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1.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; : 1538574419887594, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes in patients randomized to infrapopliteal (IP) plain balloon angioplasty (PBA) for chronic limb-threatening ischemia within the Bypass versus Angioplasty in Severe Ischemia of the Leg (BASIL)-1 trial between 1999 and 2004 with outcomes in consecutive patients undergoing IP PBA at an academic vascular unit a decade later (2009-2013, Contemporary series [CS]). METHODS: Individual patient data were obtained from prospective BASIL-1 (48 patients) and CS databases (73 patients). All had a minimum of 3-years of follow-up. Outcomes studied were amputation-free survival (AFS), overall survival (OS), major (above ankle) limb amputation, arterial reintervention, immediate technical success, and length of hospital stay for the index procedure and during the following 12-month period. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.4. RESULTS: The BASIL and CS cohorts were well matched for gender, age, diabetes, previous stroke, myocardial infarction and arterial intervention, and presence of tissue loss. More patients in BASIL-1 underwent concomitant treatment of the superficial femoral (60% vs 37%, P = .01) and above knee popliteal (60% vs 34%, P = .005) arteries. Immediate technical success increased from 73% in BASIL-1 to 90% in the CS (P = .01). Between the two cohorts, there were no differences in AFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-1.54, P = 1.0), OS (HR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.66-1.62, P = .9), major amputation (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.37-1.97, P = .7), or reintervention (HR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.29-1.27, P = .2). Contemporary series patients spent significantly fewer days in hospital following the index procedure (P = .02) and also over the following 12 months (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Despite improvements in the immediate technical angiographic success of IP PBA between BASIL and the CS, there were no significant improvements in survival outcomes. Results from BASIL-2 and BEST-CLI are required in order to properly define the clinical and cost-effectiveness of endovascular treatment in such patients.

2.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 33(10-11): 1063-1070, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035809

RESUMO

Intelligibility of speech is a key outcome in speech and language therapy (SLT) and research. SLT students frequently participate as raters of intelligibility but we lack information about whether they rate intelligibility in the same way as the general public. This paper aims to determine if there is a difference in the intelligibility ratings made by SLT students (trained in speech related topics) compared to individuals from the general public (untrained). The SLT students were in year 2 of a BSc programme or the first 6 months of a MSc programme. We recorded 10 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) related speech reading aloud the words and sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech. These speech recordings were rated for intelligibility by 'trained' raters and 'untrained' raters. The effort required to understand the speech was also reported. There were no significant differences in the measures of intelligibility from the trained and untrained raters for words or sentences after adjusting for speaker by including them as a covariate in the model. There was a slight increase in effort reported by the untrained raters for the sentences. This difference in reported effort was not evident with the words. SLT students can be recruited alongside individuals from the general public as naïve raters for evaluating intelligibility in people with speech disorders.

3.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(6): 1840-1847, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bypass surgery (BS) remains the gold standard revascularization strategy in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) owing to infrainguinal disease. The Bypass versus Angioplasty for Severe Ischaemia of the Leg (BASIL)-1 trial showed that, in patients with CLTI who survived for 2 years or more, BS resulted in better clinical outcomes. Despite this finding, there has been an increasing trend toward an endovascular-first approach to infrainguinal CLTI. Our aim was to investigate whether changes in practice have impacted the clinical outcomes of BS in our unit 10 years after BASIL-1. METHODS: Data for patients who underwent femoropopliteal (FP) BS in BASIL-1 (1999-2004) were retrieved from trial case record forms. The comparator contemporary series (CS) comprised all patients undergoing FP BS for CLTI in our unit between 2009 and 2014. Demographic and clinical outcome data on patients in the CS were collected from the prospectively collected hospital electronic notes. Anatomic patterns of disease in the BASIL-1 and CS cohorts were scored using the Bollinger and GLASS criteria. Statistical analysis was performed in SAS v9.4. RESULTS: There were 128 patients from BASIL-1 and 50 patients in the CS. Baseline age, gender, affected limb, and diabetes prevalence were similar, as were days spent in hospital out to 12 months and length of follow-up. BASIL-1 patients were more likely to be current smokers (P = .000) and had a higher creatinine (P = .04). The 30-day morbidity and mortality were higher in BASIL-1 (45.3% vs 22%; P = .004). There was no significant difference between BASIL-1 and CS with regard to run-off Bollinger (37.7 vs 32.1; P = .167) and IP GLASS (0 vs 0; P = .390) scores, with both groups having a median of two runoff vessels. Amputation-free survival (62% vs 28%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.93; P = .007), limb salvage (85% vs 69%; HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.14-4.68; P = .02), overall survival (69% vs 35%; HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.00-2.74; P = .05) and major adverse limb events (67% vs 47%; HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.15-3.22; P = .01) were all significantly better in BASIL-1. CONCLUSIONS: Although 30-day mortality and morbidity were significantly lower, all of the examined longer term clinical outcomes after FP BS were significantly worse in the CS group a decade on from BASIL-1. Further research in the form of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials is urgently required to determine if the CS data reported herein are generalizable to current vascular surgical practice and, if so, to determine the reasons for these unexpected outcomes.


