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1.
J Nutr ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Valid assessment of dietary intake in diverse populations is important for studies of chronic disease risk in the United States. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) modified for the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3) prospective cohort, among a racially/ethnically diverse subgroup. METHODS: The Diet Assessment Substudy included 677 CPS-3 participants (64% women; 61% non-Hispanic white, 24% non-Hispanic black, 15% Hispanic), aged 31-70 y, who completed 2 FFQs 1 y apart (FFQ1, FFQ2), 4-6 telephone-administered 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs), and 2 fasting blood samples and 24-h urine collections ∼6 mo apart in the interim. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to evaluate FFQ reproducibility and validity compared with 24HRs for 67 nutrient exposures. For 18 of these nutrients, we used the method of triads to calculate validity coefficients (VCs, ρ) from pairwise correlations of FFQ2, 24HRs, and biomarkers. Analyses were stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and BMI. RESULTS: Mean (range) FFQ reproducibility correlations were ρ = 0.65 (0.50-0.91) for men and ρ = 0.63 (0.37-0.89) for women; mean (range) energy-adjusted, deattenuated correlations of FFQ2 with 24HRs were ρ = 0.60 (0.33-0.84) for men and ρ = 0.55 (0.21-0.79) for women. FFQ2 VCs (ρ) among men ranged from 0.42 for ß-cryptoxanthin to 0.91 for omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and, among women, from 0.41 for sodium to 0.79 for total vitamin D. Mean FFQ reproducibility and validity were highest among whites (ρ = 0.68, ρ = 0.58, respectively) and slightly lower among blacks (ρ = 0.57, ρ = 0.49, respectively) and Hispanics (ρ = 0.59, 0.55, respectively). FFQ reproducibility and validity were slightly lower among those with less than a 4-y college degree, and those with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Reproducibility and validity of the CPS-3 FFQ were comparable with similar studies for most nutrients, among all subgroups. These findings support future dietary analyses in the contemporary CPS-3 cohort and other similar cohorts.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244566, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between time-use behaviors and prospective weight change is poorly understood. METHODS: A subset of Cancer Prevention Study-3 participants (n = 549, 58% women, 66% non-Latinx white) self-reported weight in 2015 and 2018 and completed an accelerometer protocol for seven days. Sedentary time, sleep, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity (PA) were treated as a compositional variable and multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between activity composition and weight change stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Compositional isotemporal substitution analysis was used to quantify change in weight associated with reallocating 30 min./day. RESULTS: Activity composition was associated with weight change among women (p = 0.007), but not men (p = 0.356), and among Latinx (p = 0.032) and white participants (p = 0.001), but not Black participants (p = 0.903). Replacement of 30 min./day sedentary time with moderate-vigorous PA was associated with 3.49 lbs. loss (-6.76, -0.22) in Latinx participants and replacement with sleep was associated with 1.52 (0.25, 2.79) and 1.31 (0.40, 2.21) lbs. gain in white women and men. CONCLUSION: The distribution of time spent in daily behaviors was associated with three-year weight change in women, Latinx, and white participants. This was the first longitudinal compositional study of weight change; thus, more studies are needed.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for women at high risk of symptom-detected breast cancers that were missed by screening would enable targeting of enhanced screening regimens. To this end, we examined associations of breast cancer risk factors by mode of detection in screened women from the Cancer Prevention Study (CPS)-II Nutrition Cohort. METHODS: Among 77,206 women followed for a median of 14.8 years, 2711 screen-detected and 1281 symptom-detected breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Multivariable-adjusted associations were estimated using joint Cox proportional hazards regression models with person-time calculated contingent on screening. RESULTS: Factors associated with higher risks of symptom-detected and screen-detected breast cancer included current combined hormone therapy (HT) use (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.72-2.48 and 1.45, 1.27-1.65, respectively) and history of benign breast disease (1.85, 1.64-2.08 and 1.43, 1.31-1.55, respectively). Current estrogen-only HT use was associated with symptom-detected (1.40, 1.15-1.71) but not screen-detected (0.95, 0.83-1.09) breast cancer. Higher risk of screen-detected but not symptom-detected breast cancer was observed for obese vs. normal body mass index (1.22, 1.01-1.48 and 0.76, 0.56-1.01, respectively), per 3 h/day sitting time (1.10, 1.04-1.16 and 0.97, 0.89-1.06, respectively), and ≥ 2 drinks per day vs. nondrinker (1.40, 1.16-1.69 and 1.27, 0.97-1.66, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in risk factors for symptom-detected vs. screen-detected breast cancer were observed and most notably, use of combined and estrogen-only HT and a history of benign breast disease were associated with increased risk of symptomatic detected breast cancer. IMPACT: If confirmed, these data suggest that such women may benefit from more intensive screening to facilitate early detection.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Excess body fatness and physical activity independently influence the risk of several types of cancer. However, few studies have examined whether physical activity mitigates the excess risk associated with higher body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We examined the individual and joint associations between BMI (kg/m2) and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, MET-hours/week) with the risk of three established excess body fatness-related cancers (breast, colon, and endometrial) among 43,795 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort (1992/1993-2015). Further exclusions for women without an intact uterus resulted in 31,805 women for endometrial cancer analyses. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with interaction terms to assess multiplicative interaction. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was calculated to assess additive interaction. RESULTS: BMI and MVPA were individually associated with breast and endometrial cancer risk, but only BMI was associated with colon cancer risk. In joint analyses, increasing levels of MVPA did not lower the risk of these cancers among obese women. For example, compared to the common referent (BMI 18.5- < 25 kg/m2, MVPA > 0- < 7.5 MET-hours/week), BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among women with low MVPA (> 0-< 7.5 MET-hours/week: HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.22 - 1.67) and high MVPA (≥ 15 MET-hours/week: HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.25 - 1.87; RERI = 0.20, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.54, multiplicative Pinteraction = 0.64). CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that leisure-time physical activity mitigates the excess risk associated with higher BMI for risk of breast, endometrial, or colon cancer among postmenopausal women.

