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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(6): 608-617, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) compared with those without PAD. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this post hoc analysis was to evaluate sex-specific differences in MACE and limb events in the EUCLID (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in PAD) trial. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare time-to-event outcomes stratified by sex. Covariates were introduced after adjusted model selection. RESULTS: EUCLID enrolled 13,885 patients with PAD (28% women [n = 3,888]). PAD severity and medical treatment were comparable between sexes, whereas prior lower extremity revascularization was reported less frequently in women (54.8% vs. 57.3%; p = 0.006). Women were older (mean ± SD age: 67.8 ± 8.9 vs. 66.1 ± 8.2 years; p < 0.001) and more likely to have diabetes mellitus (p = 0.004), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease (all p < 0.001). Over a mean follow-up of 30 months, women had a lower risk of MACE (9.5% vs. 11.2%; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 0.88; p < 0.001) and all-cause-mortality (7.6% vs. 9.7%; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 0.71; p < 0.001). In contrast, risk for major adverse limb events (2.6% vs. 3.0%) and hospitalization for acute limb ischemia (1.6% vs. 1.7%) were not different by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Although women with PAD are at lower risk for MACE and all-cause mortality, risk for limb events was similar between sexes over a mean follow-up of 30 months. Understanding sex-specific differences and dissociation between baseline cardiovascular risk and subsequent cardiovascular events requires further investigation. (A Study Comparing Cardiovascular Effects of Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease [EUCLID]; NCT01732822).

2.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953535

RESUMO

Advances in antiplatelet therapies for patients with cardiovascular disease have improved patient outcomes over time, but the challenge of balancing the risks of ischaemia and bleeding remains substantial. Moreover, many patients with cardiovascular disease have a residual risk of ischaemic events despite receiving antiplatelet therapy. Therefore, novel strategies are needed to prevent clinical events through mechanisms beyond platelet inhibition and with an acceptable associated risk of bleeding. The advent of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, which attenuate fibrin formation by selective inhibition of factor Xa or thrombin, has renewed the interest in dual-pathway inhibition strategies that combine an antiplatelet agent with an anticoagulant drug. In this Review, we highlight the emerging pharmacological rationale and clinical development of dual-pathway inhibition strategies for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with different manifestations of cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery disease.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e012541, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973609

RESUMO

Background Underuse of guideline-recommended therapy in peripheral artery disease (PAD) in administrative and procedural databases has been described, but reports on medically managed patients and referral to supervised exercise therapy (SET) in PAD are lacking. We aimed to document the use of PAD guideline-recommended therapy, including SET in patients with PAD symptoms consulting a specialty clinic across 3 countries. Methods and Results The 16-center PORTRAIT (Patient-Centered Outcomes Related to Treatment Practices in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Investigating Trajectories) registry enrolled 1275 patients with new or an exacerbation of PAD symptoms (2011-2015). We prospectively documented antiplatelet medications, statins, smoking cessation counseling and/or therapy, and referral to SET: "2 quality measures" referred to the use of both statin and antiplatelet medications; "4 quality measures" to receiving all 4 measures. Median odds ratios were calculated to quantify treatment variation across sites. A total of 89% patients were on antiplatelets, 83% on statins, and 23% had been referred to SET. Of 455 current smokers, 342 (72%) patients received smoking cessation therapy/counseling. Overall, 77.2% of patients received "2 quality measures" and 19.7% "4 quality measures." The median odds ratio for 2 quality measures was 2.13 (95% CI, 1.61-3.56; P<0.001) and for 4 quality measures was 5.43 (95% CI, 2.84-17.91; P<0.001). Variability in adherence was not explained by country, except for referral to SET. The odds for SET referral in The Netherlands (70% referral rate) was nearly 100 times greater than in US sites (2% referral rate). Conclusions Not all patients who have undergone a PAD workup at a specialty care facility are treated with evidence-based care, especially so for SET.