Assuntos
Angioplastia/tendências , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Artéria Poplítea/cirurgia , Enxerto Vascular/tendências , Amputação/tendências , Angioplastia/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia/mortalidade , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Isquemia/mortalidade , Salvamento de Membro/tendências , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Enxerto Vascular/efeitos adversos , Enxerto Vascular/mortalidade
4.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 58(1): 52-59, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes in patients with chronic limb threatening ischaemia (CLTI) due to femoropopliteal (FP), with or without infrapopliteal (IP), disease who underwent FP (vein or synthetic) open surgical bypass (OSB), or plain balloon angioplasty (PBA), with or without bare metal stenting (BMS), in the Bypass versus Angioplasty in Severe Ischaemia of the Limb (BASIL-1) trial. METHODS: Data were extracted from BASIL-1 case record forms. Outcomes reported include immediate technical success, freedom from major adverse limb events (FF-MALE) and further re-intervention (FF-R), amputation free survival (AFS), overall survival (OS), and limb salvage (LS). RESULTS: Patients underwent primary OSB (n = 128; 89 vein, 39 synthetic) or primary PBA (n = 183; six had BMS). Mean follow up was 46.2 and 43.6 months respectively. Patients were well matched at baseline except that PBA ± BMS patients were significantly more likely to be current smokers. There was no difference in overall or IP (runoff) Bollinger angiogram scores between groups. Immediate technical success was significantly higher for OSB (98% vs. 81%; p < .001). OSB was associated with a longer mean index hospital admission (p = .001), but there was no difference in hospital days at 12 months. FF-MALE (hazard ratio [HR] 1.51; p = .04) and FF-R (HR 1.68; p = .02) but not AFS (HR 1.18; p = .4), OS (HR 1.14; p = .5), and LS (HR 1.09; p = .8) were significantly better after OSB. CONCLUSION: Although AFS, OS, and LS were similar in the two groups, OSB was associated with significantly fewer MALE and re-interventions. So, while PBA ± BMS may be a less resource intensive (expensive) and morbid option in the short term, this appears unlikely to be the case in the longer term. Present data add further weight to the argument that, where possible, patients presenting with CLTI due to FP disease should be offered OSB as their primary revascularisation procedure.

5.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 55(5): 666-671, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic limb threatening ischaemia (CLTI) is a growing global health problem. The UK NIHR HTA funded BASIL trial is still the only randomised controlled trial to have compared a "bypass surgery first" with a "plain balloon angioplasty (PBA) first" strategy for the management of CLTI. In patients who were likely to survive for 2 years and had a suitable vein, primary bypass (PB) was associated with better clinical outcomes. Furthermore, PBA was associated with a high technical and clinical failure rate and many went on to have secondary bypass (SB). This study aimed at comparing clinical outcomes following PB and SB in the BASIL trial. METHODS: Demographic, procedural, and outcome data were obtained from the BASIL case report forms. Outcomes were amputation free survival (AFS), limb salvage (LS), overall survival (OS), and freedom from revascularisation (FFR). The SB cohort comprises patients whose first trial intervention was PBA and who subsequently underwent bypass during follow up. The PB cohort comprises those patients whose first trial intervention was bypass. RESULTS: The 190 PB and 49 SB patients were well matched except that the SB patients were more likely to be current smokers. At a median of 7 years, PB was associated with better AFS (PB 60% vs. SB 40%; HR 1.58, p = .04), LS (PB 85% vs. SB 73%, p = .06), and OS (PB 68% vs. 51%, p = .06). FFR was equivalent (PB 53% vs. 53%, p = .3). CONCLUSION: In the BASIL trial, clinical outcomes following PB were significantly better than in patients undergoing SB after failed PBA. Prior to treating patients with CLTI with primary PBA, clinicians should consider that if this should fail, the outcome of attempted subsequent bypass is likely to be significantly worse than if PB were attempted.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Isquemia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas , Idoso , Amputação/métodos , Amputação/mortalidade , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Salvamento de Membro/efeitos adversos , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/complicações , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/diagnóstico , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344405

RESUMO

Background: Speech-related problems are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but there is little evidence for the effectiveness of standard speech and language therapy (SLT) or Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD®). Methods: The PD COMM pilot was a three-arm, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) of LSVT LOUD®, SLT and no intervention (1:1:1 ratio) to assess the feasibility and to inform the design of a full-scale RCT. Non-demented patients with idiopathic PD and speech problems and no SLT for speech problems in the past 2 years were eligible. LSVT LOUD® is a standardised regime (16 sessions over 4 weeks). SLT comprised individualised content per local practice (typically weekly sessions for 6-8 weeks). Outcomes included recruitment and retention, treatment adherence, and data completeness. Outcome data collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months included patient-reported voice and quality of life measures, resource use, and assessor-rated speech recordings. Results: Eighty-nine patients were randomised with 90% in the therapy groups and 100% in the control group completing the trial. The response rate for Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in each arm was ≥ 90% at all time-points. VHI was highly correlated with the other speech-related outcome measures. There was a trend to improvement in VHI with LSVT LOUD® (difference at 3 months compared with control: - 12.5 points; 95% CI - 26.2, 1.2) and SLT (difference at 3 months compared with control: - 9.8 points; 95% CI - 23.2, 3.7) which needs to be confirmed in an adequately powered trial. Conclusion: Randomisation to a three-arm trial of speech therapy including a no intervention control is feasible and acceptable. Compliance with both interventions was good. VHI and other patient-reported outcomes were relevant measures and provided data to inform the sample size for a substantive trial. Trial registration: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN75223808. registered 22 March 2012.

