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1.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics are a predictive imaging biomarker for survival benefit in recurrent glioblastoma treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy; however, its use in large volume recurrence has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To determine if diffusion MR characteristics can predict survival outcomes in patients with large volume recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab or repeat resection. METHODS: A total of 32 patients with large volume (>20 cc or > 3.4 cm diameter) recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab and 35 patients treated with repeat surgery were included. Pretreatment tumor volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis were used to phenotype patients as having high (>1.24 µm2/ms) or low (<1.24 µm2/ms) ADCL, the mean value of the lower peak in a double Gaussian model of the ADC histogram within the contrast enhancing tumor. RESULTS: In bevacizumab and surgical cohorts, volume was correlated with overall survival (Bevacizumab: P = .009, HR = 1.02; Surgical: P = .006, HR = 0.96). ADCL was an independent predictor of survival in the bevacizumab cohort (P = .049, HR = 0.44), but not the surgical cohort (P = .273, HR = 0.67). There was a survival advantage of surgery over bevacizumab in patients with low ADCL (P = .036, HR = 0.43) but not in patients with high ADCL (P = .284, HR = 0.69). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment diffusion MR imaging is an independent predictive biomarker for overall survival in recurrent glioblastoma with a large tumor burden. Large tumors with low ADCL have a survival benefit when treated with surgical resection, whereas large tumors with high ADCL may be best managed with bevacizumab.

2.
J Interprof Care ; : 1-10, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323605

RESUMO

This scoping review focuses on identifying the quantity and quality of research evidence available with regard to online interprofessional education related to chronic disease management. Recent advances have seen the emergence of information communication technology and digital health solutions that may improve monitoring of and self-management of chronic disease. With the growing chronic disease burden globally, and the advancement of information communication technology, digital health solutions may improve chronic disease monitoring and self-management. However, health professionals are slow to utilize this technology in chronic disease management. Online education has the potential to enhance utilization of digital health solutions across interprofessional healthcare teams. This scoping review focuses on online interprofessional education and eLearning strategies used to promote engagement and achievement of learning outcomes between health care professionals in chronic disease management. A systematic search of the literature yielded 3112 papers; 15 studies were included in the review following an independent screening process. The review found very limited research for online interprofessional education related to chronic disease so it is not feasible to comment or draw conclusions in relation to its impact on interprofessional learning, student engagement in education or its impact in practice, services or health outcomes. Research methodology and online eLearning strategies varied across studies, highlighting the need for further rigorous studies that include consistency in online interprofessional education strategies, evaluations and study methods.

3.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620916358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321302

RESUMO

Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) receptor and blocks the inhibitory checkpoint interaction between PD-1 and its ligands. This interaction leads to the upregulation of effector T-cells and downregulating regulatory T-cell production. Although this mechanism is essential for the management of cancer, it may lead to decreased self-tolerance with an autoimmune reaction toward healthy functioning tissue. One of the less commonly reported and less understood immune-related adverse events includes neuromuscular complications. We present a rare case of autoimmune demyelinating polyneuropathy and hydrocephalus secondary to pembrolizumab use for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the cheek.

4.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sumatriptan, a serotonin receptor agonist, has been used in the management of primary headache disorders and has been shown to affect trigeminal dural afferents. There is limited literature on the safety and efficacy of sumatriptan for postcraniotomy pain management. This study aimed to identify whether subcutaneous sumatriptan is a safe and efficacious pain management strategy after elective craniotomy. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent supratentorial or suboccipital craniotomy between 2016 and 2019 that was performed by a single provider at a single institution to identify patients given subcutaneous sumatriptan in the postoperative period. Pain scores and intravenous and oral opioid use were compared in patients with (n = 15) and without (n = 45) sumatriptan administration. RESULTS: Patients with and without sumatriptan administration had no significant differences in baseline characteristics or surgery type. There were no sumatriptan-related complications. The average pain score decreased from 3.9 to 1.3 within 1 hour after sumatriptan administration (p = 0.014). In both adult and pediatric patients there was decreased postoperative pain (adults: pain score of 1.1 vs 7.1, p < 0.001; pediatric: 1.1 vs 3.9, p = 0.007) within the first 48 hours. There were decreases in intravenous opioid use, length of intravenous opioid use, maximum dose of intravenous opioid used, oral opioid use, length of oral opioid use, and maximum dose of oral opioid used in both adult and pediatric patients. CONCLUSIONS: The authors identified subcutaneous sumatriptan as a safe and efficacious tool for postoperative pain management after craniotomy. Large multicenter randomized controlled studies are needed to further evaluate the specific role of sumatriptan in postoperative pain management after craniotomy.