6.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105384

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined one-year reliability and construct validity of survey items relating to time spent on muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) in a subset of a large prospective cohort. METHODS: Participants (N = 293 men, 433 women; age 32-73 years) were selected from the Cancer Prevention Study-3. Information was collected using a one-year pre- and post-survey and four 7-day diaries throughout the year. The pre- and post-surveys collected time spent on MSE in two ways: one question captured MSE activities performed during a typical 24-hour period (24-hour survey), and another question captured leisure-time physical activities performed in hours/week and months/year (LTPA survey). Time spent on MSE using the LTPA survey was calculated for individual MSE items and summed for total MSE time. One-year reliability was assessed by comparing the responses between the pre-survey and post-survey using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Construct validity was assessed by computing Spearman's correlation coefficients between responses from the post-survey items and the diary. Additional analyses were conducted to examine whether reliability or validity varied by sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: Reliability estimates for all MSE items were moderate (≥0.40) or strong (≥0.60) overall and across demographic strata. Reliability estimates were strongest for total MSE on the LTPA survey (Spearman ρ, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.78), compared to the 24-hour survey (0.59, 95% CI: 0.54-0.64). In contrast, the validity estimates were similarly strong for the total MSE on the LTPA survey (Spearman ρ, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.75) and the 24-hour survey (Spearman ρ, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.72). CONCLUSION: The CPS-3 surveys have acceptable one-year reliability and validity for self-reported time spent on MSE. Reliability and validity estimates are acceptable across all sociodemographic subgroups.

7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

8.
Cancer ; 127(1): 115-123, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sitting time with quality of life in cancer survivors compared with a cancer-free group. The current study examined differences in global mental health (GMH) and global physical health (GPH) across levels of MVPA and sitting among cancer survivors and cancer-free participants. METHODS: Cancer Prevention Study II participants (59.9% of whom were female with an age of 77.8 ± 5.8 years) were grouped as: 1) survivors who were 1 to 5 years after diagnosis (3718 participants); 2) survivors who were 6 to 10 years after diagnosis (4248 participants); and 3) cancer-free participants (ie, no history of cancer; 69,860 participants). In 2009, participants completed MVPA, sitting, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System GMH/GPH surveys. Mean differences in GMH and GPH T scores across MVPA (none, 0 to <7.5, 7.5 to <15, 15 to <22.5, and ≥22.5 metabolic equivalent [MET]-hours/week) and sitting (0 to <3, 3 to <6, and ≥6 hours/day) were assessed using multivariate generalized linear models. RESULTS: The mean GMH and GPH scores were statistically significantly higher in cancer-free participants compared with cancer survivor groups, although the differences were not clinically meaningful (mean difference of 0.52 for GMH and 0.88 for GPH). More MVPA was associated with higher GMH and GPH scores for all 3 groups (P for trend <.001), and differences between the least and most active participants were found to be clinically meaningful (mean differences of ≥4.34 for GMH and ≥6.39 for GPH). Similarly, a lower duration of sitting was associated with higher GMH and GPH scores for all groups (P for trend <.001), with clinically meaningful differences observed between the least and most sedentary participants (mean differences of ≥2.74 for GMH and ≥3.75 for GPH). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study provide evidence of the importance of increased MVPA and decreased sitting for improved health in older adults with or without a prior cancer diagnosis.