7.
Trials ; 18(1): 224, 2017 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28526046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe limb ischaemia (SLI) is defined as the presence of rest pain and/or tissue loss secondary to lower extremity atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. The superficial femoral and popliteal arteries are the most commonly diseased vessels in such patients and are being increasingly treated using endovascular revascularisation techniques. However, it is currently unknown whether drug-eluting stents and drug-coated balloons confer additional clinical benefits over more established techniques using plain balloons and bare metal stents, or whether they represent a cost-effective use of NHS resources. METHODS: The BASIL-3 trial is a UK National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment Programme-funded, multicentre, randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the clinical and cost-effectiveness of plain balloon angioplasty with or without bail-out bare metal stenting, drug-coated balloon angioplasty with or without bail-out bare metal stenting, and primary stenting with drug-eluting stents for SLI secondary to femoro-popliteal disease. Patients with 'multilevel' disease may receive aorto-iliac and/or infrapopliteal treatments concurrently with their randomised femoro-popliteal intervention. The primary clinical outcome is amputation-free survival defined as the time to major (above the ankle) amputation of the index limb or death from any cause. The primary outcome for the economic analysis is cost per quality-adjusted life year. Secondary outcome measures include overall survival, major adverse limb events, major adverse cardiac events, relief of ischaemic pain, healing of tissue loss, and quality of life. The required sample size has been calculated at 861 participants (287 on each arm). These patients will be recruited over 3 years and followed-up for between 2 and 5 years. DISCUSSION: BASIL-3 is a pragmatic RCT designed to reflect current UK clinical practice. The results will inform decision-making regarding the appropriateness of funding the use of drug-coated balloons and drug-eluting stents, by the NHS, for the management of SLI due to femoro-popliteal disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry, identifier: ISRCTN14469736 . Registered on 22 October 2015.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Stents Farmacológicos , Isquemia/terapia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Stents , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Amputação , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia com Balão/economia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Stents Farmacológicos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/economia , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Salvamento de Membro , Metais , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/economia , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Prótese , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Tamanho da Amostra , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Medicina Estatal/economia , Stents/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/economia , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
8.
Health Technol Assess ; 20(63): 1-96, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27580669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cochrane reviews of physiotherapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) for Parkinson's disease found insufficient evidence of effectiveness, but previous trials were methodologically flawed with small sample size and short-term follow-up. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of individualised PT and OT in Parkinson's disease. DESIGN: Large pragmatic randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Thirty-eight neurology and geriatric medicine outpatient clinics in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred and sixty-two patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease reporting limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). INTERVENTION: Patients were randomised online to either both PT and OT NHS services (n = 381) or no therapy (n = 381). Therapy incorporated a patient-centred approach with individual assessment and goal setting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was instrumental ADL measured by the patient-completed Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) scale at 3 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life [Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39); European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D)], adverse events, resource use and carer quality of life (Short Form questionnaire-12 items). Outcomes were assessed before randomisation and at 3, 9 and 15 months after randomisation. RESULTS: Data from 92% of the participants in each group were available at the primary time point of 3 months, but there was no difference in NEADL total score [difference 0.5 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.7 to 1.7; p = 0.4] or PDQ-39 summary index (0.007 points, 95% CI -1.5 to 1.5; p = 1.0) between groups. The EQ-5D quotient was of borderline significance in favour of therapy (-0.03, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.002; p = 0.04). Contact time with therapists was for a median of four visits of 58 minutes each over 8 weeks (mean dose 232 minutes). Repeated measures analysis including all time points showed no difference in NEADL total score, but PDQ-39 summary index (curves diverging at 1.6 points per annum, 95% CI 0.47 to 2.62; p = 0.005) and EQ-5D quotient (0.02, 95% CI 0.00007 to 0.03; p = 0.04) showed significant but small differences in favour of the therapy arm. Cost-effective analysis showed that therapy was associated with a slight but not significant gain in quality-adjusted life-years (0.027, 95% CI -0.010 to 0.065) at a small incremental cost (£164, 95% CI -£141 to £468), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of under £4000 (£3493, 95% -£169,371 to £176,358). There was no difference in adverse events or serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: NHS PT and OT did not produce immediate or long-term clinically meaningful improvements in ADL or quality of life in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. This evidence does not support the use of low-dose, patient-centred, goal-directed PT and OT in patients in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. Future research should include the development and testing of more structured and intensive PT and OT programmes in patients with all stages of Parkinson's disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17452402. FUNDING: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 63. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. The Birmingham Clinical Trials Unit, University of Birmingham, received support from the UK Department of Health up to March 2012. Catherine Sackley was supported by a NIHR senior investigator award, Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care East of England and West Midlands Strategic Health Authority Clinical Academic Training award.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional/economia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/economia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Medicina Estatal , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Reino Unido
9.
