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1.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386334

RESUMO

Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a devastating disease with high mortality, particularly when disseminated. Studies in adults and children suggest that susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) may represent phenotypes for inborn errors in toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling. However, the genetic basis of susceptibility to neonatal HSV including disseminated disease remains unknown. To test the hypothesis that variants in known HSE-susceptible genes as well as genes mediating HSV immunity will be identified in neonatal HSV, we performed an unbiased exome sequencing study in 10 newborns with disseminated, HSE, and skin, eyes, and mouth disease. Determination of potential impact on function was determined by following American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. We identified deleterious and potentially deleterious, rare variants in known HSE-related genes including a stop IRF3 variant (disseminated), nonsynonymous variants in TLR3 and TRAF3 (HSE), STAT1 (skin, eyes, and mouth), and DBR1 (disseminated) in our cohort. Novel and rare variants in other immunodeficiency genes or HSV-related immune genes GRB2, RAG2, PRF1, C6, C7, and MSR1 were found in 4 infants. The variant in GRB2, essential for T-lymphocyte cell responses to HSV, is a novel stop variant not found in public databases. In this pilot study, we identified deleterious or potentially deleterious variants in TLR3 pathway and genes that regulate anti-HSV immunity in neonates with HSV including disseminated disease. Larger, definitive studies incorporating functional analysis of genetic variants are required to validate these data and determine the role of immune genetic variants in neonatal HSV susceptibility.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260893

RESUMO

(1) Background: The atopic march is defined by the increased prevalence of allergic diseases after atopic dermatitis onset. In fact, atopic dermatitis is believed to play an important role in allergen sensitization via the damaged skin barrier, leading to allergic diseases such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis. The eosinophil, a pro-inflammatory cell that contributes to epithelial damage, is one of the various cells recruited in the inflammatory reactions characterizing these diseases. Few studies were conducted on the transcriptome of this cell type and even less on their specific microRNA (miRNA) profile, which could modulate pathogenesis of allergic diseases and clinical manifestations post-transcriptionally. Actually, their implication in allergic diseases is not fully understood, but they are believed to play a role in inflammation-related patterns and epithelial cell proliferation. (2) Methods: Next-generation sequencing was performed on RNA samples from eosinophils of individuals with atopic dermatitis, atopy, allergic rhinitis and asthma to obtain differential counts of primary miRNA (pri-miRNA); these were also analyzed for asthma-related phenotypes such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and provocative concentration of methacholine inducing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (PC20) levels, as well as FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio. (3) Results: Eighteen miRNAs from eosinophils were identified to be significantly different between affected individuals and unaffected ones. Based on counts from these miRNAs, individuals were then clustered into groups using Ward's method on Euclidian distances. Groups were found to be explained by asthma diagnosis, familial history of respiratory diseases and allergic rhinitis as well as neutrophil counts. (4) Conclusions: The 18 differential miRNA counts for the studying phenotypes allow a better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the development of the allergic diseases included in the atopic march.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 192, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children of aged fathers are at a higher risk of developing mental disorders. Alterations in sperm DNA methylation have been implicated as a potential cause. However, age-dependent modifications of the germ cells' epigenome remain poorly understood. Our objective was to assess the DNA methylation profile of human spermatozoa during aging. RESULTS: We used a high throughput, customized methylC-capture sequencing (MCC-seq) approach to characterize the dynamic DNA methylation in spermatozoa from 94 fertile and infertile men, who were categorized as young, 48 men between 18-38 years or old 46 men between 46-71 years. We identified more than 150,000 age-related CpG sites that are significantly differentially methylated among 2.65 million CpG sites covered. We conducted machine learning using our dataset to predict the methylation age of subjects; the age prediction accuracy based on our assay provided a more accurate prediction than that using the 450 K chip approach. In addition, we found that there are more hypermethylated (62%) than hypomethylated (38%) CpG sites in sperm of aged men, corresponding to 798 of total differential methylated regions (DMRs), of which 483 are hypermethylated regions (HyperDMR), and 315 hypomethylated regions (HypoDMR). Moreover, the distribution of age-related hyper- and hypomethylated CpGs in sperm is not random; the CpG sites that were hypermethylated with advanced age were frequently located in the distal region to genes, whereas hypomethylated sites were near to gene transcription start sites (TSS). We identified a high density of age-associated CpG changes in chromosomes 4 and 16, particularly HyperDMRs with localized clusters, the chr4 DMR cluster overlaps PGC1α locus, a protein involved in metabolic aging and the chr16 DMR cluster overlaps RBFOX1 locus, a gene implicated in neurodevelopmental disease. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the most affected genes by age were associated with development, neuron projection, differentiation and recognition, and behaviour, suggesting a potential link to the higher risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children of aged fathers. CONCLUSION: We identified thousands of age-related and sperm-specific epigenetic alterations. These findings provide novel insight in understanding human sperm DNA methylation dynamics during paternal aging, and the subsequently affected genes potentially related to diseases in offspring.

