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1.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 30, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing (ES) has been successfully applied in clinical detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels. However, identification of copy number variants (CNVs) using ES data remains challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand the contribution of CNVs and copy neutral runs of homozygosity (ROH) in molecular diagnosis of patients referred for ES. METHODS: In a cohort of 11,020 consecutive ES patients, an Illumina SNP array analysis interrogating mostly coding SNPs was performed as a quality control (QC) measurement and for CNV/ROH detection. Among these patients, clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed at Baylor Genetics (BG) on 3229 patients, either before, concurrently, or after ES. We retrospectively analyzed the findings from CMA and the QC array. RESULTS: The QC array can detect ~ 70% of pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (PCNVs) detectable by CMA. Out of the 11,020 ES cases, the QC array identified PCNVs in 327 patients and uniparental disomy (UPD) disorder-related ROH in 10 patients. The overall PCNV/UPD detection rate was 5.9% in the 3229 ES patients who also had CMA at BG; PCNV/UPD detection rate was higher in concurrent ES and CMA than in ES with prior CMA (7.2% vs 4.6%). The PCNVs/UPD contributed to the molecular diagnoses in 17.4% (189/1089) of molecularly diagnosed ES cases with CMA and were estimated to contribute in 10.6% of all molecularly diagnosed ES cases. Dual diagnoses with both PCNVs and SNVs were detected in 38 patients. PCNVs affecting single recessive disorder genes in a compound heterozygous state with SNVs were detected in 4 patients, and homozygous deletions (mostly exonic deletions) were detected in 17 patients. A higher PCNV detection rate was observed for patients with syndromic phenotypes and/or cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical genomics study demonstrates that detection of PCNV/UPD through the QC array or CMA increases ES diagnostic rate, provides more precise molecular diagnosis for dominant as well as recessive traits, and enables more complete genetic diagnoses in patients with dual or multiple molecular diagnoses. Concurrent ES and CMA using an array with exonic coverage for disease genes enables most effective detection of both CNVs and SNVs and therefore is recommended especially in time-sensitive clinical situations.

2.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 25(2): 132-134, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849061

RESUMO

Delusional disorder is a relatively rare psychotic illness characterized by delusions with contents that are theoretically possible but highly unlikely, and an absence of the disorganized thought and negative symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia. The illness is rarely studied systematically and most guidance with regard to the treatment derives from case reports and small case series. Antipsychotic medications are the mainstay of treatment, but it is not clear whether any particular agent is more effective than others. We report the case of a patient with delusional disorder who had failed to respond to risperidone but improved markedly with aripiprazole. Aripiprazole may show promise as a treatment for delusional disorder, possibly as a result of its effects on both dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors.

3.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1797-1807, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Haploinsufficiency of USP7, located at chromosome 16p13.2, has recently been reported in seven individuals with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), seizures, and hypogonadism. Further, USP7 was identified to critically incorporate into the MAGEL2-USP7-TRIM27 (MUST), such that pathogenic variants in USP7 lead to altered endosomal F-actin polymerization and dysregulated protein recycling. METHODS: We report 16 newly identified individuals with heterozygous USP7 variants, identified by genome or exome sequencing or by chromosome microarray analysis. Clinical features were evaluated by review of medical records. Additional clinical information was obtained on the seven previously reported individuals to fully elucidate the phenotypic expression associated with USP7 haploinsufficiency. RESULTS: The clinical manifestations of these 23 individuals suggest a syndrome characterized by DD/ID, hypotonia, eye anomalies,feeding difficulties, GERD, behavioral anomalies, and ASD, and more specific phenotypes of speech delays including a nonverbal phenotype and abnormal brain magnetic resonance image findings including white matter changes based on neuroradiologic examination. CONCLUSION: The consistency of clinical features among all individuals presented regardless of de novo USP7 variant type supports haploinsufficiency as a mechanism for pathogenesis and refines the clinical impact faced by affected individuals and caregivers.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1885: 171-186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506198

RESUMO

Chromosomal Microarray analysis offers an objective high resolution view of copy number changes in the genome that contribute to genomic disorders in various clinical setting such as postnatal, prenatal, and oncology. Here, we describe a fast and reliable method of using chromosomal microarray analysis in detection of genomic imbalances that may be associated with congenital malformations in a prenatal setting. Results can be obtained in 4-5 days using direct amniotic fluid (AF) or chorionic villus samples (CVS).


