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2.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 15: 832133, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310884

RESUMO

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent seizures that originate in the temporal lobes of the brain. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are the standard treatment for managing seizures in mTLE patients, but are frequently ineffective. Resective surgery is an option for some patients, but does not guarantee a postoperative seizure-free period. Therefore, further insight is needed into the pathogenesis of mTLE to enable the design of new therapeutic strategies. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been identified as important regulators of neuronal function and have been implicated in epilepsy. However, the mechanisms through which circRNAs contribute to epileptogenesis remain unknown. Here, we determine the circRNA transcriptome of the hippocampus and cortex of mTLE patients by using RNA-seq. We report 333 differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs between healthy individuals and mTLE patients, of which 23 circRNAs displayed significant adjusted p-values following multiple testing correction. Interestingly, hippocampal expression of circ_Satb1, a circRNA derived from special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1), is decreased in both mTLE patients and in experimental epilepsy. Our work shows that circ_Satb1 displays dynamic patterns of neuronal expression in vitro and in vivo. Further, circ_Satb1-specific knockdown using CRISPR/CasRx approaches in hippocampal cultures leads to defects in dendritic spine morphology, a cellular hallmark of mTLE. Overall, our results identify a novel epilepsy-associated circRNA with disease-specific expression and previously unidentified cellular effects that are relevant for epileptogenesis.

3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(3): e1010340, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255100

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 attaches to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to gain entry into cells after which the spike protein is cleaved by the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) to facilitate viral-host membrane fusion. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression profiles have been analyzed at the genomic, transcriptomic, and single-cell RNAseq levels. However, transcriptomic data and actual protein validation convey conflicting information regarding the distribution of the biologically relevant protein receptor in whole tissues. To describe the organ-level architecture of receptor expression, related to the ability of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 to mediate infectivity, we performed a volumetric analysis of whole Syrian hamster lung lobes. Lung tissue of infected and control animals was stained using antibodies against ACE2 and TMPRSS2, combined with SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein staining. This was followed by light-sheet microscopy imaging to visualize their expression and related infection patterns. The data demonstrate that infection is restricted to sites containing both ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the latter is expressed in the primary and secondary bronchi whereas ACE2 is predominantly observed in the bronchioles and alveoli. Conversely, infection completely overlaps where ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-localize in the tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Cricetinae , Pulmão/metabolismo , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(8)2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181604

RESUMO

Acute stress leads to sequential activation of functional brain networks. A biologically relevant question is exactly which (single) cells belonging to brain networks are changed in activity over time after acute stress across the entire brain. We developed a preprocessing and analytical pipeline to chart whole-brain immediate early genes' expression-as proxy for cellular activity-after a single stressful foot shock in four dimensions: that is, from functional networks up to three-dimensional (3D) single-cell resolution and over time. The pipeline is available as an R package. Most brain areas (96%) showed increased numbers of c-fos+ cells after foot shock, yet hypothalamic areas stood out as being most active and prompt in their activation, followed by amygdalar, prefrontal, hippocampal, and finally, thalamic areas. At the cellular level, c-fos+ density clearly shifted over time across subareas, as illustrated for the basolateral amygdala. Moreover, some brain areas showed increased numbers of c-fos+ cells, while others-like the dentate gyrus-dramatically increased c-fos intensity in just a subset of cells, reminiscent of engrams; importantly, this "strategy" changed after foot shock in half of the brain areas. One of the strengths of our approach is that single-cell data were simultaneously examined across all of the 90 brain areas and can be visualized in 3D in our interactive web portal.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Animais , Eletrochoque/métodos , Pé/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1036, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210419

RESUMO

Following the decline of neurogenesis at birth, progenitors of the subventricular zone (SVZ) remain mostly in a quiescent state in the adult human brain. The mechanisms that regulate this quiescent state are still unclear. Here, we isolate CD271+ progenitors from the aged human SVZ for single-cell RNA sequencing analysis. Our transcriptome data reveal the identity of progenitors of the aged human SVZ as late oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. We identify the Wnt pathway antagonist SFRP1 as a possible signal that promotes quiescence of progenitors from the aged human SVZ. Administration of WAY-316606, a small molecule that inhibits SFRP1 function, stimulates activation of neural stem cells both in vitro and in vivo under homeostatic conditions. Our data unravel a possible mechanism through which progenitors of the adult human SVZ are maintained in a quiescent state and a potential target for stimulating progenitors to re-activate.