4.
Environ Epigenet ; 6(1): dvaa015, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240528

RESUMO

Given the public interest in epigenetic science, this study aimed to better understand media representations of epigenetics in national newspaper coverage in various regions in North America, Europe, and Asia. Content analysis was used to study media messages about epigenetics, their policy focus, and the balance of the reporting. We identified several recurring themes in the news reports, including policy messages relating to individual and societal responsibilities. We also found shortcomings in the media's portrayal of epigenetic science, and sought to identify potential causes by considering the underlying scientific evidence that the media reported on. A case study analysis showed that the results of epigenetic studies were often overstated in academic research publications due to common experimental limitations. We suggest that defining standardized criteria with which to evaluate epigenetic studies could help to overcome some of the challenges inherent in translating complex epigenetic research findings for non-technical audiences, and present a Press Kit template that researchers can adapt and use to aid in the development of accurate and balanced press releases.

5.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 376, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168820

RESUMO

Both poly(A) enrichment and ribosomal RNA depletion are commonly used for RNA sequencing. Either has its advantages and disadvantages that may lead to biases in the downstream analyses. To better access these effects, we carried out both ribosomal RNA-depleted and poly(A)-selected RNA-seq for CD4+ T naive cells isolated from 40 healthy individuals from the Blueprint Project. For these 40 individuals, the genomic and epigenetic data were also available. This dataset offers a unique opportunity to understand how library construction influences differential gene expression, alternative splicing and molecular QTL (quantitative loci) analyses for human primary cells.


Assuntos
Poli A/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Epigenômica , Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Genômica , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Biometrics ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438470

RESUMO

Identifying disease-associated changes in DNA methylation can help us gain a better understanding of disease etiology. Bisulfite sequencing allows the generation of high-throughput methylation profiles at single-base resolution of DNA. However, optimally modeling and analyzing these sparse and discrete sequencing data is still very challenging due to variable read depth, missing data patterns, long-range correlations, data errors, and confounding from cell type mixtures. We propose a regression-based hierarchical model that allows covariate effects to vary smoothly along genomic positions and we have built a specialized EM algorithm, which explicitly allows for experimental errors and cell type mixtures, to make inference about smooth covariate effects in the model. Simulations show that the proposed method provides accurate estimates of covariate effects and captures the major underlying methylation patterns with excellent power. We also apply our method to analyze data from rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls. The method has been implemented in R package SOMNiBUS.

7.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 124, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenomic studies that use next generation sequencing experiments typically rely on the alignment of reads to a reference sequence. However, because of genetic diversity and the diploid nature of the human genome, we hypothesize that using a generic reference could lead to incorrectly mapped reads and bias downstream results. RESULTS: We show that accounting for genetic variation using a modified reference genome or a de novo assembled genome can alter histone H3K4me1 and H3K27ac ChIP-seq peak calls either by creating new personal peaks or by the loss of reference peaks. Using permissive cutoffs, modified reference genomes are found to alter approximately 1% of peak calls while de novo assembled genomes alter up to 5% of peaks. We also show statistically significant differences in the amount of reads observed in regions associated with the new, altered, and unchanged peaks. We report that short insertions and deletions (indels), followed by single nucleotide variants (SNVs), have the highest probability of modifying peak calls. We show that using a graph personalized genome represents a reasonable compromise between modified reference genomes and de novo assembled genomes. We demonstrate that altered peaks have a genomic distribution typical of other peaks. CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing epigenomic datasets with personalized and graph genomes allows the recovery of new peaks enriched for indels and SNVs. These altered peaks are more likely to differ between individuals and, as such, could be relevant in the study of various human phenotypes.