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico , Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Testes Genéticos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Líquido Amniótico/citologia , Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica/métodos , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Gravidez
5.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142436

RESUMO

Interstitial deletions involving chromosome region 6p21.31p21.2 have not been previously reported in the literature. Here, we present a 2 year old girl with global developmental delay, severe speech delay, dysmorphic features, laryngeal cleft, anterior descending aorta that occluded the left main bronchus and a novel de novo deletion of chromosome 6: arr[hg19] 6p21.31p21.2 (35462950-36725083)x1. The deletion, which was diagnosed by array comparative genomic hybridization and further confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization, was approximately 1.26 Mb and contained 28 RefSeq genes. The deleted region includes 24 protein coding genes and 4 non-coding genes. This represents a novel microdeletion that has not been previously reported in the literature.

6.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 16(6): 473-481, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no effective chemotherapies for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) whose disease has failed to respond to taxanes or patients who do not wish to receive intravenous drugs. We hypothesized that low doses of multiple medications with prolonged exposure would result in a high response rate and low toxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with mCRPC were eligible for this phase 2 trial. The primary endpoint was a prostate-specific antigen decrease of more than 50%. CEE consisted of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/m2), etoposide (50 mg/m2), and estramustine 280 mg provided orally once a day for 14-day cycles every 28 days. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were enrolled and included in all evaluations. The prostate-specific antigen response rate was 46% in all patients, 53% in chemotherapy-naive subjects, and 31% after docetaxel chemotherapy. Thirty subjects had measurable lesions, 1 (3%) had complete response, 2 (7%) partial response, and 22 (73%) stable disease, for a clinical benefit of 83%. Sixty percent experienced an improvement in their performance status, and 65% reported improvement in their pain. The median overall survival was 18.6 months in all patients, 20.4 months in chemotherapy-naive patients and 11.3 months in patients whose disease progressed while receiving docetaxel therapy. Grade 3/4 treatment-related toxicities included 20% neutropenia, 10% thrombocytopenia, 10% deep-vein thrombosis, 8% anemia, 8% fatigue, 4% death, and 2% anorexia and stomatitis. CONCLUSION: CEE was an all-oral, easy-to-administer, and effective triple-drug therapy for patients with mCRPC.

7.
J Immunol Methods ; 459: 55-62, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800576

RESUMO

Immunotherapy approaches targeting dendritic cells (DCs) are being studied as treatment options in cancer. This project focused on utilizing DCs as a valuable in vitro screening tool for efficacious microparticle formulations containing tumor associated antigens (TAAs) and adjuvants as immunotherapy alternatives. The innate immune system, including DCs, distinctly responds to the particulate matter and adjuvants in these formulations which stimulates the adaptive immune system to eliminate resident cancer cells. We formulated microparticles (MPs) co-loaded with TAAs along with the adjuvants, AddaVax™ and Imiquimod, and measured their effect on DCs in eliciting a cell-mediated immune response towards tumors. The MP zeta potential was measured as -24.0 mV and -26.5 mV for blank and TAA/adjuvant co-loaded microparticles, and the average particle size was 671.2 nm and 854.4 nm respectively. We determined that nitric oxide (NO) secretion was significantly higher in the adjuvant MP treated DCs group and was dose dependent with 1 mg/mL demonstrating the highest secretion levels. TNF-α release was highest in AddaVax™/TAA and Imiquimod/TAA MPs treated DCs, while IL-6 secretion was highest from Imiquimod/TAA MPs as well as from combined AddaVax™/TAA and Imiquimod/TAA MPs. Overall, the cell surface marker expressions of CD80, CD86, CD40, CD54, MHC-I and MHC-II levels were highest with combined AddaVax™/TAA and Imiquimod/TAA MPs. The results of our experiments suggest that a combination of adjuvants targeting different DC receptors loaded with TAA MPs creates an efficient delivery system to T-cells that could improve adaptive immune responses. Our studies also confirm that DCs are potent innate immune cells that can be used successfully as an in vitro tool to screen novel delivery formulations focused on immunotherapy.