Assuntos
Ventrículos Laterais , Células-Tronco Neurais , Idoso , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Ventrículos Laterais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Transcriptoma
6.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 27: 621-644, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036070

RESUMO

Noncoding RNAs play regulatory roles in physiopathology, but their involvement in neurodevelopmental diseases is poorly understood. Rett syndrome is a severe, progressive neurodevelopmental disorder linked to loss-of-function mutations of the MeCP2 gene for which no cure is yet available. Analysis of the noncoding RNA profile corresponding to the brain-abundant circular RNA (circRNA) and transcribed-ultraconserved region (T-UCR) populations in a mouse model of the disease reveals widespread dysregulation and enrichment in glutamatergic excitatory signaling and microtubule cytoskeleton pathways of the corresponding host genes. Proteomic analysis of hippocampal samples from affected individuals confirms abnormal levels of several cytoskeleton-related proteins together with key alterations in neurotransmission. Importantly, the glutamate receptor GRIA3 gene displays altered biogenesis in affected individuals and in vitro human cells and is influenced by expression of two ultraconserved RNAs. We also describe post-transcriptional regulation of SIRT2 by circRNAs, which modulates acetylation and total protein levels of GluR-1. As a consequence, both regulatory mechanisms converge on the biogenesis of AMPA receptors, with an effect on neuronal differentiation. In both cases, the noncoding RNAs antagonize MeCP2-directed regulation. Our findings indicate that noncoding transcripts may contribute to key alterations in Rett syndrome and are not only useful tools for revealing dysregulated processes but also molecules of biomarker value.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of complement in the disease pathology of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), we investigated complement activation, and inhibition, on binding of MMN patient-derived immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neuron (MN) model for MMN. METHODS: iPSC-derived MNs were characterized for the expression of complement receptors and membrane-bound regulators, for the binding of circulating IgM anti-GM1 from patients with MMN, and for subsequent fixation of C4 and C3 on incubation with fresh serum. The potency of ARGX-117, a novel inhibitory monoclonal antibody targeting C2, to inhibit fixation of complement was assessed. RESULTS: iPSC-derived MNs moderately express the complement regulatory proteins CD46 and CD55 and strongly expressed CD59. Furthermore, MNs express C3aR, C5aR, and complement receptor 1. IgM anti-GM1 antibodies in serum from patients with MMN bind to MNs and induce C3 and C4 fixation on incubation with fresh serum. ARGX-117 inhibits complement activation downstream of C4 induced by patient-derived anti-GM1 antibodies bound to MNs. DISCUSSION: Binding of IgM antibodies from patients with MMN to iPSC-derived MNs induces complement activation. By expressing complement regulatory proteins, particularly CD59, MNs are protected against complement-mediated lysis. Yet, because of expressing C3aR, the function of these cells may be affected by complement activation upstream of membrane attack complex formation. ARGX-117 inhibits complement activation upstream of C3 in this disease model for MMN and therefore represents an intervention strategy to prevent harmful effects of complement in MMN.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Complemento C2/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Motores , Polineuropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Polineuropatias/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas
9.
Neuron ; 110(4): 613-626.e9, 2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921782

RESUMO

The current paradigm is that inflammatory pain passively resolves following the cessation of inflammation. Yet, in a substantial proportion of patients with inflammatory diseases, resolution of inflammation is not sufficient to resolve pain, resulting in chronic pain. Mechanistic insight into how inflammatory pain is resolved is lacking. Here, we show that macrophages actively control resolution of inflammatory pain remotely from the site of inflammation by transferring mitochondria to sensory neurons. During resolution of inflammatory pain in mice, M2-like macrophages infiltrate the dorsal root ganglia that contain the somata of sensory neurons, concurrent with the recovery of oxidative phosphorylation in sensory neurons. The resolution of pain and the transfer of mitochondria requires expression of CD200 receptor (CD200R) on macrophages and the non-canonical CD200R-ligand iSec1 on sensory neurons. Our data reveal a novel mechanism for active resolution of inflammatory pain.