4.
Heart ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988183
5.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(1 Pt 1): 97-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 1-year data from the international ADVANCE (Assessing Diagnostic Value of Non-invasive FFRCT in Coronary Care) Registry of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) was used to evaluate the relationship of fractional flow reserve derived from coronary CTA (FFRCT) with downstream care and clinical outcomes. BACKGROUND: Guidelines for management of chest pain using noninvasive imaging pathways are based on short- to intermediate-term outcomes. METHODS: Patients (N = 5,083) evaluated for clinically suspected coronary artery disease and in whom atherosclerosis was identified by coronary CTA were prospectively enrolled at 38 international sites from July 15, 2015, to October 20, 2017. Demographics, symptom status, coronary CTA and FFRCT findings and resultant site-based treatment plans, and clinical outcomes through 1 year were recorded and adjudicated by a blinded core laboratory. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE), death, myocardial infarction (MI), and acute coronary syndrome leading to urgent revascularization were captured. RESULTS: At 1 year, 449 patients did not have follow-up data. Revascularization occurred in 1,208 (38.40%) patients with an FFRCT ≤0.80 and in 89 (5.60%) with an FFRCT >0.80 (relative risk [RR]: 6.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.59 to 8.45; p < 0.001). MACE occurred in 55 patients, 43 events occurred in patients with an FFRCT ≤0.80 and 12 occurred in those with an FFRCT >0.80 (RR: 1.81; 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.43; p = 0.06). Time to first event (all-cause death or MI) occurred in 38 (1.20%) patients with an FFRCT ≤0.80 compared with 10 (0.60%) patients with an FFRCT >0.80 (RR: 1.92; 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.85; p = 0.06). Time to first event (cardiovascular death or MI) occurred cardiovascular death or MI occurred more in patients with an FFRCT ≤0.80 compared with patients with an FFRCT >0.80 (25 [0.80%] vs. 3 [0.20%]; RR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.28 to 13.95; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year outcomes from the ADVANCE FFRCT Registry show low rates of events in all patients, with less revascularization and a trend toward lower MACE and significantly lower cardiovascular death or MI in patients with a negative FFRCT compared with patients with abnormal FFRCT values. (Assessing Diagnostic Value of Non-invasive FFRCT in Coronary Wave [ADVANCE]; NCT02499679).

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(12): e007385, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833412

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis within 2 or more arterial beds has been termed polyvascular disease. Although polyvascular disease has long been associated with heightened cardiovascular risk, much is still unknown regarding its pathophysiology and management. In this past decade, the field of cardiovascular disease has experienced exponential growth in terms of antithrombotic and lipid-lowering therapies aimed at mitigating ischemic events. This review describes the inherent risk associated with polyvascular disease in contemporary observational and clinical trial populations and summarizes novel therapies in this high-risk population.

8.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(12): 1384-1392, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe clinical outcomes among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and contraindications to oral anticoagulation (OAC). BACKGROUND: Treatment with OAC prevents stroke and death in patients with AF, but may be contraindicated among patients at high bleeding risk. METHODS: This was an observational, longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative 5% Medicare sample of patients with chronic AF and CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category) score ≥2. They were stratified by both the presence of high bleeding risk contraindications to OAC and by OAC use. We assessed 3-year ischemic and bleeding outcomes using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for relevant patient characteristics. RESULTS: Among 26,684 AF patients not treated with OAC, 8,283 (31%) had a high bleeding risk contraindication, primarily a blood dyscrasia (75%) or history of gastrointestinal bleeding (40%). Without OAC, patients with contraindications had worse ischemic and bleeding outcomes at 3 years compared with those without contraindications. We also identified 12,454 patients with OAC contraindications who received OAC. Compared with patients not receiving OAC, use of OAC was associated with reduced mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76 to 0.83), stroke (adjusted HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.99), and all-cause hospitalization (adjusted HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.96) but increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (adjusted HR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.72). CONCLUSIONS: High bleeding risk contraindications to OAC are common among older patients with AF, and these patients have higher mortality compared with untreated patients without OAC contraindications. The use of OAC in these patients is associated with lower rates of all-cause stroke, hospitalization, and death but higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage.