8.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 11(9): SR01-SR02, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207801

RESUMO

Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemias (AIHAs) are rare in children. They can be either a primary disease or secondary to/triggered by a host of other clinical conditions. We present five interesting cases of paediatric AIHA associated with infections (viral, bacterial and atypical) and autoimmune diseases {Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH)}. The H1N1 influenza associated AIHA responded to oseltamivir and Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IvIg) while the cases secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and pneumococcal bacteraemia required only treatment of the primary infection. AIHA with SLE responded well to corticosteroid therapy but the patient with AIH and AIHA succumbed to severe liver failure. Rest of the four cases with good response to therapy did not have any recurrence/relapse of AIHA during their follow up periods.

9.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 83, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exon-targeted microarrays can detect small (<1000 bp) intragenic copy number variants (CNVs), including those that affect only a single exon. This genome-wide high-sensitivity approach increases the molecular diagnosis for conditions with known disease-associated genes, enables better genotype-phenotype correlations, and facilitates variant allele detection allowing novel disease gene discovery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 63,127 patients referred for clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) at Baylor Genetics laboratories, including 46,755 individuals tested using exon-targeted arrays, from 2007 to 2017. Small CNVs harboring a single gene or two to five non-disease-associated genes were identified; the genes involved were evaluated for a potential disease association. RESULTS: In this clinical population, among rare CNVs involving any single gene reported in 7200 patients (11%), we identified 145 de novo autosomal CNVs (117 losses and 28 intragenic gains), 257 X-linked deletion CNVs in males, and 1049 inherited autosomal CNVs (878 losses and 171 intragenic gains); 111 known disease genes were potentially disrupted by de novo autosomal or X-linked (in males) single-gene CNVs. Ninety-one genes, either recently proposed as candidate disease genes or not yet associated with diseases, were disrupted by 147 single-gene CNVs, including 37 de novo deletions and ten de novo intragenic duplications on autosomes and 100 X-linked CNVs in males. Clinical features in individuals with de novo or X-linked CNVs encompassing at most five genes (224 bp to 1.6 Mb in size) were compared to those in individuals with larger-sized deletions (up to 5 Mb in size) in the internal CMA database or loss-of-function single nucleotide variants (SNVs) detected by clinical or research whole-exome sequencing (WES). This enabled the identification of recently published genes (BPTF, NONO, PSMD12, TANGO2, and TRIP12), novel candidate disease genes (ARGLU1 and STK3), and further confirmation of disease association for two recently proposed disease genes (MEIS2 and PTCHD1). Notably, exon-targeted CMA detected several pathogenic single-exon CNVs missed by clinical WES analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data document the efficacy of exon-targeted CMA for detection of genic and exonic CNVs, complementing and extending WES in clinical diagnostics, and the potential for discovery of novel disease genes by genome-wide assay.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Éxons , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 17(2): e225-e228, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28690898

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare proliferative disorder of the Langerhans cells, which are part of the mononuclear phagocytic system. The disorder varies in terms of the extent of the disease, its natural course and patient outcomes. While skin rashes are a common presentation of neonatal LCH, other systems or organs may also be involved. Delays in the diagnosis of neonatal LCH may occur due to its non-specific presentation and a lack of awareness of the condition among doctors. We report a two-month-old male neonate who presented to the Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalya hospital, New Delhi, India, in 2016 after the onset of pulmonary symptoms. He had been noted to have a generalised rash which had progressively worsened from 15 days of age. Following a skin biopsy and chest imaging, he was diagnosed with multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement. There was a delayed response to combined chemotherapy with no major side-effects.