Assuntos
Macrófagos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Animais , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias , Dor/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo
10.
STAR Protoc ; 2(3): 100669, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377993

RESUMO

Advances in tissue clearing enable analysis of complex migratory patterns of developing neurons in whole intact tissue. Here, we implemented a modified version of 3DISCO to study migration of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. We provide a detailed protocol starting from whole-brain immunostaining, tissue clearing, and ultramicroscopic imaging to post-acquisition quantification and analysis. This protocol enables precise quantification of DA neuron migration but can also be applied more generally for analyzing neuron migration throughout the nervous system. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Brignani et al. (2020).


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Mesencéfalo/embriologia , Microscopia/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia/instrumentação , Gravidez
11.
Cell ; 184(8): 2103-2120.e31, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740419

RESUMO

During cell migration or differentiation, cell surface receptors are simultaneously exposed to different ligands. However, it is often unclear how these extracellular signals are integrated. Neogenin (NEO1) acts as an attractive guidance receptor when the Netrin-1 (NET1) ligand binds, but it mediates repulsion via repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) ligands. Here, we show that signal integration occurs through the formation of a ternary NEO1-NET1-RGM complex, which triggers reciprocal silencing of downstream signaling. Our NEO1-NET1-RGM structures reveal a "trimer-of-trimers" super-assembly, which exists in the cell membrane. Super-assembly formation results in inhibition of RGMA-NEO1-mediated growth cone collapse and RGMA- or NET1-NEO1-mediated neuron migration, by preventing formation of signaling-compatible RGM-NEO1 complexes and NET1-induced NEO1 ectodomain clustering. These results illustrate how simultaneous binding of ligands with opposing functions, to a single receptor, does not lead to competition for binding, but to formation of a super-complex that diminishes their functional outputs.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/química , Movimento Celular , Receptor DCC/deficiência , Receptor DCC/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/química , Cones de Crescimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Ventrículos Laterais/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas/química , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Front Genet ; 12: 627907, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584828

RESUMO

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a common form of epilepsy and is characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures originating from the temporal lobe. The majority of mTLE patients develop pharmacoresistance to available anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) while exhibiting severe pathological changes that can include hippocampal atrophy, neuronal death, gliosis and chronic seizures. The molecular mechanisms leading to mTLE remain incompletely understood, but are known to include defects in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, including in non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of recently rediscovered ncRNAs with high levels of expression in the brain and proposed roles in diverse neuronal processes. To explore a potential role for circRNAs in epilepsy, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on hippocampal tissue from a rat perforant pathway stimulation (PPS) model of TLE at different post-stimulation time points. This analysis revealed 218 differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs. Remarkably, the majority of these circRNAs were changed at the time of the occurrence of the first spontaneous seizure (DOFS). The expression pattern of two circRNAs, circ_Arhgap4 and circ_Nav3, was further validated and linked to miR-6328 and miR-10b-3p target regulation, respectively. This is the first study to examine the regulation of circRNAs during the development of epilepsy. It reveals an intriguing link between circRNA deregulation and the transition of brain networks into the state of spontaneous seizure activity. Together, our results provide a molecular framework for further understanding the role and mechanism-of-action of circRNAs in TLE.

13.
Mol Ther ; 29(6): 2041-2052, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609732

RESUMO

Oligonucleotide therapies offer precision treatments for a variety of neurological diseases, including epilepsy, but their deployment is hampered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injection of an antisense oligonucleotide (antagomir) targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in animal models of epilepsy. In this study, we used assays of serum protein and tracer extravasation to determine that BBB disruption occurring after status epilepticus in mice was sufficient to permit passage of systemically injected Ant-134 into the brain parenchyma. Intraperitoneal and intravenous injection of Ant-134 reached the hippocampus and blocked seizure-induced upregulation of miR-134. A single intraperitoneal injection of Ant-134 at 2 h after status epilepticus in mice resulted in potent suppression of spontaneous recurrent seizures, reaching a 99.5% reduction during recordings at 3 months. The duration of spontaneous seizures, when they occurred, was also reduced in Ant-134-treated mice. In vivo knockdown of LIM kinase-1 (Limk-1) increased seizure frequency in Ant-134-treated mice, implicating de-repression of Limk-1 in the antagomir mechanism. These studies indicate that systemic delivery of Ant-134 reaches the brain and produces long-lasting seizure-suppressive effects after systemic injection in mice when timed with BBB disruption and may be a clinically viable approach for this and other disease-modifying microRNA therapies.