9.
Am Heart J ; 220: 51-58, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates and predictors of major bleeding in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) treated with antiplatelets have not been well studied. This post hoc analysis of EUCLID aimed to determine the incidence of major/minor bleeding, predictors of major bleeding, and risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) following major bleeding events. METHODS: EUCLID, a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 13,885 patients with symptomatic PAD, compared ticagrelor with clopidogrel for the prevention of MACE. The primary safety end point was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding. Baseline characteristics were used to develop a multivariable model to determine factors associated with TIMI major bleeding. The occurrence and timing of MACE relative to a first major bleeding event were determined. RESULTS: TIMI major bleeding occurred in 2.3% of participants overall (0.94 event/100 patient-years). There was no significant difference in major bleeding rates by treatment assignment. Factors associated with TIMI major bleeding included older age, geographic region, Rutherford class, and ß-blocker use. Patients with TIMI major bleeding postrandomization had an increased risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46; 95% CI 3.40-5.84; P < .0001) compared with those without major bleeding; the association was strongest within 30 days after a bleeding event. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic PAD, 0.94 major bleeding event/100 patient-years was observed and associated with older age, residing in North America, disease severity, and ß-blocker use. Patients who had a major bleeding event were significantly more likely to experience MACE, especially within the first 30 days, when compared with patients who did not have major bleeding.

10.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(12): e008018, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent trials have identified anti-diabetes mellitus agents that lower major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) rates, although some increase rates of lower-extremity amputation (LEA). Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have greater incidence of diabetes mellitus and risk for LEA, prompting this investigation of clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus and PAD in the EXSCEL trial (Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering). METHODS: EXSCEL evaluated the effects of once-weekly exenatide (a GLP-1 [glucagon-like peptide-1] receptor agonist) versus placebo on the rates of the primary composite MACE end point (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this post hoc analysis, we assessed the association of baseline PAD with rates of MACE, LEA, and the effects of exenatide versus placebo in patients with and without PAD. RESULTS: EXSCEL included 2800 patients with PAD (19% of the trial population). These individuals had higher unadjusted and adjusted rates of MACE compared with patients without PAD (13.6% versus 11.4%, respectively) as well as a higher adjusted hazard ratio (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.00-1.27]; P=0.047). Patients with PAD had higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.38 [95% CI, 1.20-1.60]; P<0.001) and more frequent LEA (adjusted hazard ratio 5.48 [95% CI, 4.16-7.22]; P<0.001). Patients treated with exenatide or placebo had similar rates of MACE and LEA, regardless of PAD status. CONCLUSIONS: EXSCEL participants with PAD had higher rates of all-cause mortality and LEA compared with those without PAD. There were no differences in MACE or LEA rates with exenatide versus placebo. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01144338.