Mov Disord ; 31(8): 1173-82, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26846185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Williams and colleagues reported that DBS surgery for patients with advanced PD improves motor function and quality of life compared to best medical therapy alone at 1 year, but with surgery-related side effects in a minority. This article reports on the economic evaluation alongside this trial. METHODS: Detailed resource use and quality of life over 12 months after randomization was obtained from the trial reported by Williams and colleagues. Outcomes were measured using the EQ-5D and quality-adjusted life years calculated. RESULTS: Year 1 costs for surgery were significantly higher than in best medical therapy, at £19,069 compared to £9,813, a difference of £9,256 (95% confidence interval [CI]: £7,625, £10,887). There was a small, significant gain in utility at 1 year but a statistically insignificant gain of 0.02 quality-adjusted life years (95% CI: -0.015, 0.05) in the surgical arm. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year of surgery at 1 year was £468,528. Extrapolation reveals that after 5 years, this ratio is likely to reduce to £45,180, but subsequently rise to £70,537 at 10 years owing to the increased probability of battery replacements (and re-replacements) beyond 5 years. CONCLUSION: In this patient group, DBS is not cost-effective at 1 year. Extrapolation, however, reveals an increasing likelihood of cost-effectiveness up to 5 years and reducing cost-effectiveness between 5 and 10 years. These models are sensitive to assumptions about future costs and quality-adjusted life years gained. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/economia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Doença de Parkinson/economia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/cirurgia
10.
Trials ; 17: 11, 2016 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26739146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe limb ischaemia is defined by ischaemic rest/night pain, tissue loss, or both, secondary to arterial insufficiency and is increasingly caused by infra-popliteal (below the knee) disease, mainly as a result of the increasing worldwide prevalence of diabetes. Currently, it is unknown whether vein bypass surgery or the best endovascular treatment (angioplasty or stenting) represents the optimal revascularisation strategy in terms of amputation-free survival, overall survival, relief of symptoms, quality of life and cost-effective use of health care resources. METHODS/DESIGN: The Bypass vs. Angioplasty in Severe Ischaemia of the Leg - 2 Trial is a UK National Institute of Health Research, Health Technology Assessment funded, multi-centre randomised controlled trial that compares, at the point of clinical equipoise, the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a 'vein bypass first' and a 'best endovascular treatment first' revascularisation strategy for severe limb ischaemia due to infra-popliteal disease. The primary clinical outcome is amputation-free survival defined as the time to major (above the ankle) amputation of the trial limb or death from any cause. The primary outcome for the cost-effectiveness analysis is cost per quality-adjusted life year. Secondary outcomes include overall survival, quality of life, in-hospital mortality and morbidity, repeat and crossover interventions, healing of tissue loss and haemodynamic changes following revascularisation. Sample size is estimated at 600 patients. An economic evaluation will be conducted from the perspective of the National Health Service and comprise a 'within-study' analysis, based on prospectively collected trial data and a 'model-based' analysis, which will extrapolate and compare costs and effects beyond the study follow-up period. DISCUSSION: The BASIL-2 trial is designed to be pragmatic and represent current practice within the United Kingdom. Patients with severe limb ischaemia can only be randomised into the trial where clinical equipose exists. The advent of hybrid operating procedures should not be a barrier to randomisation, should a patient require inflow correction prior to tibial revascularisation. ISRCTN: 27728689 Date of registration: 12 May 2014.


Assuntos
Angioplastia/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Isquemia/terapia , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Amostra
11.
JAMA Neurol ; 73(3): 291-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26785394

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: It is unclear whether physiotherapy and occupational therapy are clinically effective and cost-effective in Parkinson disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To perform a large pragmatic randomized clinical trial to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of individualized physiotherapy and occupational therapy in PD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The PD REHAB Trial was a multicenter, open-label, parallel group, controlled efficacy trial. A total of 762 patients with mild to moderate PD were recruited from 38 sites across the United Kingdom. Recruitment took place between October 2009 and June 2012, with 15 months of follow-up. INTERVENTIONS: Participants with limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) were randomized to physiotherapy and occupational therapy or no therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale score at 3 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life (assessed by Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 and EuroQol-5D); adverse events; and caregiver quality of life. Outcomes were assessed before trial entry and then 3, 9, and 15 months after randomization. RESULTS: Of the 762 patients included in the study (mean [SD] age, 70 [9.1] years), 381 received physiotherapy and occupational therapy and 381 received no therapy. At 3 months, there was no difference between groups in NEADL total score (difference, 0.5 points; 95% CI, -0.7 to 1.7; P = .41) or Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 summary index (0.007 points; 95% CI, -1.5 to 1.5; P = .99). The EuroQol-5D quotient was of borderline significance in favor of therapy (-0.03; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.002; P = .04). The median therapist contact time was 4 visits of 58 minutes over 8 weeks. Repeated-measures analysis showed no difference in NEADL total score, but Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 summary index (diverging 1.6 points per annum; 95% CI, 0.47 to 2.62; P = .005) and EuroQol-5D score (0.02; 95% CI, 0.00007 to 0.03; P = .04) showed small differences in favor of therapy. There was no difference in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Physiotherapy and occupational therapy were not associated with immediate or medium-term clinically meaningful improvements in ADL or quality of life in mild to moderate PD. This evidence does not support the use of low-dose, patient-centered, goal-directed physiotherapy and occupational therapy in patients in the early stages of PD. Future research should explore the development and testing of more structured and intensive physical and occupational therapy programs in patients with all stages of PD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN17452402.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Falha de Tratamento , Reino Unido
12.
