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Food Funct ; 12(20): 9680-9692, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664589


Cocoa is a highly consumed food with beneficial effects on human health. Cocoa roasting has an important influence on its sensory and nutritional characteristics; therefore, roasting could also play a role in cocoa bioactivity. Thus, the aim of this paper is to unravel the effect of cocoa roasting conditions on its antioxidant capacity and modifications of gut microbiota after in vitro digestion-fermentation. HMF and furfural, chemical markers of non-enzymatic browning, were analyzed in unroasted and roasted cocoa powder at different temperatures, as well as different chocolates. The antioxidant capacity decreased with roasting, most probably due to the loss of phenolic compounds during heating. In the case of the evaluated chocolates, the antioxidant capacity was 2-3 times higher in the fermented fraction. On the other hand, HMF and furfural content increased during roasting due to increasing temperatures. Moreover, unroasted and roasted cocoa powder have different effects on gut microbial communities. Roasted cocoa favored butyrate production, whereas unroasted cocoa favored acetate and propionate production in a significant manner. In addition, unroasted and roasted cocoa produced significantly different gut microbial communities in terms of composition. Although many bacteria were affected, Veillonella and Faecalibacterium were some of the most discriminant ones; whereas the former is a propionate producer, the latter is a butyrate producer that has also been linked to positive effects on the inflammatory health of the gut and the immune system. Therefore, unroasted and roasted cocoa (regardless of the roasting temperature) promote different bacteria and a different SCFA production.

Food Funct ; 12(9): 3799-3819, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977999


Tea is one of the most consumed beverages around the world and as such, it is constantly the object of novel research. This review focuses on the research performed during the last five years to provide an updated view of the current position of tea regarding human health. According to most authors, tea health benefits can be traced back to its bioactive components, mostly phenolic compounds. Among them, catechins are the most abundant. Tea has an important antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory properties, which make this beverage (or its extracts) a potential aid in the fight against several chronic diseases. On the other hand, some studies report the possibility of toxic effects and it is advisable to reduce tea consumption, such as in the last trimester of pregnancy. Additionally, new technologies are increasing researchers' possibilities to study the effect of tea on human gut microbiota and even against SARS CoV-2. This beverage favours some beneficial gut microbes, which could have important repercussions due to the influence of gut microbiota on human health.

Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá , Antioxidantes/análise , Bebidas/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Catequina/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
Food Chem ; 323: 126829, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334309


A total of 42 different rums currently marketed in Spain were analyzed to study the effect of aging time and manufacturing steps (filtration, addition of additives or spices, solera aging method, use of different types of aging barrels) on several parameters: color, non-enzymatic browning, antioxidant capacity and phenolic profile. Different analytical techniques to obtain a broader descriptions of the samples were employed: absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS methods), total phenols and HPLC to detect individual phenolic and furanic compounds. Results showed that spectrophotometric techniques could potentially be used to detect adulteration and frauds, as well as to differentiate rums by aging time. Those rums aged longer, especially those aged in oak barrels that had previously contained Bourbon or wine, showed higher phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and concentration of furanic compounds. Filtration results in the loss of antioxidant compounds while adding spices increases their concentration in rums.

Food Res Int ; 100(Pt 1): 134-142, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873671


Bread crust (BC) is one of the major sources of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in the Western diet. This work was designed to analyze the impact of diets containing important levels of MRPs from BC on intestinal bacterial growth and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in adult rats. Additionally, the pools of compounds excreted in feces attending to their molecular weights were analyzed. Rats were fed for 88days a control diet or diets containing BC or its soluble high molecular weight (HMW), soluble low molecular weight (LMW) or insoluble fractions, respectively. Intestinal (cecum) microbiota composition was determined by qPCR analysis. Consumption of the BC diet lowered (P<0.05) Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. log10 counts (8 and 14%, respectively), an effect for which soluble LMW and HMW fractions of BC seemed to be responsible. In these same animals, Escherichia/Shigella counts increased by around 45% (P<0.05), a fact which correlated with a higher production of formic acid in feces (r=0.8197, P=0.0458), and likely caused by the combined consumption of all MRPs contained in the BC. A significant 5-fold increment (P<0.05) was detected in the fecal proportion of propionic acid in the BC group, one of the products that have largely been associated with anti-inflammatory actions. Regarding the distribution of MRPs in feces, only the LMW fed group exhibited a predominance of those ranging between 90,000-1000Da, whereas the rest of the groups presented higher amounts of products above 90,000Da. It is concluded that dietary Maillard reaction products are in vivo fermented by the gut microbiota, thereby changing both the pattern of SCFAs production and the microbiota composition.

Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Animais , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/administração & dosagem , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/farmacologia , Reação de Maillard , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 61(3)2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800655


SCOPE: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a furanic compound produced in heat-processed foods by nonenzymatic browning reactions. HMF has been demonstrated to be hepato- and nephrotoxic in animals with a link to its metabolite 5-sulfooxymethylfurfural (SMF). To date little is known about either the formation of SMF from ingested HMF or the formation of DNA adducts in animals or human beings. METHODS AND RESULTS: To assess SMF in vivo formation, we first performed a study in mice treated with high/low doses of oral HMF. We found increased concentrations of SMF in plasma and DNA SMF-adducts in leukocytes, hepatic tissue, and kidneys by means of LC-MS/MS, but no spatial formation in such tissues was observed by MALDI-MS imaging technology due to low sensitivity. In a second experiment, we measured the exposure to HMF in a Spanish preadolescent population. We analyzed the concentration of HMF metabolites (plasma, urine) and measured, for the first time, the presence of SMF in plasma and DNA SMF-adducts in leukocytes. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that oral HMF is readily transformed into SMF in vivo, giving rise to the formation of DNA adducts in a direct relation with HMF intake, both in animals and human beings.

Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Animais , Criança , Adutos de DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Furaldeído/administração & dosagem , Furaldeído/sangue , Furaldeído/farmacocinética , Furaldeído/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Espanha