11.
Am Heart J ; 218: 110-122, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicare insurance claims may provide an efficient means to ascertain follow-up of older participants in clinical research. We sought to determine the accuracy and completeness of claims- versus site-based follow-up with clinical event committee (+CEC) adjudication of cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using linked Medicare and Duke Database of Clinical Trials data. Medicare claims were linked to clinical data from 7 randomized cardiovascular clinical trials. Of 52,476 trial participants, linking resulted in 5,839 (of 10,497 linkage-eligible) Medicare-linked trial participants with fee-for-service A and B coverage. Death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and revascularization incidences were compared using Medicare inpatient claims only, site-reported events (+CEC) only, or a combination of the 2. Randomized treatment effects were compared as a function of whether claims-based, site-based (+CEC), or a combined system was used for event detection. RESULTS: Among the 5,839 study participants, the annual event rates were similar between claims- and site-based (+CEC) follow-up: death (overall rate 5.2% vs 5.2%; adjusted κ 0.99), MI (2.2% vs 2.3%; adjusted κ 0.96), stroke (0.7% vs 0.7%; adjusted κ 0.99), and any revascularization (7.4% vs 7.9%; adjusted κ 0.95). Of events detected by claims yet not reported by CEC, a minority were reported by sites but negatively adjudicated by CEC (39% of MIs and 18% of strokes). Differences in individual case concordance led to higher event rates when claims- and site-based (+CEC) systems were combined. Randomized treatment effects were similar among the 3 approaches for each outcome of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Claims- versus site-based (+CEC) follow-up identified similar overall cardiovascular event rates despite meaningful differences in the events detected. Randomized treatment effects were similar using the 2 methods, suggesting claims data could be used to support clinical research leveraging routinely collected data. This approach may lead to more effective evidence generation, synthesis, and appraisal of medical products and inform the strategic approaches toward the National Evaluation System for Health Technology.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(20): 1991-2001, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the incidence and causes of an abnormal instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) after angiographically successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Impaired coronary physiology as assessed by fractional flow reserve is present in some patients after PCI and is prognostically relevant. METHODS: DEFINE PCI (Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenosis Following PCI) was a multicenter, prospective, observational study in which a blinded iFR pull back was performed after angiographically successful PCI in 562 vessels in 500 patients. Inclusion criteria were angina with either multivessel or multilesion coronary artery disease with an abnormal baseline iFR. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of residual ischemia after operator-assessed angiographically successful PCI, defined as an iFR <0.90. The causes of impaired iFR were categorized as stent related, untreated proximal or distal focal stenosis, or diffuse atherosclerosis. RESULTS: An average of 1.1 vessels per patient had abnormal baseline iFRs, with a mean value of 0.69 ± 0.22, which improved to 0.93 ± 0.07 post-PCI. Residual ischemia after angiographically successful PCI was present in 112 patients (24.0%), with a mean iFR in that population of 0.84 ± 0.06 (range 0.60 to 0.89). Among patients with impaired post-PCI iFRs, 81.6% had untreated focal stenoses that were angiographically inapparent, and 18.4% had diffuse disease. Among the focal lesions, 38.4% were located within the stent segment, while 31.5% were proximal and 30.1% were distal to the stent. Post-PCI vessel angiographic diameter stenosis was not a predictor of impaired post-procedural iFR. CONCLUSIONS: Blinded post-PCI physiological assessment detected residual ischemia in nearly 1 in 4 patients after coronary stenting despite an operator-determined angiographically successful result. Most cases of residual ischemia were due to inapparent focal lesions potentially amenable to treatment with additional PCI. (Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenosis Following PCI [DEFINE PCI]; NCT03084367).

13.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(10): e008069, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between invasive vascular procedures and bleeding in patients with peripheral artery disease has not been well described in the literature. This post hoc analysis from the EUCLID trial (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Artery Disease) aimed to describe the incidence of major and minor postprocedural bleeding and characterize the timing and severity of bleeding events relative to the procedure. METHODS: EUCLID was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of 13 885 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease that tested the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel for the prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events. A total of 2661 patients underwent 3062 coronary revascularization, peripheral revascularization, and amputation during the study. The primary safety end point was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major or minor bleeding. All bleeding events were formally adjudicated by a clinical end point classification group. RESULTS: Major bleeding events most often occurred ≤7 days following the procedure. The incidence of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major or minor bleeding ≤7 days following peripheral revascularization (3.3%; 95% CI, 2.5%-4.1%) was similar to rates after coronary revascularization (4.0%; 95% CI, 2.6%-5.4%) and lower extremity amputation (2.3%; 95% CI, 0.8%-3.8%). The severity of bleeding events (as graded by drop in hemoglobin, need for transfusion, bleeding in a critical location, and fatal bleeding) was also similar following peripheral, coronary revascularization, and lower extremity amputation. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major/minor bleeding following peripheral revascularization is comparable to rates after coronary revascularization and lower extremity amputation, and the majority of bleeding events occur within 7 days following the procedure. The severity of periprocedural bleeding is also similar after procedures, with the most frequently adjudicated reason being a drop in hemoglobin ≥2 g/dL. Future studies should be performed to enhance our understanding of bleeding risk related to revascularization and amputation procedures in peripheral artery disease patients.