Assuntos
Antagomirs/genética , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/terapia , Animais , Antagomirs/administração & dosagem , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Terapia Genética , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Interferência de RNA , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2080, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483540

RESUMO

We report a method to generate a 3D motor neuron model with segregated and directed axonal outgrowth. iPSC-derived motor neurons are cultured in extracellular matrix gel in a microfluidic platform. Neurons extend their axons into an adjacent layer of gel, whereas dendrites and soma remain predominantly in the somal compartment, as verified by immunofluorescent staining. Axonal outgrowth could be precisely quantified and was shown to respond to the chemotherapeutic drug vincristine in a highly reproducible dose-dependent manner. The model was shown susceptible to excitotoxicity upon exposure with excess glutamate and showed formation of stress granules upon excess glutamate or sodium arsenite exposure, mimicking processes common in motor neuron diseases. Importantly, outgrowing axons could be attracted and repelled through a gradient of axonal guidance cues, such as semaphorins. The platform comprises 40 chips arranged underneath a microtiter plate providing both throughput and compatibility to standard laboratory equipment. The model will thus prove ideal for studying axonal biology and disease, drug discovery and regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Axônios/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Neuritos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Células Cultivadas , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Microfluídica , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vincristina/farmacologia
15.
Tissue Eng Part C Methods ; 27(3): 213-224, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446055

RESUMO

Despite their large societal burden, the development of therapeutic treatments for neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) has been relatively unsuccessful. This is, in part, due to a lack of representative experimental models that reveal fundamental aspects of human brain pathology. Recently, assays for in vitro modeling of the human central nervous system (CNS) have significantly improved with the development of brain and spinal cord organoids. Coupled with induced-pluripotent stem cell and genome editing technologies, CNS organoids are a promising tool for studying neurodegeneration in a patient-specific manner. An extensive array of protocols for the generation of organoids for different brain regions has been developed and used for studying neurodegenerative and other brain diseases. However, their application in the field of motor neuron disease (MND) has been limited due to a lack of adequate organoid models. The development of protocols to derive spinal cord and trunk organoids and progress in the field of assembloids are providing new opportunities for modeling MND. In this study here we review recent advances in the development of CNS organoid models, their application in NDDs, and technical limitations. Finally, we discuss future perspectives for the development of organoid-based systems for MND and provide a framework for their development. Impact statement Animal models and two-dimensional cultures are currently the main platforms for studying neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). However, central nervous system (CNS) organoid technology offers novel possibilities for studying these diseases. Organoid modeling in combination with emerging organ-on-a-chip approaches, induced-pluripotent stem cell technology, and genome editing render in vitro modeling of NDDs more robust and physiologically relevant. In this study, we review the principles underlying CNS organoid generation, their use in NDD research, and future perspectives in organoid technology. Finally, we discuss how advances in different fields could be combined to generate a multisystem organoid-on-a-chip model to investigate a specific class of NDDs, motor neuron diseases.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Doença dos Neurônios Motores , Animais , Encéfalo , Sistema Nervoso Central , Humanos , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/terapia , Organoides
16.
J Neurochem ; 156(6): 777-801, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970857

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNAs that exceed 200 nucleotides in length and that are not translated into proteins. Thousands of lncRNAs have been identified with functions in processes such as transcription and translation regulation, RNA processing, and RNA and protein sponging. LncRNAs show prominent expression in the nervous system and have been implicated in neural development, function and disease. Recent work has begun to report on the expression and roles of lncRNAs in motor neurons (MNs). The cell bodies of MNs are located in cortex, brainstem or spinal cord and their axons project into the brainstem, spinal cord or towards peripheral muscles, thereby controlling important functions such as movement, breathing and swallowing. Degeneration of MNs is a pathological hallmark of diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. LncRNAs influence several aspects of MN development and disruptions in these lncRNA-mediated effects are proposed to contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms underlying MN diseases (MNDs). Accumulating evidence suggests that lncRNAs may comprise valuable therapeutic targets for different MNDs. In this review, we discuss the role of lncRNAs (including circular RNAs [circRNAs]) in the development of MNs, discuss how lncRNAs may contribute to MNDs and provide directions for future research.