5.
Educ Prim Care ; 31(2): 71-73, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959069

RESUMO

Healthcare systems are becoming increasingly complex. Physicians are expected to be agents of change to meet the growing health needs. In the Middle East, young family doctors are subtly creating a space for advocacy. Recognising the need for compulsory advocacy training in undergraduate medical curricula, allows health workers and students a concrete exposure to social determinants of health by carrying out clinical encounters from the hospital setting to outpatient dispensaries in underprivileged areas. At the community level, they organise mobile clinics and engage in collaborative initiatives to provide primary healthcare services to vulnerable populations. To be successful, advocacy practice and training should move towards systems thinking. Family doctors need to engage and collaborate with other stakeholders within the healthcare system and understand the dynamics of the relationships between them. This empowers their role in national health agendas, especially those related to universal health coverage (UHC). Future physicians and all members of primary care teams need to partner with people outside their discipline; the idea of interdisciplinary and interprofessional collaboration should be integrated into their schooling and all forms of vocational training.

6.
Radiographics ; 40(1): 200-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917652

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases are a devastating group of disorders that can be difficult to accurately diagnose. Although these disorders are difficult to manage owing to relatively limited treatment options, an early and correct diagnosis can help with managing symptoms and coping with the later stages of these disease processes. Both anatomic structural imaging and physiologic molecular imaging have evolved to a state in which these neurodegenerative processes can be identified relatively early with high accuracy. To determine the underlying disease, the radiologist should understand the different distributions and pathophysiologic processes involved. High-spatial-resolution MRI allows detection of subtle morphologic changes, as well as potential complications and alternate diagnoses, while molecular imaging allows visualization of altered function or abnormal increased or decreased concentration of disease-specific markers. These methodologies are complementary. Appropriate workup and interpretation of diagnostic studies require an integrated, multimodality, multidisciplinary approach. This article reviews the protocols and findings at MRI and nuclear medicine imaging, including with the use of flurodeoxyglucose, amyloid tracers, and dopaminergic transporter imaging (ioflupane). The pathophysiology of some of the major neurodegenerative processes and their clinical presentations are also reviewed; this information is critical to understand how these imaging modalities work, and it aids in the integration of clinical data to help synthesize a final diagnosis. Radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians aiming to include the evaluation of neurodegenerative diseases in their practice should be aware of and familiar with the multiple imaging modalities available and how using these modalities is essential in the multidisciplinary management of patients with neurodegenerative diseases.©RSNA, 2020.

7.
Radiographics ; 40(1): 122-140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917664

RESUMO

With phase-contrast imaging, the MRI signal is used to visualize and quantify velocity. This imaging modality relies on phase data, which are intrinsic to all MRI signals. With use of bipolar gradients, degrees of phase shift are encoded and in turn correlated directly with the velocity of protons. The acquisition of diagnostic-quality images requires selection of the correct imaging plane to ensure accurate measurement and selection of the encoding velocity and thus prevent aliasing and achieve the highest signal-to-noise ratio. Multiple applications of phase-contrast imaging are actively used in clinical practice. One of the most common clinical uses is in cardiac valvular flow imaging, at which the data are used to assess the severity of valvular disease and quantify the shunt fraction. In neurologic imaging, phase-contrast imaging can be used to measure the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. This measurement can aid in the diagnosis and direct management of normal pressure hydrocephalus or be used to evaluate the severity of stenosis, such as that in Chiari I malformations. At vascular analysis, phase-contrast imaging can be used to visualize arterial and venous flow, and this application is used most commonly in the brain. Three-dimensional imaging can yield highly detailed flow data in a technique referred to as four-dimensional flow. A more recently identified application is in MR elastography. Shear waves created by using an impulse device can be velocity encoded, and this velocity is directly proportional to the stiffness of the organ, or the shear modulus. This imaging modality is most commonly used in the liver for evaluation of cirrhosis and steatosis, although research on the assessment of other organs is being performed. Phase-contrast imaging is an important tool in the arsenal of MRI examinations and has many applications. Proper use of phase-contrast imaging requires an understanding of the many practical and technical factors and unique physics principles underlying the technique.©RSNA, 2020.