9.
Nat Metab ; 2(1): 97-109, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066997

RESUMO

The complex relationship between metabolic disease risk and body fat distribution in humans involves cellular characteristics which are specific to body fat compartments. Here we show depot-specific differences in the stromal vascual fraction of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue by performing single-cell RNA sequencing of tissue specimen from obese individuals. We characterize multiple immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipose and hematopoietic stem cell progenitors. Subpopulations of adipose-resident immune cells are metabolically active and associated with metabolic disease status and those include a population of potential dysfunctional CD8+ T cells expressing metallothioneins. We identify multiple types of adipocyte progenitors that are common across depots, including a subtype enriched in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Depot-specific analysis reveals a class of adipocyte progenitors unique to visceral adipose tissue, which shares common features with beige preadipocytes. Our human single-cell transcriptome atlas across fat depots provides a resource to dissect functional genomics of metabolic disease.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 5-12, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753960

RESUMO

The clinical diagnosis of new-onset type 1 diabetes has, for many years, been considered relatively straightforward. Recently, however, there is increasing awareness that within this single clinical phenotype exists considerable heterogeneity: disease onset spans the complete age range; genetic susceptibility is complex; rates of progression differ markedly, as does insulin secretory capacity; and complication rates, glycemic control, and therapeutic intervention efficacy vary widely. Mechanistic and immunopathological studies typically show considerable patchiness across subjects, undermining conclusions regarding disease pathways. Without better understanding, type 1 diabetes heterogeneity represents a major barrier both to deciphering pathogenesis and to the translational effort of designing, conducting, and interpreting clinical trials of disease-modifying agents. This realization comes during a period of unprecedented change in clinical medicine, with increasing emphasis on greater individualization and precision. For complex disorders such as type 1 diabetes, the option of maintaining the "single disease" approach appears untenable, as does the notion of individualizing each single patient's care, obliging us to conceptualize type 1 diabetes less in terms of phenotypes (observable characteristics) and more in terms of disease endotypes (underlying biological mechanisms). Here, we provide our view on an approach to dissect heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes. Using lessons from other diseases and the data gathered to date, we aim to delineate a roadmap through which the field can incorporate the endotype concept into laboratory and clinical practice. We predict that such an effort will accelerate the implementation of precision medicine and has the potential for impact on our approach to translational research, trial design, and clinical management.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/classificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Fenótipo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87002, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sperm DNA methylation landscape is unique and critical for offspring health. If gamete-derived DNA methylation escapes reprograming in early embryos, epigenetic defects in sperm may be transmitted to the next generation. Current techniques to assess sperm DNA methylation show bias toward CpG-dense regions and do not target areas of dynamic methylation, those predicted to be environmentally sensitive and tunable regulatory elements. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to assess variation in human sperm DNA methylation and design a targeted capture panel to interrogate the human sperm methylome. METHODS: To characterize variation in sperm DNA methylation, we performed whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) on an equimolar pool of sperm DNA from a wide cross section of 30 men varying in age, fertility status, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype, and exposures. With our targeted capture panel, in individual samples, we examined the effect of MTHFR genotype ([Formula: see text] 677CC, [Formula: see text] 677TT), as well as high-dose folic acid supplementation ([Formula: see text], per genotype, before and after supplementation). RESULTS: Through WGBS we discovered nearly 1 million CpGs possessing intermediate methylation levels (20-80%), termed dynamic sperm CpGs. These dynamic CpGs, along with 2 million commonly assessed CpGs, were used to customize a capture panel for targeted interrogation of the human sperm methylome and test its ability to detect effects of altered folate metabolism. As compared with MTHFR 677CC men, those with the 677TT genotype (50% decreased MTHFR activity) had both hyper- and hypomethylation in their sperm. High-dose folic acid supplement treatment exacerbated hypomethylation in MTHFR 677TT men compared with 677CC. In both cases, [Formula: see text] of altered methylation was found in dynamic sperm CpGs, uniquely measured by our assay. DISCUSSION: Our sperm panel allowed the discovery of differential methylation following conditions affecting folate metabolism in novel dynamic sperm CpGs. Improved ability to examine variation in sperm DNA methylation can facilitate comprehensive studies of environment-epigenome interactions. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4812.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Técnicas Genéticas/instrumentação , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/análise , Espermatozoides/química , Adulto , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1625, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379830