J Headache Pain ; 16: 521, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25982204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) on quality of life (QOL) is poorly understood. Our objectives were to compare QOL in IIH to the normal UK population; to investigate QOL changes with treatment of IIH, using a weight loss intervention, and to determine which clinical factors influence QOL. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort evaluation of QOL, using the 36-Item Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey questionnaire, before and after a therapeutic dietary intervention which resulted in significant reduction in body mass index (BMI), intracranial pressure (ICP), papilloedema, visual acuity, perimetric mean deviation (Humphrey 24-2) and headache (six-item headache impact test (HIT-6) and headache diary). Baseline QOL was compared to an age and gender matched population. The relationship between each clinical outcome and change in QOL was evaluated. RESULTS: At baseline, QOL was significantly lower in IIH compared to an age and gender matched population in most domains, p < 0.001. Therapeutic weight loss led to a significant improvement in 10 out of 11 QOL domains in conjunction with the previously published data demonstrating significant improvement in papilloedema, visual acuity, perimetry and headache (p < 0.001) and large effect size. Despite significant improvement in clinical measures only headache correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with improving QOL domains. CONCLUSIONS: QOL in IIH patients is significantly reduced. It improved with weight loss alongside significant improvement in clinical measures and headache. However, headache was the only clinical outcome that correlated with enhanced QOL. Effective headache management is required to improve QOL in IIH.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/complicações , Pseudotumor Cerebral/complicações , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Cefaleia/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudotumor Cerebral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Trials ; 15: 213, 2014 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24908096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a common movement disorder affecting approximately 127,000 people in the UK, with an estimated two thirds having speech-related problems. Currently there is no preferred approach to speech and language therapy within the NHS and there is little evidence for the effectiveness of standard NHS therapy or Lee Silverman voice treatment. This trial aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of randomizing people with Parkinson's disease-related speech or voice problems to Lee Silverman voice treatment or standard speech and language therapy compared to a no-intervention control. METHODS/DESIGN: The PD COMM pilot is a three arm, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Randomization will be computer-generated with participants randomized at a ratio of 1:1:1. Participants randomized to intervention arms will be immediately referred to the appropriate speech and language therapist. The target population are patients with a confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease who have problems with their speech or voice. The Lee Silverman voice treatment intervention group will receive the standard regime of 16 sessions between 50 and 60 minutes in length over four weeks, with extra home practice. The standard speech and language therapy intervention group will receive a dose determined by patients' individual needs, but not exceeding eight weeks of treatment. The control group will receive standard care with no speech and language therapy input for at least six months post-randomization. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline (pre-randomization) and post- randomization at three, six, and 12 months. The outcome measures include patient-reported voice measures, quality of life, resource use, and assessor-rated speech recordings. The recruitment aim is at least 60 participants over 21 months from 11 sites, equating to at least 20 participants in each arm of the trial. This trial is ongoing and recruitment commenced in May 2012. DISCUSSION: This study will provide information on the feasibility and acceptability of randomizing participants to different speech and language therapies or control/deferred treatment. The findings relating to recruitment, treatment compliance, outcome measures, and effect size will inform a future phase III randomized controlled trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN75223808 registered 22 March 2012.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Fonoterapia/métodos , Distúrbios da Voz/etiologia , Distúrbios da Voz/terapia , Treinamento da Voz , Voz , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Projetos de Pesquisa
14.