8.
J Neurooncol ; 147(1): 15-24, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981014

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although intracranial meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumor in adults, treatment options are few and have traditionally been limited to surgical resection and radiotherapy. Additional targeted therapies and biomarkers are needed, especially as complete surgical resection is frequently not feasible in many patients. METHODS: Non-pathologic brain tissue from 3 patients undergoing routine autopsies and tumor specimens from 16 patients requiring surgical resection for meningioma were collected. EMP2 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. EMP2 mRNA expression was also investigated using surgical specimens and validated by analysis of several independent NCBI GEO databases. RESULTS: EMP2 mRNA expression levels were found to be higher in meningioma relative to non-pathologic meninges (P = 0.0013) and brain (P = 0.0011). Concordantly, strong EMP2 protein expression was demonstrated in 100% of meningioma specimens from all 16 patients, with no observable protein expression in normal brain tissue samples from 3 subjects (P < 0.001). EMP2 expression was confirmed by western blot analysis in five samples, with EMP2 protein intensity positively correlating with histologic staining score (R2 = 0.780; P = 0.047). No association was found between EMP2 mRNA or protein levels and WHO grade or markers of proliferation. However, EMP2 expression was positively associated with an angiomatous pattern on histologic evaluation (P = 0.0597), VEGF-A mRNA expression (P < 0.001), and clinical markers of tumor vascularity such as operative blood loss (P = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: EMP2 is not found in normal brain tissue, yet has shown consistently high mRNA and protein expression in meningiomas, and may serve as a useful molecular marker for these tumors.

10.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 16(1): 17-24, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of key publications in recent years have advocated a more integrated vision of UK primary care involving increased multi-professional communication and understanding. This has resulted in a marked change in the roles being undertaken by pharmacists. Community pharmacists have traditionally provided a medicine supply function and treated minor ailments in addition to delivering a suite of locally commissioned services; however these functions have not necessarily been part of a programme of care involving the other clinicians associated with the patient. An integrated model of care would see much closer working between pharmacy and general practice but also with pharmacists not only working with, but in the practice, in an enhanced patient-facing role, trained as independent prescribers. This has implications for the dynamics amongst professionals in this environment. OBJECTIVES: This exploratory multiple case study attempts to explore these changing dynamics across ten GP surgeries throughout the South-East of England. METHODS: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with one nurse, one pharmacist and one physician from each clinic, and survey data was collected from 38 patients who had appointments with a pharmacist. RESULTS: The data suggested that the pharmacists who had enhanced roles perceived some uncertainty about their professional role and identity, which resulted in instability and insecurity and that this uncertainty led to both professional and interprofessional tension with their primary care colleagues. The survey data revealed that n = 35 (92%) patients stated they were 'very satisfied' or 'satisfied' with their appointment. And n = 37 (97%) were 'very comfortable' or 'comfortable' discussing their medications with the pharmacist. In addition, 36 patients (95%) reported that they strongly agreed or agreed with the clinical recommendations made by the pharmacist. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are discussed in relation to role expansion and professional/interprofessional relations before key practical suggestions are offered.

