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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5635, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159062

RESUMO

More tree species can increase the carbon storage capacity of forests (here referred to as the more species hypothesis) through increased tree productivity and tree abundance resulting from complementarity, but they can also be the consequence of increased tree abundance through increased available energy (more individuals hypothesis). To test these two contrasting hypotheses, we analyse the most plausible pathways in the richness-abundance relationship and its stability along global climatic gradients. We show that positive effect of species richness on tree abundance only prevails in eight of the twenty-three forest regions considered in this study. In the other forest regions, any benefit from having more species is just as likely (9 regions) or even less likely (6 regions) than the effects of having more individuals. We demonstrate that diversity effects prevail in the most productive environments, and abundance effects become dominant towards the most limiting conditions. These findings can contribute to refining cost-effective mitigation strategies based on fostering carbon storage through increased tree diversity. Specifically, in less productive environments, mitigation measures should promote abundance of locally adapted and stress tolerant tree species instead of increasing species richness.

2.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(1): 40-45, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844189

RESUMO

According to the competitive exclusion principle, species with low competitive abilities should be excluded by more efficient competitors; yet, they generally remain as rare species. Here, we describe the positive and negative spatial association networks of 326 disparate assemblages, showing a general organization pattern that simultaneously supports the primacy of competition and the persistence of rare species. Abundant species monopolize negative associations in about 90% of the assemblages. On the other hand, rare species are mostly involved in positive associations, forming small network modules. Simulations suggest that positive interactions among rare species and microhabitat preferences are the most probable mechanisms underpinning this pattern and rare species persistence. The consistent results across taxa and geography suggest a general explanation for the maintenance of biodiversity in competitive environments.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Geografia
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 105(1): 98-101, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926779

RESUMO

Marine species are experiencing unprecedented global impacts due to anthropogenic debris. Many recent studies have pointed out the hazards associated with marine litter ingestion, especially plastic debris - the most abundant and ubiquitous items in coastal and oceanic environments worldwide. In this study we provide the first in situ evidence of consumption of non-discarded synthetic rope fragments by green turtles. We explored the environmental risks to this endangered species associated with the grazing and consumption of anthropogenic debris in zones of human activity. Efforts to combat debris ingestion and reduce anthropogenic debris discharged into the world's oceans should be a priority for decision-makers and will need to involve multiple-approaches and the adoption of more environmentally friendly products and practices by the international community.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Tartarugas , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Jardins , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos , Resíduos , Poluentes da Água/análise
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