RESUMO

Genetic mismatches in protein coding genes between allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipient and donor can elicit an alloimmunity response via peptides presented by the recipient HLA receptors as minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs). While the impact of individual mHAs on allo-HSCT outcome such as graft-vs.-host and graft-vs.-leukemia effects has been demonstrated, it is likely that established mHAs constitute only a small fraction of all immunogenic non-synonymous variants. In the present study, we have analyzed the genetic mismatching in 157 exome-sequenced sibling allo-HSCT pairs to evaluate the significance of polymorphic HLA class I associated peptides on clinical outcome. We applied computational mismatch estimation approaches based on experimentally verified HLA ligands available in public repositories, published mHAs, and predicted HLA-peptide affinites, and analyzed their associations with chronic graft-vs.-host disease (cGvHD) grades. We found that higher estimated recipient mismatching consistently increased the risk of severe cGvHD, suggesting that HLA-presented mismatching influences the likelihood of long-term complications in the patient. Furthermore, computational approaches focusing on estimation of HLA-presentation instead of all non-synonymous mismatches indiscriminately may be beneficial for analysis sensitivity and could help identify novel mHAs.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Efeito Enxerto vs Leucemia/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Genótipo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade/métodos , Humanos , Irmãos , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos
13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 110, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare DNA methylation in subjects positive vs negative for anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), a key serological marker of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk. METHODS: With banked serum from a random subset (N = 3600) of a large general population cohort, we identified ACPA-positive samples and compared them to age- and sex-matched ACPA-negative controls. We used a custom-designed methylome panel to conduct targeted bisulfite sequencing of 5 million CpGs located in regulatory or hypomethylated regions of DNA from whole blood (red blood cell lysed). Using binomial regression models, we investigated the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between ACPA-positive vs ACPA-negative subjects. An independent set of T cells from RA patients was used to "validate" the differentially methylated sites. RESULTS: We measured DNA methylation in 137 subjects, of whom 63 were ACPA-positive, 66 were ACPA-negative, and 8 had self-reported RA. We identified 1303 DMRs of relevance, of which one third (402) had underlying genetic effects. These DMRs were enriched in intergenic CpG islands (CGI) and CGI shore regions. Furthermore, the genes associated with these DMRs were enriched in pathways related to Epstein-Barr virus infection and immune response. In addition, 80 (38%) of 208 RA-specific DMRs were replicated in T cells from RA samples. CONCLUSIONS: Sequencing-based high-resolution methylome mapping revealed biologically relevant DNA methylation changes in asymptomatic individuals positive for ACPA that overlap with those seen in RA. Pathway analyses suggested roles for viral infections, which may represent the effect of environmental triggers upstream of disease onset.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Metilação de DNA , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão
14.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 133, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of loci associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and blood pressure (BP) or hypertension. Many of these loci are not linked to traditional risk factors, nor do they include obvious candidate genes, complicating their functional characterization. We hypothesize that many GWAS loci associated with vascular diseases modulate endothelial functions. Endothelial cells play critical roles in regulating vascular homeostasis, such as roles in forming a selective barrier, inflammation, hemostasis, and vascular tone, and endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of atherosclerosis and hypertension. To test this hypothesis, we generate an integrated map of gene expression, open chromatin region, and 3D interactions in resting and TNFα-treated human endothelial cells. RESULTS: We show that genetic variants associated with CAD and BP are enriched in open chromatin regions identified in endothelial cells. We identify physical loops by Hi-C and link open chromatin peaks that include CAD or BP SNPs with the promoters of genes expressed in endothelial cells. This analysis highlights 991 combinations of open chromatin regions and gene promoters that map to 38 CAD and 92 BP GWAS loci. We validate one CAD locus, by engineering a deletion of the TNFα-sensitive regulatory element using CRISPR/Cas9 and measure the effect on the expression of the novel CAD candidate gene AIDA. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an important role played by genetic variants acting in the vascular endothelium to modulate inter-individual risk in CAD and hypertension.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Transcriptoma
15.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 31, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122281

RESUMO

As epigenetic studies become more common and lead to new insights into health and disease, the return of individual epigenetic results to research participants, in particular in large-scale epigenomic studies, will be of growing importance. Members of the International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) Bioethics Workgroup considered the potential ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) involved in returning epigenetic research results and incidental findings in order to produce a set of 'Points-to-consider' (P-t-C) for the epigenetics research community. These P-t-C draw on existing guidance on the return of genetic research results, while also integrating the IHEC Bioethics Workgroup's ELSI research on and discussion of the issues associated with epigenetic data as well as the experience of a return of results pilot study by the Personal Genome Project UK (PGP-UK). Major challenges include how to determine the clinical validity and actionability of epigenetic results, and considerations related to environmental exposures and epigenetic marks, including circumstances warranting the sharing of results with family members and third parties. Interdisciplinary collaboration and good public communication regarding epigenetic risk will be important to advance the return of results framework for epigenetic science.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica/ética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Temas Bioéticos , Epigenômica/normas , Testes Genéticos/normas , Humanos , Achados Incidentais
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1209, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872577

RESUMO

Sparse profiling of CpG methylation in blood by microarrays has identified epigenetic links to common diseases. Here we apply methylC-capture sequencing (MCC-Seq) in a clinical population of ~200 adipose tissue and matched blood samples (Ntotal~400), providing high-resolution methylation profiling (>1.3 M CpGs) at regulatory elements. We link methylation to cardiometabolic risk through associations to circulating plasma lipid levels and identify lipid-associated CpGs with unique localization patterns in regulatory elements. We show distinct features of tissue-specific versus tissue-independent lipid-linked regulatory regions by contrasting with parallel assessments in ~800 independent adipose tissue and blood samples from the general population. We follow-up on adipose-specific regulatory regions under (1) genetic and (2) epigenetic (environmental) regulation via integrational studies. Overall, the comprehensive sequencing of regulatory element methylomes reveals a rich landscape of functional variants linked genetically as well as epigenetically to plasma lipid traits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1262, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890717

