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1.
J Knee Surg ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600436

RESUMO

The indications for fresh osteochondral allograft continue to increase. As a result, variations in graft processing and preservation methods have emerged. An understanding of these techniques is important when evaluating the optimal protocol for processing fresh osteochondral allografts prior to surgical implantation. The aim of this study is to review the literature and understand various tissue processing protocols of four leading tissue banks in the United States. Donor procurement, serological and microbiological testing, and storage procedures were compared among companies of interest. Similarities between the major tissue banks include donor screening, aseptic processing, and testing for microorganisms. Variability exists between these companies with relation to choice of storage media, antibiotic usage, storage temperature, and graft expiration dates. Potential exists for increased chondrocyte viability and lengthened time-to-expiration of the graft through a protocol of delicate tissue handling, proper choice of storage medium, adding hormones and growth factors like insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to serum-free nutrient media, and storing these grafts closer to physiologic temperatures.

3.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 404.e1-404.e5, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965178

RESUMO

The cell of origin (COO) classification into germinal center B cell (GCB) and non-GCB types has been shown to predict survival outcomes in newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In the relapsed/refractory (R/R) setting, there is building evidence that COO does not predict prognosis after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). The present analysis aimed to compare survival outcomes based on COO classification in R/R DLBCL patients who underwent auto-SCT. This retrospective study included adult patients with R/R DLBCL who underwent auto-SCT at MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 2007 and December 2016. The Hans algorithm using CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 markers was used to classify patients by COO. A total of 122 patients with DLBCL (71 GCB, 51 non-GCB) were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the 2 groups, except for older median age in the GCB cohort (64 years versus 58 years; P < .004). The median overall survival (OS) time was 68.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3 to not reached) months for the total population, 68.5 (95% CI, 44.8 to not reached) for GCB, and not reached for non-GCB. The 3-year OS rate was 0.659 (95% CI, 0.575 to 0.755) for the total population, 0.653 (95% CI, 0.547 to 0.779) for GCB, and 0.666 (95% CI, 0.537 to 0.824) for non-GCB. When adjusted for age and other factors of interest, no statistically significant associations for OS or progression-free survival were observed between the 2 cohorts. Our results confirm that COO loses its prognostic potential in patients with R/R DLBCL who receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT and both GCB and non-GCB types of DLBCL derive similar benefit from auto-SCT. Younger age, female sex, and pretransplantation disease status were associated with better OS.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Adulto , Feminino , Centro Germinativo , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007968

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are membrane-bound vesicles secreted by most cell types during both physiologic conditions as well in response to cellular stress. EVs play an important role in intercellular communication and are emerging as key players in tumor immunology. Tumor-derived EVs (TDEs) harbor a diverse array of tumor neoantigens and contain unique molecular signature that is reflective of tumor's underlying genetic complexity. As such they offer a glimpse into the immune tumor microenvironment (TME) and have the potential to be a novel, minimally invasive biomarker for cancer immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), such as anti- programmed death-1(PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) antibodies, have revolutionized the treatment of a wide variety of solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and others. Typically, an invasive tissue biopsy is required both for histologic diagnosis and next-generation sequencing efforts; the latter have become more widespread in daily clinical practice. There is an unmet need for noninvasive or minimally invasive (e.g., plasma-based) biomarkers both for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Targeted analysis of EVs in biospecimens, such as plasma and saliva could serve this purpose by potentially obviating the need for tissue sample. In this review, we describe the current challenges of biomarkers in cancer immunotherapy as well as the mechanistic role of TDEs in modulating antitumor immune response.

5.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(3): 345-351, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114814

