functional neurological) disorder, but the evidence underpinning this association is not clear. We aimed to assess the association between stressors and functional neurological disorder. METHODS: We systematically reviewed controlled studies reporting stressors occurring in childhood or adulthood, such as stressful life events and maltreatment (including sexual, physical abuse, and emotional neglect) and functional neurological disorder. We did a meta-analysis, with assessments of methodology, sources of bias, and sensitivity analyses. FINDINGS: 34 case-control studies, with 1405 patients, were eligible. Studies were of moderate-to-low quality. The frequency of childhood and adulthood stressors was increased in cases compared with controls. Odds ratios (OR) were higher for emotional neglect in childhood (49% for cases vs 20% for controls; OR 5·6, 95% CI 2·4-13·1) compared with sexual abuse (24% vs 10%; 3·3, 2·2-4·8) or physical abuse (30% vs 12%; 3·9, 2·2-7·2). An association with stressful life events preceding onset (OR 2·8, 95% CI 1·4-6·0) was stronger in studies with better methods (interviews; 4·3, 1·4-13·2). Heterogeneity was significant between studies (I2 21·1-90·7%). 13 studies that specifically ascertained that the participants had not had either severe life events or any subtype of maltreatment all found a proportion of patients with functional neurological disorder reporting no stressor. INTERPRETATION: Stressful life events and maltreatment are substantially more common in people with functional neurological disorder than in healthy controls and patient controls. Emotional neglect had a higher risk than traditionally emphasised sexual and physical abuse, but many cases report no stressors. This outcome supports changes to diagnostic criteria in DSM-5; stressors, although relevant to the cause in many patients, are not a core diagnostic feature. This result has implications for ICD-11. FUNDING: None.

6.
Appetite ; 118: 97-105, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826746

RESUMO

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, due to, among other factors, increased availability of highly palatable food (food high in fat, salt and/or sugar). It has been proposed that certain foods and/or eating behaviours may be addictive, to a degree comparable to substances of abuse. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) measures 'food addiction' by translating the diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder to eating behaviour. So far, only a few studies have examined the prevalence of food addiction in children with the YFAS for children (YFAS-C). Large-scale studies, especially among adolescents, are lacking. Adolescence is of particular interest because it is a period wherein unhealthy eating behaviours or addictive tendencies are likely to develop. The current study examines the prevalence of food addiction using the YFAS-C in a large group of Dutch adolescents (N = 2653) aged 14-21 years. With Generalized Estimation Equation (GEE) analysis we tested the relationship between food addiction symptoms and smoking, cannabis use, alcohol use, and sugar intake through drinks, while controlling for gender, age, educational level and weight class. In the total sample 2.6% met the criteria for a food addiction 'diagnosis', and the average symptom count was 1.0 (SD = 1.3, range 0-7). Symptoms of food addiction were positively associated with smoking, alcohol use, cannabis use and sugar intake. We propose that future studies focus on possible genetic/(neuro)biological mechanisms involved in both food addiction and substance use and that longitudinal designs are needed to examine possible causal pathways.


Assuntos
Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Dependência de Alimentos/complicações , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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