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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(7): 9685-9696, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35133137


Emerging and re-emerging infections are a global threat driven by the development of antimicrobial resistance due to overuse of antimicrobial agents and poor infection control practices. Implantable devices are particularly susceptible to such infections due to the formation of microbial biofilms. Furthermore, the introduction of implants into the body often results in inflammation and foreign body reactions. The antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of gallium (Ga) have been recognized but not yet utilized effectively to improve implantable device integration. Furthermore, defensin (De, hBD-1) has potent antimicrobial activity in vivo as part of the innate immune system; however, this has not been demonstrated as successfully when used in vitro. Here, we combined Ga and De to impart antimicrobial activity and anti-inflammatory properties to polymer-based implantable devices. We fabricated polylactic acid films, which were modified using Ga implantation and subsequently functionalized with De. Ga-ion implantation increased surface roughness and increased stiffness. Ga implantation and defensin immobilization both independently and synergistically introduced antimicrobial activity to the surfaces, significantly reducing total live bacterial biomass. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the antimicrobial effects of De were unlocked by its surface immobilization. Ga implantation of the surface also resulted in reduced foreign body giant cell formation and expression of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1ß. Cumulatively, the treated surfaces were able to kill bacteria and reduce inflammation in comparison to the untreated control. These innovative surfaces have the potential to prevent biofilm formation without inducing cellular toxicity or inflammation, which is highly desired for implantable device integration.

Anti-Infecciosos , Gálio , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Defensinas/farmacologia , Gálio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
Data Brief ; 40: 107674, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917713


This Data-in-brief article includes datasets of electron microscopy, polarised neutron reflectometry and magnetometry for ultra-small cobalt particles formed in titania thin films via ion beam synthesis. Raw data for polarised neutron reflectometry, magnetometry and the particle size distribution are included and made available on a public repository. Additional elemental maps from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are also presented. Data were obtained using the following types of equipment: the NREX and PLATYPUS polarised neutron reflectometers; a Quantum Design Physical Property Measurement System (14 T); a JEOL JSM-6490LV SEM, and a JEOL ARM-200F scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The data is provided as supporting evidence for the article in Applied Surface Science (A. Bake et al., Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 570, p. 151068, 2021, DOI 10.1016/j.apsusc.2021.151068), where a full discussion is given. The additional supplementary reflectometry and modelling datasets are intended to assist future scientific software development of advanced fitting algorithms for magnetization gradients in thin films.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(48): 57703-57712, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806354


There is growing interest in the development of novel materials and devices capable of ionizing radiation detection for medical applications. Organic semiconductors are promising candidates to meet the demands of modern detectors, such as low manufacturing costs, mechanical flexibility, and a response to radiation equivalent to human tissue. However, organic semiconductors have typically been employed in applications that convert low energy photons into high current densities, for example, solar cells and LEDs, and thus existing design rules must be re-explored for ionizing radiation detection where high energy photons are converted into typically much lower current densities. In this work, we report the optoelectronic and X-ray dosimetric response of a tissue equivalent organic photodetector fabricated with solution-based inks prepared from polymer donor poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blended with either a non-fullerene acceptor (5Z,5'Z)-5,5'-((7,7'-(4,4,9,9-tetraoctyl-4,9-dihydro-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene-2,7-diyl)bis(benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-7,4-diyl))bis(methanylylidene))bis(3-ethyl-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one) (o-IDTBR) or a fullerene acceptor, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Indirect detection of X-rays was achieved via coupling of organic photodiodes with a plastic scintillator. Both detectors displayed an excellent response linearity with dose, with sensitivities to 6 MV photons of 263.4 ± 0.6 and 114.2 ± 0.7 pC/cGy recorded for P3HT:PCBM and P3HT:o-IDTBR detectors, respectively. Both detectors also exhibited a fast temporal response, able to resolve individual 3.6 µs pulses from the linear accelerator. Energy dependence measurements highlighted that the photodetectors were highly tissue equivalent, though an under-response in devices compared to water by up to a factor of 2.3 was found for photon energies of 30-200 keV due to the response of the plastic scintillator. The P3HT:o-IDTBR device exhibited a higher stability to radiation, showing just an 18.4% reduction in performance when exposed to radiation doses of up to 10 kGy. The reported devices provide a successful demonstration of stable, printable, flexible, and tissue-equivalent radiation detectors with energy dependence similar to other scintillator-based detectors used in radiotherapy.

Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Polímeros/química , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Estrutura Molecular , Radiação Ionizante , Semicondutores , Raios X
Materials (Basel) ; 14(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501192


In this work, we present the improved efficiency of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes-based detectors equipped with the thermal neutron converters. This is achieved by optimizing the thermal neutron converter thicknesses. Simulations of the optimal thickness of thermal neutron converters have been performed using two Monte Carlo codes (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code and Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter). We have used 6LiF and 10B4C for the thermal neutron converter material. We have achieved the thermal neutron efficiency of 4.67% and 2.24% with 6LiF and 10B4C thermal neutron converters, respectively.

J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(47): 475701, 2017 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972198


We characterized intrinsic deep level defects created in ion collision cascades which were produced by patterned implantation of single accelerated 2.0 MeV He and 600 keV H ions into n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers using a fast-scanning reduced-rate ion microbeam. The initial deep level transient spectroscopy measurement performed on as-grown material in the temperature range 150-700 K revealed the presence of only two electron traps, Z 1/2 (0.64 eV) and EH6/7 (1.84 eV) assigned to the two different charge state transitions of the isolated carbon vacancy, V C (=/0) and (0/+). C-V measurements of as-implanted samples revealed the increasing free carrier removal with larger ion fluence values, in particular at depth corresponding to a vicinity of the end of an ion range. The first DLTS measurement of as-implanted samples revealed formation of additional deep level defects labelled as ET1 (0.35 eV), ET2 (0.65 eV) and EH3 (1.06 eV) which were clearly distinguished from the presence of isolated carbon vacancies (Z 1/2 and EH6/7 defects) in increased concentrations after implantations either by He or H ions. Repeated C-V measurements showed that a partial net free-carrier recovery occurred in as-implanted samples upon the low-temperature annealing following the first DLTS measurement. The second DLTS measurement revealed the almost complete removal of ET2 defect and the partial removal of EH3 defect, while the concentrations of Z 1/2 and EH6/7 defects increased, due to the low temperature annealing up to 700 K accomplished during the first temperature scan. We concluded that the ET2 and EH3 defects: (i) act as majority carrier removal traps, (ii) exhibit a low thermal stability and (iii) can be related to the simple point-like defects introduced by light ion implantation, namely interstitials and/or complex of interstitials and vacancies in both carbon and silicon sub-lattices.