14.
Am Heart J ; 217: 42-51, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the growing use of drug-coated balloons for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, information regarding the safety and effectiveness of drug-coated balloons in current practice is needed. We examined patient, physician, and procedural characteristics as well as cardiovascular and limb events in patients who underwent peripheral vascular intervention with drug-coated balloons. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis utilizing Medicare data for 100% of fee-for-service beneficiaries from 2015 to 2016 who had a claim for femoropopliteal intervention. The use of drug-coated balloons was identified via specific transitional pass-through codes. All-cause mortality, all-cause hospitalization, repeat femoropopliteal intervention, and major lower extremity amputation at 1 year were the clinical outcomes of interest. RESULTS: In total, 83,225 patients underwent femoropopliteal intervention, and drug-coated balloons were utilized in 29% of all procedures. Patients treated with drug-coated balloons had a lower cumulative incidence of all-cause hospitalization, all-cause mortality, and major lower extremity amputation, but were more likely to undergo repeat femoropopliteal intervention when compared with patients treated with conventional balloon angioplasty. After adjustment for measured confounders, patients treated with drug-coated balloons had lower rates of hospitalization (HR 0.91 (0.88, 0.93), P < .001), all-cause mortality (HR 0.89 [0.84, 0.94], P < .001), and major amputation (HR 0.93 [0.88, 0.99], P = .017). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent femoropopliteal intervention with drug-coated balloons had lower observed rates of all-cause mortality, all-cause hospitalization, and major amputation at 1 year. Interestingly, there was not a reduction in rates of repeat revascularization, and further work is required to understand this finding. Nevertheless, the use of drug-coated balloons appears to be safe in this large study of contemporary patients in the United States.

15.
Am Heart J ; 216: 136-142, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the high-risk acute pulmonary embolism (PE) population has been described, little is known about the contemporary inpatient experience and practice patterns of the PE population as a whole. METHODS: All patients with a diagnosis of acute PE from January 1, 2016, to June 30, 2017 within our academic, multihospital health system were retrospectively identified using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes, and data were manually abstracted by 2 clinical investigators. Descriptive analyses were performed according to clinical risk stratification categories from the European Society of Cardiology. RESULTS: Of 829 total patients, 372 (44.8%) patients had intermediate or high-risk PE. Mean age was 62.1 years old, and 42.1% of patients had a history of malignancy. One hundred fifty-three (18.5%) patients had an acute PE during a hospitalization for another indication. A total of 6.0% underwent invasive PE therapies, 26.1% required intensive care unit admission, and 9.0% experienced in-hospital death or hospice discharge. In a subgroup description, patients who developed acute PE during a hospitalization for another indication had a higher incidence of incomplete risk stratification and a higher mortality (9.8%) than the primary cohort. Mortality was attributed to PE in 48.4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: This contemporary description of acute PE managed at a single large, multihospital academic health system highlights substantial health care utilization and high mortality despite the available of advanced therapeutics. Additional work is needed to standardize care for the heterogeneous PE population to ensure appropriate allocation of resources and improved outcomes for all PE patients.

16.
Cardiol Ther ; 8(2): 283-295, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376090

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and satisfaction endpoints are increasingly important in clinical trials and may be associated with treatment adherence. In this post hoc substudy from ROCKET AF, we examined whether patient-reported satisfaction was associated with study drug discontinuation. METHODS: ROCKET AF (n = 14,264) compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. We analyzed treatment satisfaction scores: the Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS) and Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication version II (TSQM II). We compared satisfaction with study drug between the two treatment arms, and examined the association between satisfaction and patient-driven study drug discontinuation (stopping study drug due to withdrawal of consent, noncompliance, or loss to follow-up). RESULTS: A total of 1577 (11%) patients participated in the Patient Satisfaction substudy; 1181 (8.3%) completed both the ACTS and TSQM II 4 weeks after starting study drug. Patients receiving rivaroxaban did not experience significant differences in satisfaction compared with those receiving warfarin. During a median follow-up of 1.6 years, 448 premature study drug discontinuations occurred (213 rivaroxaban group; 235 warfarin group), of which 116 (26%) were patient-driven (52 [24%] rivaroxaban group; 64 [27%] warfarin group). No significant differences were observed between satisfaction level and rates of patient-driven study drug discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Study drug satisfaction did not predict rate of study drug discontinuation. No significant difference was observed between satisfaction with warfarin and rivaroxaban, as expected given the double-blind trial design. Although these results are negative, the importance of PRO data will only increase, and these analyses may inform future studies that explore the relationship between drug-satisfaction PROs, adherence, and clinical outcomes. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT00403767. FUNDING: The ROCKET AF trial was funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435999