11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 5: 49, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report the first case to our knowledge of a patient with relapsed/refractory classical hodgkin lymphoma and liver failure with encephalopathy along with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection, successfully treated with nivolumab without major side effects and encouraging prolonged disease control. CASE PRESENTATION: In December 2015, at the time of the patient's progression from his Hodgkin lymphoma after fourth line treatment, he developed persistent fevers, abdominal distension, jaundice and worsening of his liver function tests. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdomen/pelvis demonstrated hepatomegaly with innumerable new liver lesions, splenomegaly with multiple splenic nodules and several new mediastinal, intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. In accordance with the patient's wishes before admission, and after agreement with the family, nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) was given. Of note, antiretroviral therapy was on hold due to liver function tests, his viral load was undectable and cluster of differentiation 4 counts were 103/uL at the time of nivolumab administration. One week after the first dose of nivolumab both his hepatic encephalopathy and constitutional symptoms started to improve, and after 2 doses, (January 2016) his LFTs were almost back to normal. After 5 months of nivolumab treatment (10 doses), restaging (computerized tomography scans of neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis) done on May 2016 showed resolution of hepatosplenomegaly with two residual small hepatic lesions, heterogeneous spleen with no splenic lesions, and stable non-enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes without intraabdominal lymphadenopathy; consistent with partial response. CONCLUSIONS: We report a case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -related relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma and acute liver failure with encephalopathy successfully treated with nivolumab after failing all standard therapeutic options. Unlike classic cytotoxic chemotherapy, which relies on preserved organ function to ameliorate potential severe side effects (i.e. myelosuppression), elimination of monoclonal antibodies is fairly independent of baseline renal and hepatic function since they are usually metabolized by circulating phagocytes and/or by their target antigen-expressing cell.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Relacionado a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Doença de Hodgkin/complicações , Humanos , Linfoma Relacionado a AIDS/complicações , Masculino , Nivolumabe , Terapia de Salvação/métodos
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(9): 2485-2488, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631888

RESUMO

Cohen Syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in VPS13B, also known as COH1. Over 100 pathogenic variants in VSP13B, primarily truncations, and copy number variants, have been found in patients with CS. Here, we present an 11-month-old girl with CS caused by two multi-exonic small deletions in VSP13B in trans. Array comparative genomic hybridization has revolutionized the field of genome copy number analysis down to the exonic level, however it has its limitations. It cannot detect balanced structural variation nor determine the phase of copy number variants. Heterozygous multi-exonic copy number variation in autosomal recessive genes should be interpreted in the context of a clinical phenotype, and, if warranted, phase analysis should be performed before sequence analysis for that gene is pursued. This patient emphasizes the need of obtaining clinical information and determining the phase in multi-exonic copy number variants for accurate diagnosis and risk counseling.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Dedos/anormalidades , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Miopia/genética , Obesidade/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Dedos/fisiopatologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Hipotonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Degeneração Retiniana , Deleção de Sequência
15.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 377-386, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251352

RESUMO

Impairment of ubiquitin-proteasome system activity involving ubiquitin ligase genes UBE3A, UBE3B, and HUWE1 and deubiquitinating enzyme genes USP7 and USP9X has been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental delays. To date, only a handful of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy-number variants (CNVs) involving TRIP12, encoding a member of the HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases family on chromosome 2q36.3 have been reported. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES), we have identified, respectively, five deletion CNVs and four inactivating SNVs (two frameshifts, one missense, and one splicing) in TRIP12. Seven of these variants were found to be de novo; parental studies could not be completed in two families. Quantitative PCR analyses of the splicing mutation showed a dramatically decreased level of TRIP12 mRNA in the proband compared to the family controls, indicating a loss-of-function mechanism. The shared clinical features include intellectual disability with or without autistic spectrum disorders, speech delay, and facial dysmorphism. Our findings demonstrate that E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIP12 plays an important role in nervous system development and function. The nine presented pathogenic variants further document that TRIP12 haploinsufficiency causes a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Finally, our data enable expansion of the phenotypic spectrum of ubiquitin-proteasome dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Facies , Haploinsuficiência , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino
16.
Hum Mutat ; 38(6): 669-677, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28247551

RESUMO

Detailed characterization of chromosomal abnormalities, a common cause for congenital abnormalities and pregnancy loss, is critical for elucidating genes for human fetal development. Here, 2,186 product-of-conception samples were tested for copy-number variations (CNVs) at two clinical diagnostic centers using whole-genome sequencing and high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis. We developed a new gene discovery approach to predict potential developmental genes and identified 275 candidate genes from CNVs detected from both datasets. Based on Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and Zebrafish model organism database (ZFIN), 75% of identified genes could lead to developmental defects when mutated. Genes involved in embryonic development, gene transcription, and regulation of biological processes were significantly enriched. Especially, transcription factors and gene families sharing specific protein domains predominated, which included known developmental genes such as HOX, NKX homeodomain genes, and helix-loop-helix containing HAND2, NEUROG2, and NEUROD1 as well as potential novel developmental genes. We observed that developmental genes were denser in certain chromosomal regions, enabling identification of 31 potential genomic loci with clustered genes associated with development.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Camundongos , Análise em Microsséries , Gravidez , Peixe-Zebra/genética
17.
J Pediatr Genet ; 6(1): 42-50, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28180026