RESUMO

AIMS: Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion is used to treat a variety of conditions affecting the ankle and subtalar joint, including osteoarthritis (OA), Charcot arthropathy, avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus, failed total ankle arthroplasty, and severe deformity. The prevalence of postoperative complications remains high due to the complexity of hindfoot disease seen in these patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between preoperative conditions and postoperative complications in order to predict the outcome following primary TTC fusion. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 101 patients who underwent TTC fusion at the same institution between 2011 and 2019. Risk ratios (RRs) associated with age, sex, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, smoking, preoperative ankle deformity, and the use of bone graft during surgery were related to the postoperative complications. We determined from these data which pre- and perioperative factors significantly affected the outcome. RESULTS: Out of the 101 patients included in the study, 29 (28.7%) had nonunion, five (4.9%) required below-knee amputation (BKA), 40 (39.6%) returned to the operating theatre, 16 (15.8%) had hardware failure, and 22 (21.8%) had a postoperative infection. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of Charcot arthropathy and non-traumatic OA had significantly higher nonunion rates of 44.4% (12 patients) and 39.1% (18 patients) (p = 0.016) and infection rates of 29.6% (eight patients) and 37% (17 patients) compared to patients with traumatic arthritis, respectively (p = 0.002). There was a significantly increased rate of nonunion in diabetic patients (RR 2.22; p = 0.010). Patients with chronic kidney disease were 2.37-times more likely to have a nonunion (p = 0.006). Patients aged over 60 years had more than a three-fold increase in the rate of postoperative infection (RR 3.60; p = 0.006). The use of bone graft appeared to be significantly protective against postoperative infection (p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: We were able to confirm, in the largest series of TTC ankle fusions currently in the literature, that there remains a high rate of complications following this procedure. We found that patients with a Charcot or non-traumatic arthropathy had an increased risk of nonunion and postoperative infection compared to individuals with traumatic arthritis. Those with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or aged over 60 years had an increased risk of nonunion. These findings help to confirm those of previous studies. Additionally, our study adds to the literature by showing that autologous bone graft may help in decreasing infection rates. These data can be useful to surgeons and patients when considering, discussing and planning TTC fusion. It helps surgeons further understand which patients are at a higher risk for postoperative complications when undergoing TTC fusion. Cite this article: Bone Joint J. 2020;102-B(3):345-351.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Artrodese/métodos , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Articulação Talocalcânea/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Articulação Talocalcânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 47-54, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899797

RESUMO

Patients with classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) who relapse after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) historically have had poor outcomes. We hypothesized that, post-auto-HCT relapse, overall survival (PR-OS) has improved in recent years as a result of more widespread use of novel therapies and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT). We conducted a retrospective study in 4 US academic centers, evaluating 215 patients who underwent auto-HCT from 2005 to 2016 and relapsed thereafter. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts based on timing of auto-HCT, 2005 through 2010 (cohort 1; n = 118) and 2011 to 2016 (cohort 2; n = 97), to compare differences in clinical outcomes. The median age and disease status at auto-HCT were similar in cohorts 1 and 2. The proportions of patients who received brentuximab vedotin (Bv; 55% vs 69%; P = .07), checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs; 3% vs 36%; P ≤ .001), and allogeneic-HCT (22% vs 35%, P = .03) were significantly different between cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. At the 5-year follow-up after auto relapse, 32% and 50% of patients were alive in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (P = .01). In multivariate analysis for PR-OS, cohort 1 vs 2 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-4.60; P = .01), age at auto-HCT (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.87; P ≤ .001), and time to relapse from auto-HCT (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.47-74; P ≤ .0001), retained independent prognostic significance for PR-OS. Our study supports the hypothesis that survival of cHL patients after auto-HCT failure has significantly improved in recent years, most likely because of incorporation of novel therapies and more widespread use of allo-HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doença de Hodgkin , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo
7.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(6): 1077-1083, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786242

RESUMO

In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated the impact of age on the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma who received an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) at our institution. A total of 1128 patients were divided into the older (>70 years; 182 [16%]) and the younger (≤70 years; 946 [84%]) groups. Compared with the younger cohort, older patients had a higher International Staging System (ISS) stage (ISS-II, 57 [31%] versus 215 [23%]; ISS-III, 52 [28%] versus 211 [22%]; P = .01), higher use of reduced-dose melphalan as a conditioning regimen (140 mg/m², 59 [32%] versus 29 [3%]; P < .001), and a higher comorbidity index (median, 3 versus 2; P = .01). Nonrelapse mortality at 1 year after auto-HCT was significantly higher in older patients (7 [4%] versus 9 [1%]; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1; P = .005). Complete remission rates after auto-HCT for the older and the younger groups were 41% and 46%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 52 months, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 32%) and 37% (95% CI, 33% to 40%) in the older and younger groups, respectively (HR, 1.3; P = .02). Five-year OS for the older and younger groups was 56% (95% CI, 47% to 64%) and 73% (95% CI, 70% to 76%; P < .001), respectively. Older age emerged as one of the predictors of shorter OS but not PFS in the multivariate classification and regression tree analysis. In conclusion, age ≥70 years was associated with shorter PFS and OS in patients with multiple myeloma who underwent an auto-HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17527, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772289