11.
Surg Neurol Int ; 10: 223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819817

RESUMO

Background: Spinal ependymomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system, and those spanning the entire cervical spine are atypical. Here, we present two unusual cases of holocervical (C1-C7) spinal ependymomas. Case Description: Two patients, a 32-year-old female and a 24-year-old male presented with neck pain, motor, and sensory deficits. Sagittal MRI confirmed hypointense lesions on T1 and hyperintense regions on T2 spanning the entire cervical spine. These were accompanied by cystic cavities extending caudally into the thoracic spine and rostrally to the cervicomedullary junction. Both patients underwent gross total resection of these lesions and sustained excellent recoveries. Conclusion: Two holocervical cord intramedullary ependymomas were safely and effectively surgically resected without incurring significant perioperative morbidity.

12.
J Interprof Care ; : 1-3, 2019 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865830

RESUMO

Interprofessional education (IPE) via the use of online learning environments (OLEs) can help improve patient outcomes, interprofessional attitudes, and behaviors while providing education at a distance. Studies of interprofessional learning often examine communication and its relation to learning outcomes qualitatively. OLEs allow researchers to examine these communication patterns quantitatively, through social network analysis (SNA), and answer questions regarding the nature of communication between interprofessional learners and how this may impact interprofessional attitudes and behaviors. In this paper, we present a study that aims to track interprofessional communication within a cancer care course using SNA and examine how it relates to professional attitudes and collaboration. Using pre and post-course surveys as well as numerous SNA metrics derived from course discussion board posts, we hope to show how communication between interprofessional learners may mediate outcomes. This work will add to the existing IPE literature by providing an added quantitative layer to a largely qualitative literature and encourage future studies in this area.

13.
Teach Learn Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762321

RESUMO

Phenomenon: Physicians are under intense pressure to improve clinical productivity. High clinical load, limited availability, and decreased clinical efficiency are well-documented barriers to precepting medical students and threaten clinical productivity. In an era of increasing medical student enrollment, these barriers have already led to a decreased availability of clinical teachers and training sites across the United States. Improved preceptor satisfaction could have a great impact on recruitment and retention of medical student preceptors and is likely linked to changes in productivity. Curriculum structure could impact both preceptor productivity and satisfaction. Comparing productivity and satisfaction of physician preceptors teaching in longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) to those teaching in traditional block rotations (TBRs), or in both settings (LIC-TBR), could lead to a better understanding of the impact of curriculum structure on preceptor productivity and satisfaction. Approach: Data were collected through a quantitative cross-sectional survey of outpatient physician preceptors in North Carolina in 2017. Preceptor satisfaction and student influence on productivity-related aspects of practice were analyzed with bivariate chi-square statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Findings: Analyses included 338 physician preceptors: 79 LIC (23%), 50 LIC-TBR (15%), and 209 TBR preceptors (62%). LIC preceptors were more likely to indicate being "very satisfied" with precepting than either their LIC-TBR or TBR counterparts. There were no differences in perceived productivity-related aspects of practice across the different curricula, such as patient flow, income, or physician working hours. Logistic regressions controlling for potential confounding variables suggested that those teaching in LICs were almost 3 times more likely to be "very satisfied" relative to those teaching in LIC-TBR and TBR settings and that the negative influence of students on patient flow and physician working hours had an adverse effect on preceptor satisfaction. Insights: Preceptor satisfaction was high overall, though satisfaction was significantly higher among preceptors who teach in LICs. The perceived impact of students on clinical productivity was stable across the different curricula. In an era of increasing need for physician preceptors, the higher satisfaction of those who teach in LICs should be considered in curricular design and for preceptor recruitment and retention.

14.
J Interprof Care ; 33(5): 401-405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566099

RESUMO

This guest editorial introduces a special issue on theories of power in interprofessional research. Building on the intentions of the late Professor Scott Reeves, Distinguished Editor of this Journal, the identification that the notions of power have been visible yet relatively inconsistent in interprofessional research warranted a focused attempt to draw together scholarship from across the globe. Power runs throughout and often dictates interprofessional dynamics yet the visibility of theoretical engagement with the subject has not reflected this. We would therefore like to invite submissions which attempt to address the issue of power in interprofessional contexts, utilizing theory to explore empirical phenomena, case studies, conceptual thought or evidence review. The piece below provides a brief, speculative overview of theoretical contributions which focus on power and how they may be used to inform interprofessional research. Including examples of previous application of theory, possible approaches to framing and insight into conflictual, consensual and constitutive modes of thought the aim here is to suggest ways in which potential contributors might frame their submissions. Given that coherent inteprofessional engagement is influenced by power systems and struggles, the need to bring together work which attempts to understand and respond to this has become a pressing contemporary concern.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Modelos Teóricos , Pesquisa , Humanos
15.
J Neurooncol ; 145(2): 329-337, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552587