RESUMO

Chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing, used to identify DNA copy number variations (CNVs), has helped advance knowledge about genetics of human neurodevelopmental disease and congenital anomalies. It has aided in discovering new CNV syndromes and uncovering disease genes. It has discovered CNVs that are not fully penetrant and/or cause a spectrum of phenotypes, including intellectual disability, autism, schizophrenia, and dysmorphisms. Such CNVs can pose challenges to genetic counseling. They also have helped increase knowledge of genetic risk factors for neurodevelopmental disease and raised awareness of possible shared etiologies among these variable phenotypes. Advances in CMA technology allow CNV identification at increasingly finer scales, improving detection of pathogenic changes, although these sometimes are difficult to distinguish from normal population variation. This paper confronts some of the challenges uncovered by CMA testing while reviewing advances in genetics and the clinical use of this test that has replaced standard karyotyping in most genetic evaluations.

18.
Cell ; 168(5): 830-842.e7, 2017 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235197

RESUMO

De novo copy number variants (dnCNVs) arising at multiple loci in a personal genome have usually been considered to reflect cancer somatic genomic instabilities. We describe a multiple dnCNV (MdnCNV) phenomenon in which individuals with genomic disorders carry five to ten constitutional dnCNVs. These CNVs originate from independent formation incidences, are predominantly tandem duplications or complex gains, exhibit breakpoint junction features reminiscent of replicative repair, and show increased de novo point mutations flanking the rearrangement junctions. The active CNV mutation shower appears to be restricted to a transient perizygotic period. We propose that a defect in the CNV formation process is responsible for the "CNV-mutator state," and this state is dampened after early embryogenesis. The constitutional MdnCNV phenomenon resembles chromosomal instability in various cancers. Investigations of this phenomenon may provide unique access to understanding genomic disorders, structural variant mutagenesis, human evolution, and cancer biology.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/embriologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Mutação , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Duplicação Cromossômica , Replicação do DNA , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Gametogênese , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 27(1): 50-53, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-843789

RESUMO

ABSTRACT A sensitive and reliable high performance thin layer chromatography method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of quercetin and gallic acid in Leea indica, Vitaceae. Ethyl acetate extract prepared from hydrolysed aqueous alcoholic extract (70%) was applied on silica gel G 60 F254 plate. The plate was developed using toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid, 5:4:1 (v/v/v) as a mobile phase and detection and quantification were performed by densitometric scanning at 254 nm. The system was found to give well resolved bands for quercetin (Rf 0.63) and gallic acid (Rf 0.45) from other constituents present in the extract of L. indica. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.991 and 0.999 with relative standard deviation, 0.97–1.23% and 0.1–1.13% for quercetin and gallic acid respectively in the developed method. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by conducting recovery studies at different levels using the standard addition method. The average recovery of quercetin and gallic acid was found close to 99% suggesting the accurateness of the method. The proposed validated high performance thin layer chromatographic method offers a new, sensitive, specific and precise gauge for quantification of quercetin and gallic acid in L. indica.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 352-363, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132691

RESUMO

Degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an essential biological process in the development of eukaryotic organisms. Dysregulation of this mechanism leads to numerous human neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. Through a multi-center collaboration, we identified six de novo genomic deletions and four de novo point mutations involving PSMD12, encoding the non-ATPase subunit PSMD12 (aka RPN5) of the 19S regulator of 26S proteasome complex, in unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, congenital malformations, ophthalmologic anomalies, feeding difficulties, deafness, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. We observed reduced PSMD12 levels and an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins without any impairment of proteasome catalytic activity. Our PSMD12 loss-of-function zebrafish CRISPR/Cas9 model exhibited microcephaly, decreased convolution of the renal tubules, and abnormal craniofacial morphology. Our data support the biological importance of PSMD12 as a scaffolding subunit in proteasome function during development and neurogenesis in particular; they enable the definition of a neurodevelopmental disorder due to PSMD12 variants, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of UPS-dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Peixe-Zebra/genética
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