RESUMO

RecQ helicases are a family of proteins involved in maintaining genome integrity with functions in DNA repair, recombination, and replication. The human RecQ helicase family consists of five helicases: BLM, WRN, RECQL, RECQL4, and RECQL5. Inherited mutations in RecQ helicases result in Bloom Syndrome (BLM mutation), Werner Syndrome (WRN mutation), Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome (RECQL4 mutation), and other genetic diseases, including cancer. The RecQ helicase family is evolutionarily conserved, as Drosophila melanogaster have three family members: DmBlm, DmRecQL4, and DmRecQL5 and DmWRNexo, which contains a conserved exonuclease domain. DmBlm has functional similarities to human BLM (hBLM) as mutants demonstrate increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) and a decrease in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. To determine the extent of functional conservation of RecQ helicases, hBLM was expressed in Drosophila using the GAL4 > UASp system to determine if GAL4 > UASp::hBLM can rescue DmBlm mutant sensitivity to IR. hBLM was able to rescue female DmBlm mutant sensitivity to IR, supporting functional conservation. This functional conservation is specific to BLM, as human GAL4 > UASp::RECQL was not able to rescue DmBlm mutant sensitivity to IR. These results demonstrate the conserved role of BLM in maintaining the genome while reinforcing the applicability of using Drosophila as a model system to study Bloom Syndrome.


Assuntos
Sequência Conservada , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , RecQ Helicases/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Sequência Conservada/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Masculino , RecQ Helicases/efeitos da radiação
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(22): 6781-6787, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481508

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with multiple myeloma with t(11;14) have been considered to have standard-risk disease. However, several recent reports have shown contradictory results. We identified 95 patients with multiple myeloma with t(11;14) on FISH studies, who underwent upfront autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (auto-HCT) at our center. We compared their outcome with a group of standard-risk patients with multiple myeloma who had diploid cytogenetics by both conventional cytogenetics (CC) and FISH (n = 287). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To reduce the bias between the groups, we performed a 1:1 propensity score matching technique for analysis. A total of 160 patients, 80 in each group, were identified. Patients in the 2 groups were matched for age, International staging system stage at diagnosis, serum creatinine at presentation, disease status at auto-HCT, type of preparative regimens, dose of melphalan used for conditioning, and induction and maintenance regimens. RESULTS: Patients in t(11;14) group had a post auto-HCT overall response rate (ORR) of 97.5% (78/80), compared with 100% (80/80) in the standard-risk control group (P = 0.50). Complete response rate in the t(11;14) group was 35% (28/80), compared with 45% (36/80) in the standard-risk control group (P = 0.26). The 4-year PFS rates were 40.8% (95% CI, 29.6%-56.1%) and 51.1% (95% CI, 39.4%-66.3%) in the t(11;14) and standard-risk control groups, respectively (P = 0.14). The 4-year OS rates were 74.9% (95% CI, 63.3%-88.7%) and 88.3% (95% CI, 80.4%-97.0%) in the t(11;14) and standard-risk control groups, respectively (P = 0.17). Also, patients with t(11;14) with concurrent cytogenetics had significantly poor PFS and OS compared with a propensity matched standard-risk control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that t(11;14) multiple myeloma undergoing upfront autologous transplantation had similar outcomes as patients with multiple myeloma with normal cytogenetic and FISH studies. Existence of additional genomic aberrations by CC or FISH was associated with a worse outcome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Translocação Genética , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Blood Adv ; 3(11): 1661-1669, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167818

RESUMO

Outcomes for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients relapsing after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) have been historically poor. We studied outcomes of such patients using data from 4 transplantation centers. Eligibility criteria included adult patients (age ≥18 years) with DLBCL experiencing disease relapse after auto-HCT performed during 2006 to 2015. The time period was stratified into 2 eras (era 1, 2006-2010; era 2, 2011-2015). The primary end point was postrelapse overall survival (PR-OS). Secondary end points were factors prognostic of PR-OS. Of the 700 patients with DLBCL who underwent auto-HCT, 248 (35%) relapsed after auto-HCT. Median PR-OS of all relapsed DLBCL patients after auto-HCT (n = 228) was 9.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7-15). Median PR-OS was significantly better for patients in complete (17.8 months; 95% CI, 7.9-41.6) vs partial remission at auto-HCT (7.1 months; 95% CI, 5.4-11; P = .01), those undergoing auto-HCT >1 year (12.8 months; 95% CI, 7.6-24.9) vs ≤1 year after DLBCL diagnosis (6.3 months; 95% CI, 4.5-9.2; P = .01), and those with late (56.4 months; 95% CI, 23.7-∞) vs early relapse (5.9 months; 95% CI, 4.5-8.8; P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, although late relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.21; 95% CI, 0.13-0.34; P < .0001) was associated with significantly lower mortality, the risk of mortality increased with age (HR, 1.25 per decade; 95% CI, 1.06-1.48; P = .009). This is the largest study to date to evaluate outcomes of DLBCL patients relapsing after auto-HCT. Our study provides benchmarking for future trials of chimeric antigen receptor T cells and other promising agents evaluating PR-OS after auto-HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Autoenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Cell Biol ; 218(2): 422-432, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602538