Lancet ; 384(9949): 1196-205, 2014 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24928805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether initial treatment for Parkinson's disease should consist of levodopa, dopamine agonists, or monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (MAOBI) is uncertain. We aimed to establish which of these three classes of drug, as initial treatment, provides the most effective long-term control of symptoms and best quality of life for people with early Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In this pragmatic, open-label randomised trial, patients newly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease were randomly assigned (by telephone call to a central office; 1:1:1) between levodopa-sparing therapy (dopamine agonists or MAOBI) and levodopa alone. Patients and investigators were not masked to group assignment. Primary outcomes were the mobility dimension on the 39-item patient-rated Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) quality-of-life scale (range 0-100 with six points defined as the minimally important difference) and cost-effectiveness. Analysis was intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN69812316. FINDINGS: Between Nov 9, 2000, and Dec 22, 2009, 1620 patients were assigned to study groups (528 to levodopa, 632 to dopamine agonist, 460 to MAOBI). With 3-year median follow-up, PDQ-39 mobility scores averaged 1·8 points (95% CI 0·5-3·0, p=0·005) better in patients randomly assigned to levodopa than those assigned to levodopa-sparing therapy, with no increase or attrition of benefit during 7 years' observation. PDQ-39 mobility scores were 1·4 points (95% CI 0·0-2·9, p=0·05) better in patients allocated MAOBI than in those allocated dopamine agonists. EQ-5D utility scores averaged 0·03 (95% CI 0·01-0·05; p=0·0002) better with levodopa than with levodopa-sparing therapy; rates of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·61-1·08, p=0·14), admissions to institutions (0·86, 0·63-1·18; p=0·4), and death (0·85, 0·69-1·06, p=0·17) were not significantly different, but the upper CIs precluded any substantial increase with levodopa compared with levodopa-sparing therapy. 179 (28%) of 632 patients allocated dopamine agonists and 104 (23%) of 460 patients allocated MAOBI discontinued allocated treatment because of side-effects compared with 11 (2%) of 528 patients allocated levodopa (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Very small but persistent benefits are shown for patient-rated mobility scores when treatment is initiated with levodopa compared with levodopa-sparing therapy. MAOBI as initial levodopa-sparing therapy was at least as effective as dopamine agonists. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme and UK Department of Health.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monoaminoxidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (6): CD002815, 2014 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24936965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite medical therapies and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), patients develop progressive disability. The role of physiotherapy is to maximise functional ability and minimise secondary complications through movement rehabilitation within a context of education and support for the whole person. The overall aim is to optimise independence, safety and wellbeing, thereby enhancing quality of life. Trials have shown that physiotherapy has short-term benefits in PD. However, which physiotherapy intervention is most effective remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of one physiotherapy intervention compared with a second approach in patients with PD. SEARCH METHODS: Relevant trials were identified by electronic searches of numerous literature databases (for example MEDLINE, EMBASE) and trial registers, plus handsearching of major journals, abstract books, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved publications. The literature search included trials published up to the end of January 2012. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of one physiotherapy intervention versus another physiotherapy intervention in patients with PD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were abstracted independently from each paper by two authors. Trials were classified into the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance and martial arts. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 43 trials were identified with 1673 participants. All trials used small patient numbers (average trial size of 39 participants); the methods of randomisation and concealment of allocation were poor or not stated in most trials. Blinded assessors were used in just over half of the trials and only 10 stated that they used intention-to-treat analysis.A wide variety of validated and customised outcome measures were used to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions. The most frequently reported physiotherapy outcomes were gait speed and timed up and go, in 19 and 15 trials respectively. Only five of the 43 trials reported data on falls (12%). The motor subscales of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 were the most commonly reported clinician-rated disability and patient-rated quality of life outcome measures, used in 22 and 13 trials respectively. The content and delivery of the physiotherapy interventions varied widely in the trials included within this review, so no quantitative meta-analysis could be performed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Considering the small number of participants examined, the methodological flaws in many of the studies, the possibility of publication bias, and the variety of interventions, formal comparison of the different physiotherapy techniques could not be performed. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of one physiotherapy intervention over another in PD.This review shows that a wide range of physiotherapy interventions to treat PD have been tested . There is a need for more specific trials with improved treatment strategies to underpin the most appropriate choice of physiotherapy intervention and the outcomes measured.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (9): CD002817, 2013 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24018704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite medical therapies and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), patients develop progressive disability. Physiotherapy aims to maximise functional ability and minimise secondary complications through movement rehabilitation within a context of education and support for the whole person. The overall aim is to optimise independence, safety, and well-being, thereby enhancing quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no intervention in patients with PD. SEARCH METHODS: We identified relevant trials by conducting electronic searches of numerous literature databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE) and trial registers, and by handsearching major journals, abstract books, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved publications. The literature search included trials published up to the end of January 2012. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy intervention versus no physiotherapy intervention in patients with PD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from each article. We used standard meta-analysis methods to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no physiotherapy intervention. Trials were classified into the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance, and martial arts. We used tests for heterogeneity to assess for differences in treatment effect across these different physiotherapy interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 39 trials with 1827 participants. We considered the trials to be at a mixed risk of bias as the result of unreported allocation concealment and probable detection bias. Compared with no intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of speed (mean difference 0.04 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.06, P = 0.0002); two- or six-minute walk test (13.37 m, 95% CI 0.55 to 26.20, P = 0.04) and Freezing of Gait questionnaire (-1.41, 95% CI -2.63 to -0.19, P = 0.02); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.63 s, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.21, P = 0.003), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, 95% CI 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008), and Berg Balance Scale (3.71 points, 95% CI 2.30 to 5.11, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total -6.15 points, 95% CI-8.57 to -3.73, P < 0.00001; activities of daily living: -1.36, 95% CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -5.01, 95% CI -6.30 to -3.72, P < 0.00001). No difference between arms was noted in falls (Falls Efficacy Scale: -1.91 points, 95% CI -4.76 to 0.94, P = 0.19) or patient-rated quality of life (PDQ-39 Summary Index: -0.38 points, 95% CI -2.58 to 1.81, P = 0.73). One study reported that adverse events were rare; no other studies reported data on this outcome. Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions revealed no evidence that the treatment effect differed across physiotherapy interventions for any of the outcomes assessed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Benefit for physiotherapy was found in most outcomes over the short term (i.e. < 3 months) but was significant only for speed, two- or six-minute walk test, Freezing of Gait questionnaire, Timed Up & Go, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale, and clinician-rated UPDRS. Most of the observed differences between treatments were small. However, for some outcomes (e.g. speed, Berg Balance Scale, UPDRS), the differences observed were at, or approaching, what are considered minimal clinically important changes. These benefits should be interpreted with caution because the quality of most of the included trials was not high. Variation in measurements of outcome between studies meant that our analyses include a small proportion of the participants recruited.This review illustrates that a wide range of approaches are employed by physiotherapists to treat patients with PD. However, no evidence of differences in treatment effect was noted between the different types of physiotherapy interventions being used, although this was based on indirect comparisons. A consensus menu of 'best practice' physiotherapy is needed, as are large, well-designed randomised controlled trials undertaken to demonstrate the longer-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 'best practice' physiotherapy in PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atividades Cotidianas , Marcha , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Caminhada , Conduta Expectante
17.