9.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e18556, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic cohort studies have begun to leverage electronic research participant portals to facilitate data collection, integrate wearable technologies, lower costs, and engage participants. However, little is known about the acceptability of portal use by research participants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to conduct focus groups among a sample of Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3) participants to better understand their preferences and concerns about research portals. METHODS: CPS-3 participants were stratified based on sex, race and ethnicity, age, and cancer status, and randomly invited to participate. Focus groups used an exploratory case design with semistructured guides to prompt discussion. Using a constant comparison technique, transcripts were assigned codes to identify themes. RESULTS: Participants (31/59, 52% women; 52/59, 88% White/non-Latinx) were favorably disposed toward using a research participant portal to take surveys, communicate with the study staff, and upload data. Most participants indicated that a portal would be beneficial and convenient but expressed concerns over data safety. Participants stressed the importance of an easy-to-use and trustworthy portal that is compatible with mobile devices. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to being beneficial to researchers, portals may also benefit participants as long as the portals are secure and simple. Participants believe that portals can provide convenient ways to report data and remain connected to the study.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2680-2685, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests the association between body mass index (BMI) and pancreatic cancer risk is weaker among current smokers than among never smokers. METHODS: We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among adults who reported smoking status at enrollment into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982, including 420,543 never smokers, 282,244 former cigarette smokers, and 219,885 current cigarette smokers. After excluding the first 3 years of follow-up to reduce reverse causation, we calculated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: During the full follow-up period from 1985 to 2014, 7,904 participants died of pancreatic cancer. The HR per 5 BMI units was lower among current smokers [HR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.20] than never smokers (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.17-1.27), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). BMI was significantly less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers reporting ≥20 cigarettes/day (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18) than among never smokers. During follow-up within 10 years of enrollment, when current smokers at enrollment were the most likely to have still been smoking, BMI was not associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.16, P = 0.03 for difference between current and never smokers). BMI HRs were similar among former and never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a weaker association between BMI and pancreatic cancer among current smokers than among never smokers. IMPACT: In populations with low smoking prevalence, the pancreatic cancer burden due to BMI is likely to be higher than that predicted by risk estimates from studies including substantial numbers of smokers.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

12.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E78, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762807

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) has beneficial effects on hypertension, glucose homeostasis, and other health conditions; however, its association with mortality is not as well understood. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (data collection 1982-2014), a prospective US cohort that consisted of 72,462 men and women who were free of major chronic diseases; 18,034 of the cohort died during 13 years of follow-up (2001-2014). We used Cox proportional hazards modeling, controlling for various potential confounding factors, to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MSA (none, >0 to <1 h/wk, 1 to <2 h/wk, and ≥2 h/wk) in relation to mortality risk, independent of and in combination with aerobic physical activity. RESULTS: The association between MSA and mortality appeared to be nonlinear (quadratic trend P value, <.001). After multivariable adjustment and comparison with no MSA, engaging in less than 2 hours per week of MSA was associated with lowered all-cause mortality (>0 to <1 h/wk: HR = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.82-0.94; 1 to <2 h/wk: HR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), but engaging in 2 or more hours per week was not associated with reduced risk (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.92-1.09). Associations were similar but not significant for cancer mortality. Engaging in >0 to <1 hr/wk of MSA was associated with a 19% lower risk (HR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92) of cardiovascular disease mortality, but more time spent in MSA was not associated with reduced risk (quadratic trend P value =.005). Associations did not vary by amount of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity. CONCLUSION: Engaging in ≥2 hours per week of MSA was associated with lower all-cause mortality, independent of aerobic activity. Reasons for the lack of association with higher amounts of MSA are unclear. Our findings support recommending muscle-strengthening activities for overall health.

13.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 70(4): 245-271, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515498

RESUMO

The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes the Diet and Physical Activity Guideline to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. This guideline is developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and reflects the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS guideline focuses on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. This 2020 ACS guideline is consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1283-1289, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371551