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (fSRT) are noninvasive therapies for vestibular schwannomas providing excellent tumor control. However, delayed hearing loss after radiation therapy remains an issue. One potential target to for improving hearing rates is limiting radiation exposure to the cochlea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 100 patients undergoing either SRS with 12 Gy (n = 43) or fSRT with 50 Gy over 28 fractions (n = 57) for vestibular schwannoma. Univariate and multivariate analysis were carried out to identify predictors of hearing loss as measured by the Gardner Robertson scale after radiation therapy. RESULTS: Deterioration of hearing occurred in 30% of patients with SRS and 26% with fSRT. The overall long term (> 2 year) progression rates were 20% for SRS and 16% for fSRT. Patients with a decrease in their Gardner Robertson hearing score and those that loss serviceable hearing had significantly higher average minimal doses to the cochlea in both SRS and fSRT cohorts. ROC analysis showed that a cut off of 5 Gy and 35 Gy, for SRS and fSRT respectively, predicted hearing loss with high sensitivity/specificity. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests the minimal dose of radiation that the cochlear volume is exposed to is a predictor of delayed hearing loss after either SRS or fSRT. A threshold of 5 Gy/35 Gy may lead to improved hearing preservation after radiotherapy. Further prospective multi center studies can further elucidate this mechanism.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295853

RESUMO

The study's aim was to identify disparities in the use of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) services. Data were obtained from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) conducted through landline and cellular phones by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Demographic, behavioral, and clinical variables were defined to explore disparities between CR users and non-users. Bivariate chi-square analyses and weighted multivariable logistic regression were used to identify disparities. Analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.4. There were 8506 individuals who had a myocardial infarction (MI) that completed the survey, and 2891 of these individuals reported using CR. The mean weighted CR utilization rate was 31.9% and varied from 17.9% (Hawaii) to 58.9% (Minnesota). Females (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.73; 0.6-0.88), African Americans (aOR = 0.63; 0.46-0.87), and those in-between the ages of 18 and 49 years-old were less likely to use CR (aOR = 0.54; 0.34-0.86) compared to their counterparts. Individuals who were high school graduates (aOR = 1.57; 1.19-2.07), attended college (aOR = 1.34; 1.01-1.79), or graduated college (aOR = 1.91; 1.41-2.61) were more likely to use CR compared to their counterparts. Non-high school graduates, females, African Americans, and those aged between 18 to 49 should be targeted to increase CR participation.

19.
Nature ; 571(7764): 211-218, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207603

RESUMO

Exhausted CD8+ T (Tex) cells in chronic infections and cancer have limited effector function, high co-expression of inhibitory receptors and extensive transcriptional changes compared with effector (Teff) or memory (Tmem) CD8+ T cells. Tex cells are important clinical targets of checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Epigenetically, Tex cells are a distinct immune subset, with a unique chromatin landscape compared with Teff and Tmem cells. However, the mechanisms that govern the transcriptional and epigenetic development of Tex cells remain unknown. Here we identify the HMG-box transcription factor TOX as a central regulator of Tex cells in mice. TOX is largely dispensable for the formation of Teff and Tmem cells, but it is critical for exhaustion: in the absence of TOX, Tex cells do not form. TOX is induced by calcineurin and NFAT2, and operates in a feed-forward loop in which it becomes calcineurin-independent and sustained in Tex cells. Robust expression of TOX therefore results in commitment to Tex cells by translating persistent stimulation into a distinct Tex cell transcriptional and epigenetic developmental program.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Epistasia Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(13): e013144, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230501

RESUMO

See Article Madan et al.

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