RESUMO

Lys-27-Met mutations in histone 3 genes (H3K27M) characterize a subgroup of deadly gliomas and decrease genome-wide H3K27 trimethylation. Here we use primary H3K27M tumor lines and isogenic CRISPR-edited controls to assess H3K27M effects in vitro and in vivo. We find that whereas H3K27me3 and H3K27me2 are normally deposited by PRC2 across broad regions, their deposition is severely reduced in H3.3K27M cells. H3K27me3 is unable to spread from large unmethylated CpG islands, while H3K27me2 can be deposited outside these PRC2 high-affinity sites but to levels corresponding to H3K27me3 deposition in wild-type cells. Our findings indicate that PRC2 recruitment and propagation on chromatin are seemingly unaffected by K27M, which mostly impairs spread of the repressive marks it catalyzes, especially H3K27me3. Genome-wide loss of H3K27me3 and me2 deposition has limited transcriptomic consequences, preferentially affecting lowly-expressed genes regulating neurogenesis. Removal of H3K27M restores H3K27me2/me3 spread, impairs cell proliferation, and completely abolishes their capacity to form tumors in mice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Histonas/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Adolescente , Idoso , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Criança , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Edição de Genes/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/patologia , Células HEK293 , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/genética , Masculino , Metionina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Neurogênese/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(1): 90-101, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206357

RESUMO

The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) region is located in northeastern Quebec and is known for its unique demographic history and founder effect. As founder populations are enriched with population-specific variants, we characterized the variants distribution in SLSJ and compared it with four European populations (Finnish, Sweden, United Kingdom and France), of which the Finnish population is another founder population. Targeted sequencing of the coding and non-coding immune regulatory regions of the SLSJ asthma familial cohort and the four European populations were performed. Rare and low-frequency coding and non-coding regulatory variants identified in the SLSJ population were then investigated for variant- and gene-level associations with asthma and allergy-related traits (eosinophil percentage, immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels and lung function). Our data showed that (1) rare or deleterious variants were not enriched in the two founder populations as compared with the three non-founder European populations; (2) a larger proportion of founder population-specific variants occurred with higher frequencies; and (3) low-frequency variants appeared to be more deleterious. Furthermore, a rare variant, rs1386931, located in the 3'-UTR of CXCR6 and intron of FYCO1 was found to be associated with eosinophil percentage. Gene-based analyses identified NRP2, MRPL44 and SERPINE2 to be associated with various asthma and allergy-related traits. Our study demonstrated the usefulness of using a founder population to identify new genes associated with asthma and allergy-related traits; thus better understand the genes and pathways implicated in pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Frequência do Gene , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Neuropilina-2/genética , Quebeque , Receptores CXCR6/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Serpina E2/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Biometrics ; 75(1): 210-221, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168593

RESUMO

DNA methylation studies have enabled researchers to understand methylation patterns and their regulatory roles in biological processes and disease. However, only a limited number of statistical approaches have been developed to provide formal quantitative analysis. Specifically, a few available methods do identify differentially methylated CpG (DMC) sites or regions (DMR), but they suffer from limitations that arise mostly due to challenges inherent in bisulfite sequencing data. These challenges include: (1) that read-depths vary considerably among genomic positions and are often low; (2) both methylation and autocorrelation patterns change as regions change; and (3) CpG sites are distributed unevenly. Furthermore, there are several methodological limitations: almost none of these tools is capable of comparing multiple groups and/or working with missing values, and only a few allow continuous or multiple covariates. The last of these is of great interest among researchers, as the goal is often to find which regions of the genome are associated with several exposures and traits. To tackle these issues, we have developed an efficient DMC identification method based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) called "DMCHMM" which is a three-step approach (model selection, prediction, testing) aiming to address the aforementioned drawbacks. Our proposed method is different from other HMM methods since it profiles methylation of each sample separately, hence exploiting inter-CpG autocorrelation within samples, and it is more flexible than previous approaches by allowing multiple hidden states. Using simulations, we show that DMCHMM has the best performance among several competing methods. An analysis of cell-separated blood methylation profiles is also provided.


Assuntos
Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Cadeias de Markov , Sulfitos , Algoritmos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador/economia , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
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