RESUMO

53BP1 is a chromatin-associated protein that regulates the DNA damage response. In this study, we identify the TPX2/Aurora A heterodimer, nominally considered a mitotic kinase complex, as a novel binding partner of 53BP1. We find that TPX2/Aurora A plays a previously unrecognized role in DNA damage repair and replication fork stability by counteracting 53BP1 function. Loss of TPX2 or Aurora A compromises DNA end resection, BRCA1 and Rad51 recruitment, and homologous recombination. Furthermore, loss of TPX2 or Aurora A causes deprotection of stalled replication forks upon replication stress induction. This fork protection pathway counteracts MRE11 nuclease activity but functions in parallel to BRCA1. Strikingly, concurrent loss of 53BP1 rescues not only BRCA1/Rad51 recruitment but also the fork instability induced upon TPX2 loss. Our work suggests the presence of a feedback mechanism by which 53BP1 is regulated by a novel binding partner and uncovers a unique role for 53BP1 in replication fork stability.


Assuntos
Aurora Quinase A/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , Recombinação Homóloga , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitose , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Aurora Quinase A/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/genética , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
15.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 27(3): 187-197, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489243

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine if gameplay performance in the National Football League (NFL) is adversely affected after returning to play from a sport-related concussion (SRC). Players who sustained a SRC between the 2007-2008 and 2013-2014 seasons were identified. Concussed players were matched to nonconcussed control players in a 2:1 (control-case) fashion by position, season, experience, age, body mass index, and time missed. Gameplay statistics were recorded for the three games before and after returning from SRC. When compared with the control group, the majority of NFL players did not demonstrate any performance-based deficits on returning to play after SRC. However, concussed quarterbacks (QBs) displayed a reduced QB rating compared with controls. These results indicate that performance immediately following return from SRC may be adversely affected in certain populations and circumstances, though the overwhelming majority of players showed no decline in performance. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 27(3):187-197, 2018).


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Concussão Encefálica , Futebol Americano/lesões , Volta ao Esporte , Retorno ao Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11151, 2018 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042516

RESUMO

It is currently unclear as to whether sex hormones are significantly affected by soy or whey protein consumption. Additionally, estrogenic signaling may be potentiated via soy protein supplementation due to the presence of phytoestrogenic isoflavones. Limited also evidence suggests that whey protein supplementation may increase androgenic signaling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of soy protein concentrate (SPC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), or placebo (PLA) supplementation on serum sex hormones, androgen signaling markers in muscle tissue, and estrogen signaling markers in subcutaneous (SQ) adipose tissue of previously untrained, college-aged men (n = 47, 20 ± 1 yrs) that resistance trained for 12 weeks. Fasting serum total testosterone increased pre- to post-training, but more so in subjects consuming WPC (p < 0.05), whereas serum 17ß-estradiol remained unaltered. SQ estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) protein expression and hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA increased with training regardless of supplementation. Muscle androgen receptor (AR) mRNA increased while ornithine decarboxylase mRNA (a gene target indicative of androgen signaling) decreased with training regardless of supplementation (p < 0.05). No significant interactions of supplement and time were observed for adipose tissue ERα/ß protein levels, muscle tissue AR protein levels, or mRNAs in either tissue indicative of altered estrogenic or androgenic activity. Interestingly, WPC had the largest effect on increasing type II muscle fiber cross sectional area values (Cohen's d = 1.30), whereas SPC had the largest effect on increasing this metric in type I fibers (Cohen's d = 0.84). These data suggest that, while isoflavones were detected in SPC, chronic WPC or SPC supplementation did not appreciably affect biomarkers related to muscle androgenic signaling or SQ estrogenic signaling. The noted fiber type-specific responses to WPC and SPC supplementation warrant future research.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Genisteína/administração & dosagem , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Fitoestrógenos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Treinamento de Força , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Estradiol/sangue , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ornitina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Physiol ; 8: 518, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775694