RESUMO

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Software , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Saúde Pública , Smartphone , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Nutr ; 150(6): 1566-1578, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FFQs are commonly used to assess dietary intake and it is important to evaluate their performance in the target population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the reproducibility and relative validity of the Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3) FFQ in estimating usual intake of 63 food groups and diet quality in accordance with the American Cancer Society dietary guidelines for cancer prevention. METHODS: A subset of participants from the CPS-3 (433 women, 244 men), 31-70 y of age, were included in a cross-sectional diet assessment substudy (2015-2016). Reproducibility was assessed by comparing estimates from repeat FFQs, approximately 1 y apart, using Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) and Pearson correlation coefficient (rp) correlations for food groups and diet quality, respectively. Validity was assessed similarly by comparing FFQ estimates with estimates from ≤6 interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Analyses were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Reproducibility correlations for repeated FFQs were > 0.50 for 83-97% of food groups analyzed across strata of sex and race. Although participants tended to overreport plant foods (e.g., fruits and legumes) and underreport refined grains and sugar-sweetened beverages, the median energy-adjusted, deattenuated Spearman correlations comparing the second FFQ to the 24HR were 0.50 and 0.52 among men and women (range: 0.05-0.82), respectively, suggesting that ranking was preserved for most food groups. Validity was highest for coffee, alcohol, and total dairy, and lowest for pasta and regular-fat yogurt. Median validity across food groups varied by race/ethnicity and was highest among whites (rs = 0.54) followed by Hispanics (rs = 0.49) and African Americans (rs = 0.45). The diet quality score had good validity in all subgroups examined, but was higher among men (rp = 0.69) than women (rp = 0.61), and lower among whites (rp = 0.62) than Hispanics (rp = 0.64) or African Americans (rp = 0.73). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates good reproducibility and validity of the CPS-3 FFQ for most major food groups and the diet quality score in all sex and race/ethnicity groups examined.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , American Cancer Society , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and weight are commonly used metrics in epidemiologic studies to calculate body mass index. Large cohort studies generally assess height and weight by self-report rather than by measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported height and weight in the Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3), a large, nationwide cohort recruited by the American Cancer Society between 2006-2013. METHODS: In a subset of CPS-3 participants (n = 2,643), weight and height were assessed at the same time via self-report and in-person measurement. BMI was calculated and classified underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-<25 kg/m2), overweight (25-<30 kg/m2), or obese (≥30 kg/m2). Self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI were compared using mean differences and Bland-Altman plots and examined by sex, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, age group, and BMI category. RESULTS: Men and women slightly overreported height and underreported weight. BMI calculated from self-reported data was lower than for measured data for men and women. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity, age, education, and marital status, older women and women with less than a college degree overreported height. Approximately 13% of men and 7% of women were misclassified into a lower self-reported BMI category, with misclassification of BMI being greatest in obese men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, height, weight, and BMI were well-reported, and this study further suggests that BMI computed from self-reported weight and height is a valid measure in men and women across different socio-demographic groups.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(7): 770, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101285
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 724-730, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large-scale prospective cohorts traditionally use English, paper-based, mailed surveys, but Web-based surveys can lower costs and increase data quality, and multi-language surveys may aid in capturing diverse populations. Little evidence exists examining item response for multiple survey modalities or languages in epidemiologic cohorts. METHODS: A total of 254,475 men and women completed a comprehensive lifestyle and medical survey at enrollment (2006-2013) for the Cancer Prevention Study-3, a U.S.-based prospective cohort. Web-based (English only) or paper (Spanish or English) surveys were offered. Using generalized linear models, differences in item response rates overall and by topical areas (e.g., reproductive history) by modality and language were examined. We further examined whether differences in response quality by sociodemographic characteristics within each survey modality existed. RESULTS: Overall, English Web-based surveys had the highest average item response rate (97.6%), followed by English paper (95.5%) and Spanish paper (83.1%). Lower item response rates were seen among nonwhite, lower income, or less-educated participants. When examining individual survey sections by topic, results varied the most for residential history, with the lowest item response rate among Spanish language respondents (women, 62.7% and men, 64.3%) and the highest in English language Web-based, followed by paper respondents (women, 94.6% and men, 95.3%; and women, 92.8% and men, 92.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports that utilizing multimodal survey approaches in epidemiologic studies does not differentially affect data quality. However, for some topic areas, further analysis should be considered for assessing data quality differences in Spanish language surveys. IMPACT: Multimodal survey administration is effective in nondifferentially capturing high-quality data.See all articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Modernizing Population Science."

19.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(2): 108-115, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602476

RESUMO

Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in epidemiologic studies. However, BMI has usually been assessed at older ages, potentially underestimating the full impact of excess weight. We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among 963,317 adults who were aged 30-89 years at their enrollment in Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. During follow-up through 2014, a total of 8,354 participants died of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios per 5 BMI units, calculated using proportional hazards regression, declined steadily with age at BMI assessment, from 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.33) in persons aged 30-49 years at enrollment to 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.26) in those aged 70-89 years at enrollment (P for trend = 0.005). On the basis of a hazard ratio of 1.25 per 5 BMI units at age 45 years, we estimated that 28% of US pancreatic cancer deaths among persons born in 1970-1974 will be attributable to BMI ≥25.0-nearly twice the equivalent proportion of those born in the 1930s, a birth cohort with much lower BMI in middle age. These results suggest that BMI before age 50 years is more strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk than BMI at older ages, and they underscore the importance of avoiding excess weight gain before middle age for preventing this highly fatal cancer.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
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