Assuntos
Doença dos Neurônios Motores/genética , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/fisiopatologia
17.
Trends Mol Med ; 27(3): 263-279, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121873

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons leading to motor, sensory, and/or cognitive defects. Currently, NDDs are not curable and treatment focuses on alleviating symptoms and halting disease progression. Phenotypic heterogeneity between individual NDD patients, lack of robust biomarkers, the limited translational potential of experimental models, and other factors have hampered drug development for the treatment of NDDs. This review summarizes and discusses the use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) approaches for improving drug discovery and testing. It highlights challenges associated with iPSC modeling and also discusses innovative approaches such as brain organoids and microfluidic-based technology which will improve drug development for NDDs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Microfluídica/métodos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/patologia , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/patologia
18.
J Neurochem ; 157(3): 393-412, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382092

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons with no cure available. Clinical and animal studies reveal that the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a synaptic connection between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, is highly vulnerable in ALS and suggest that NMJ defects may occur at the early stages of the disease. However, mechanistic insight into how NMJ dysfunction relates to the onset and progression of ALS is incomplete, which hampers therapy development. This is, in part, caused by a lack of robust in vitro models. The ability to combine microfluidic and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies has opened up new avenues for studying molecular and cellular ALS phenotypes in vitro. Microfluidic devices offer several advantages over traditional culture approaches when modeling the NMJ, such as the spatial separation of different cell types and increased control over the cellular microenvironment. Moreover, they are compatible with 3D cell culture, which enhances NMJ functionality and maturity. Here, we review how microfluidic technology is currently being employed to develop more reliable in vitro NMJ models. To validate and phenotype such models, various morphological and functional read-outs have been developed. We describe and discuss the relevance of these read-outs and specifically illustrate how these read-outs have enhanced our understanding of NMJ pathology in ALS. Finally, we share our view on potential future directions and challenges.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/métodos , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos , Neurônios Motores/patologia
19.
ACS Omega ; 6(51): 35375-35388, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984269

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons (MN) in the spinal cord leading to progressive muscle atrophy and weakness. SMA is caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in reduced levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. The mechanisms that link SMN deficiency to selective motor neuron dysfunction in SMA remain largely unknown. We present here, for the first time, a comprehensive quantitative TMT-10plex proteomics analysis that covers the development of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MNs from both healthy individuals and SMA patients. We show that the proteomes of SMA samples segregate from controls already at early stages of neuronal differentiation. The altered proteomic signature in SMA MNs is associated with mRNA splicing, ribonucleoprotein biogenesis, organelle organization, cellular biogenesis, and metabolic processes. We highlight several known SMN-binding partners and evaluate their expression changes during MN differentiation. In addition, we compared our study to human and mouse in vivo proteomic studies revealing distinct and similar signatures. Altogether, our work provides a comprehensive resource of molecular events during early stages of MN differentiation, containing potentially therapeutically interesting protein expression profiles for SMA.

20.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa064, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954321

RESUMO

Increasingly, repeat expansions are being identified as part of the complex genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To date, several repeat expansions have been genetically associated with the disease: intronic repeat expansions in C9orf72, polyglutamine expansions in ATXN2 and polyalanine expansions in NIPA1. Together with previously published data, the identification of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient with a family history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, caused by polyglutamine expansions in ATXN1, suggested a similar disease association for the repeat expansion in ATXN1. We, therefore, performed a large-scale international study in 11 700 individuals, in which we showed a significant association between intermediate ATXN1 repeat expansions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (P = 3.33 × 10-7). Subsequent functional experiments have shown that ATXN1 reduces the nucleocytoplasmic ratio of TDP-43 and enhances amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotypes in Drosophila, further emphasizing the role of polyglutamine repeat expansions in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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