BMJ ; 345: e5004, 2012 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22867913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy compared with no intervention in patients with Parkinson's disease. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Literature databases, trial registries, journals, abstract books, and conference proceedings, and reference lists, searched up to the end of January 2012. REVIEW METHODS: Randomised controlled trials comparing physiotherapy with no intervention in patients with Parkinson's disease were eligible. Two authors independently abstracted data from each trial. Standard meta-analysis methods were used to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy compared with no intervention. Tests for heterogeneity were used to assess for differences in treatment effect across different physiotherapy interventions used. Outcome measures were gait, functional mobility and balance, falls, clinician rated impairment and disability measures, patient rated quality of life, adverse events, compliance, and economic analysis outcomes. RESULTS: 39 trials of 1827 participants met the inclusion criteria, of which 29 trials provided data for the meta-analyses. Significant benefit from physiotherapy was reported for nine of 18 outcomes assessed. Outcomes which may be clinically significant were speed (0.04 m/s, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.06, P<0.001), Berg balance scale (3.71 points, 2.30 to 5.11, P<0.001), and scores on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (total score -6.15 points, -8.57 to -3.73, P<0.001; activities of daily living subscore -1.36, -2.41 to -0.30, P=0.01; motor subscore -5.01, -6.30 to -3.72, P<0.001). Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions found no evidence that the treatment effect differed across the interventions for any outcomes assessed, apart from motor subscores on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (in which one trial was found to be the cause of the heterogeneity). CONCLUSIONS: Physiotherapy has short term benefits in Parkinson's disease. A wide range of physiotherapy techniques are currently used to treat Parkinson's disease, with little difference in treatment effects. Large, well designed, randomised controlled trials with improved methodology and reporting are needed to assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of physiotherapy for treating Parkinson's disease in the longer term.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciais , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (8): CD002817, 2012 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22895932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite medical therapies and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), patients develop progressive disability. The role of physiotherapy aims to maximise functional ability and minimise secondary complications through movement rehabilitation within a context of education and support for the whole person. The overall aim is to optimise independence, safety and well-being, thereby enhancing quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no intervention in patients with PD. SEARCH METHODS: We identified relevant trials by electronic searches of numerous literature databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE) and trial registers, plus handsearching of major journals, abstract books, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved publications. The literature search included trials published up to end of December 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy intervention versus no physiotherapy intervention in patients with PD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from each article. We used standard meta-analysis methods to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no physiotherapy intervention. Trials were classified into the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance and martial arts. We used tests for heterogeneity to assess for differences in treatment effect across these different physiotherapy interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 33 trials with 1518 participants. Compared with no-intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of velocity (mean difference 0.05 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02 to 0.07, P = 0.0002), two- or six-minute walk test (16.40 m, CI: 1.90 to 30.90, P = 0.03) and step length (0.03 m, CI: 0 to 0.06, P = 0.04); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.61 s, CI: -1.06 to -0.17, P = 0.006), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, CI: 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008) and Berg Balance Scale (3.36 points, CI: 1.91 to 4.81, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total: -4.46 points, CI -7.16 to -1.75, P = 0.001; activities of daily living: -1.36, CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -4.09, CI: -5.59 to -2.59, P < 0.00001). There was no difference between arms in falls or patient-rated quality of life. Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions found no evidence that the treatment effect differed across the physiotherapy interventions for any of the outcomes assessed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Benefit for physiotherapy was found in most outcomes over the short-term (i.e. < three months), but was only significant for velocity, two- or six-minute walk test, step length, Timed Up & Go, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and clinician-rated UPDRS. Most of the observed differences between the treatments were small. However, for some outcomes (e.g. velocity, Berg Balance Scale and UPDRS), the differences observed were at, or approaching, what are considered minimally clinical important changes.The review illustrates that a wide range of approaches are employed by physiotherapists to treat PD. However, there was no evidence of differences in treatment effect between the different types of physiotherapy interventions being used, though this was based on indirect comparisons. There is a need to develop a consensus menu of 'best-practice' physiotherapy, and to perform large well-designed randomised controlled trials to demonstrate the longer-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 'best practice' physiotherapy in PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atividades Cotidianas , Marcha , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Caminhada , Conduta Expectante