RESUMO

Alterations in transcriptional and translational mechanisms occur during skeletal muscle aging and such changes may contribute to age-related atrophy. Herein, we examined markers related to global transcriptional output (i.e., myonuclear number, total mRNA and RNA pol II levels), translational efficiency [i.e., eukaryotic initiation and elongation factor levels and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) levels] and translational capacity (ribosome density) in the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles of male Fischer 344 rats aged 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (n = 9-10 per group). We also examined alterations in markers of proteolysis and oxidative stress in these muscles (i.e., 20S proteasome activity, poly-ubiquinated protein levels and 4-HNE levels). Notable plantaris muscle observations included: (a) fiber cross sectional area (CSA) was 59% (p < 0.05) and 48% (p < 0.05) greater in 12 month vs. 3 month and 24 month rats, respectively, suggesting a peak lifetime value near 12 months and age-related atrophy by 24 months, (b) MPS levels were greatest in 18 month rats (p < 0.05) despite the onset of atrophy, (c) while regulators of ribosome biogenesis [c-Myc and upstream binding factor (UBF) protein levels] generally increased with age, ribosome density linearly decreased from 3 months of age and RNA polymerase (Pol) I protein levels were lowest in 24 month rats, and d) 20S proteasome activity was robustly up-regulated in 6 and 24 month rats (p < 0.05). Notable soleus muscle observations included: (a) fiber CSA was greatest in 6 month rats and was maintained in older age groups, and (b) 20S proteasome activity was modestly but significantly greater in 24 month vs. 3/12/18 month rats (p < 0.05), and (c) total mRNA levels (suggestive of transcriptional output) trended downward in older rats despite non-significant between-group differences in myonuclear number and/or RNA Pol II protein levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that plantaris, not soleus, atrophy occurs following 12 months of age in male Fisher rats and this may be due to translational deficits (i.e., changes in MPS and ribosome density) and/or increases in proteolysis rather than increased oxidative stress and/or alterations in global transcriptional mechanisms.

19.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 311(2): R337-51, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357802

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P < 0.05). Absolute and relative (body mass-adjusted) omental adipose tissue (OMAT) masses were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and OMAT adipocyte diameters were lowest in KD-fed rats (P < 0.05). None of the assayed OMAT or subcutaneous (SQ) protein markers were affected by the diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum ß-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Cetogênica , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dieta Ocidental , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Descanso , Comportamento Sedentário , Volição
20.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 120(10): 1173-85, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26718785

RESUMO

We examined whether acute and/or chronic skeletal muscle anabolism is impaired with a low-carbohydrate diet formulated to elicit ketosis (LCKD) vs. a mixed macronutrient Western diet (WD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 wk of age, 300-325 g) were provided isoenergetic amounts of a LCKD or a WD for 6 wk. In AIM 1, basal serum and gastrocnemius assessments were performed. In AIM 2, rats were resistance exercised for one bout and were euthanized 90-270 min following exercise for gastrocnemius analyses. In AIM 3, rats voluntarily exercised daily with resistance-loaded running wheels, and hind limb muscles were analyzed for hypertrophy markers at the end of the 6-wk protocol. In AIM 1, basal levels of gastrocnemius phosphorylated (p)-rps6, p-4EBP1, and p-AMPKα were similar between diets, although serum insulin (P < 0.01), serum glucose (P < 0.001), and several essential amino acid levels (P < 0.05) were lower in LCKD-fed rats. In AIM 2, LCKD- and WD-fed rats exhibited increased postexercise muscle protein synthesis levels (P < 0.0125), but no diet effect was observed (P = 0.59). In AIM 3, chronically exercise-trained LCKD- and WD-fed rats presented similar increases in relative hind limb muscle masses compared with their sedentary counterparts (12-24%, P < 0.05), but there was no between-diet effects. Importantly, the LCKD induced "mild" nutritional ketosis, as the LCKD-fed rats in AIM 2 exhibited ∼1.5-fold greater serum ß-hydroxybutyrate levels relative to WD-fed rats (diet effect P = 0.003). This study demonstrates that the tested LCKD in rodents, while only eliciting mild nutritional ketosis, does not impair the acute or chronic skeletal muscle hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Cetose/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glicemia/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia/sangue , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Cetose/sangue , Cetose/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Roedores/sangue , Roedores/metabolismo , Roedores/fisiologia
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