RESUMO

In this review, we report a contemporary appraisal of the available evidence focusing on adjunctive antithrombotic therapy and technical aspects of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock (AMICS). Only few randomized trials have been conducted to evaluate the optimal arterial access choice, antithrombotic therapy, stent type, or the role of aspiration thrombectomy in this population. Observational data suggest that a transradial approach should be preferred for experienced operators, although knowledge and experience of transfemoral access is required to place any mechanical support device. In the absence of high-quality evidence to guide choice of the adjunctive antithrombotic drugs to support PCI in patients with AMICS, knowledge of the altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in shock is required to inform decisions. Drug-eluting stents should be favored over bare-metal stents, and routine thrombectomy is not encouraged. Owing to the challenges inherent to the conduct of randomized trials in this acutely ill patient population, concerted multicenter, and international efforts are paramount to orchestrate the development of high-quality evidence to guide clinical practice.

18.
Vasc Med ; 24(5): 422-430, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339474

RESUMO

In patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD), the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on major adverse cardiovascular events has not been fully evaluated. The Examining Use of Ticagrelor In PAD (EUCLID) trial randomized 13,885 patients with PAD to ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg daily. This post hoc analysis compared the incidence of the primary composite endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemic stroke) in patients with CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) with those without CKD (eGFR ⩾ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). The primary safety endpoint was thrombolysis in MI (TIMI) major bleeding. A total of 13,483 patients were included; 3332 (25%) had CKD, of whom 237 had stage 4/5 disease. Median follow-up was approximately 30 months. After statistical adjustment, patients with CKD had a higher rate of the primary endpoint compared with those without CKD (6.75 vs 3.72 events/100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.45, 95% CI 1.30-1.63). CKD was not associated with increased risk of hospitalization for acute limb ischemia (ALI) (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.69-1.34) or major amputation (adjusted HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.66-1.28). CKD was not associated with a significantly increased risk of major bleeding (adjusted HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.89-1.64), but minor bleeding was significantly increased (adjusted HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.07-2.15). In conclusion, patients with PAD and CKD had higher rates of cardiovascular death, MI, and ischemic stroke, but similar rates of ALI, major amputation, and TIMI major bleeding when compared with patients without CKD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01732822.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Radiology ; 292(3): 597-605, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335283

RESUMO

Background Coronary artery fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from CT angiography (FFTCT) enables functional assessment of coronary stenosis. Prior clinical trials showed 13%-33% of coronary CT angiography studies had insufficient quality for quantitative analysis with FFRCT. Purpose To determine the rejection rate of FFRCT analysis and to determine factors associated with technically unsuccessful calculation of FFRCT. Materials and Methods Prospectively acquired coronary CT angiography scans submitted as part of the Assessing Diagnostic Value of Noninvasive FFRCT in Coronary Care (ADVANCE) registry (https://ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02499679) and coronary CT angiography series submitted for clinical analysis were included. The primary outcome was the FFRCT rejection rate (defined as an inability to perform quantitative analysis with FFRCT). Factors that were associated with FFRCT rejection rate were assessed with multiple linear regression. Results In the ADVANCE registry, FFRCT rejection rate due to inadequate image quality was 2.9% (80 of 2778 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1%, 3.2%). In the 10 621 consecutive patients who underwent clinical analysis, the FFRCT rejection rate was 8.4% (n = 892; 95% CI: 6.2%, 7.2%; P < .001 vs the ADVANCE cohort). The main reason for the inability to perform FFRCT analysis was the presence of motion artifacts (63 of 80 [78%] and 729 of 892 [64%] in the ADVANCE and clinical cohorts, respectively). At multivariable analysis, section thickness in the ADVANCE (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI: 1.001, 1.09; P = .045) and clinical (OR, 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.04; P < .001) cohorts and heart rate in the ADVANCE (OR, 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08; P < .001) and clinical (OR, 1.06; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.07; P < .001) cohorts were independent predictors of rejection. Conclusion The rates for technically unsuccessful CT-derived fractional flow reserve in the ADVANCE registry and in a large clinical cohort were 2.9% and 8.4%, respectively. Thinner CT section thickness and lower patient heart rate may increase rates of completion of CT fractional flow reserve analysis. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license. Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Sakuma in this issue.

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