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (7): CD002817, 2012 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22786482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite medical therapies and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), patients develop progressive disability. The role of physiotherapy aims to maximise functional ability and minimise secondary complications through movement rehabilitation within a context of education and support for the whole person. The overall aim is to optimise independence, safety and well-being, thereby enhancing quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no intervention in patients with PD. SEARCH METHODS: We identified relevant trials by electronic searches of numerous literature databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE) and trial registers, plus handsearching of major journals, abstract books, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved publications. The literature search included trials published up to end of December 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy intervention versus no physiotherapy intervention in patients with PD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from each article. We used standard meta-analysis methods to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no physiotherapy intervention. Trials were classified into the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance and martial arts. We used tests for heterogeneity to assess for differences in treatment effect across these different physiotherapy interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 33 trials with 1518 participants. Compared with no-intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of velocity (mean difference 0.05 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02 to 0.07, P = 0.0002), two- or six-minute walk test (16.40 m, CI: 1.90 to 30.90, P = 0.03) and step length (0.03 m, CI: 0 to 0.06, P = 0.04); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.61 s, CI: -1.06 to -0.17, P = 0.006), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, CI: 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008) and Berg Balance Scale (3.36 points, CI: 1.91 to 4.81, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total: -4.46 points, CI -7.16 to -1.75, P = 0.001; activities of daily living: -1.36, CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -4.09, CI: -5.59 to -2.59, P < 0.00001). There was no difference between arms in falls or patient-rated quality of life. Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions found no evidence that the treatment effect differed across the physiotherapy interventions for any of the outcomes assessed. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Benefit for physiotherapy was found in most outcomes over the short-term (i.e. < three months), but was only significant for velocity, two- or six-minute walk test, step length, Timed Up & Go, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and clinician-rated UPDRS. Most of the observed differences between the treatments were small. However, for some outcomes (e.g. velocity, Berg Balance Scale and UPDRS), the differences observed were at, or approaching, what are considered minimally clinical important changes.The review illustrates that a wide range of approaches are employed by physiotherapists to treat PD. However, there was no evidence of differences in treatment effect between the different types of physiotherapy interventions being used, though this was based on indirect comparisons. There is a need to develop a consensus menu of 'best-practice' physiotherapy, and to perform large well-designed randomised controlled trials to demonstrate the longer-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 'best practice' physiotherapy in PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Idoso , Sinais (Psicologia) , Terapia através da Dança/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (11): CD008453, 2011 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22071847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levodopa is the mainstay of treatment for alleviating the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. However, patients often experience fluctuations in their symptoms over time and 'wearing off' which may be partly related to variable absorption of the drug. There is some evidence that treatment of the common gastrointestinal infection Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) with antibiotics may improve levodopa absorption in the gut and hence improve symptoms. OBJECTIVES: 1) What is the prevalence of H pylori in Parkinson's disease patients? 2) Does treatment of H pylori infection with antibiotics improve symptoms in Parkinson's disease patients? Is this effect dependent on improvements in the absorption of levodopa? SEARCH METHODS: We searched electronic databases (including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL) and trial registers, handsearched conference proceedings and carried out citation searching on key articles. All searching was updated in August 2009. We contacted authors to provide additional information where necessary. SELECTION CRITERIA: Clinical trials in patients with a well-defined definition of Parkinson's disease and who were H pylori-positive. Two people independently selected studies for inclusion using predetermined criteria. We used recruitment figures from clinical trials and other studies identified from the searching to determine the prevalence of H pylori in Parkinson's disease. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors abstracted data from the source papers and assessed methodological quality independently. We presented results descriptively. MAIN RESULTS: Two completed and one ongoing clinical trial met the inclusion criteria. One trial (34 patients randomised) examined the effects of H pylori eradication on levodopa absorption and motor symptoms and found significant improvements in both. The ongoing trial has similar objectives and aims to recruit 100 patients. The other completed trial (20 patients analysed) sought to find a causal link between infection with H pylori and Parkinsonism and was non-contributory. A worsening of symptoms was noted with eradication failure.The prevalence of H pylori in Parkinson's disease was reported in four studies and ranged from 37% to 59% which is similar to that of the general population. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently a lack of evidence on the effects of screening and treating H pylori in patients with Parkinson's disease. There is limited evidence to suggest that H Pylori eradication improves the absorption of levodopa and improves motor symptoms. Results from an ongoing trial will inform the evidence base and will be incorporated in an update of this review. There is a need for well-conducted randomised controlled trials with standard outcome measures for motor symptoms and incorporating the costs of screening and treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacocinética , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Levodopa/farmacocinética , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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