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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic around the world caused most healthcare services to turn substantial attention to treatment of these patients and also to alter the structure of healthcare systems to address an infectious disease. As a result, many cancer patients had their treatment deferred during the pandemic, increasing the time-to-treatment initiation, the number of untreated patients (which will alter the dynamics of healthcare delivery in the post-pandemic era) and increasing their risk of death. Hence, we analyzed the impact on global cancer mortality considering the decline in oncology care during the COVID-19 outbreak using head and neck cancer, a known time-dependent disease, as a model. METHODS: An online practical tool capable of predicting the risk of cancer patients dying due to the COVID-19 outbreak and also useful for mitigation strategies after the peak of the pandemic has been developed, based on a mathematical model. The scenarios were estimated by information of 15 oncological services worldwide, given a perspective from the five continents and also some simulations were conducted at world demographic data. RESULTS: The model demonstrates that the more that cancer care was maintained during the outbreak and also the more it is increased during the mitigation period, the shorter will be the recovery, lessening the additional risk of dying due to time-to-treatment initiation. CONCLUSIONS: This impact of COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients is inevitable, but it is possible to minimize it with an effort measured by the proposed model.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211936, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734415

RESUMO

Importance: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping agents approved for current surgical practice lack sufficient brightness and target specificity for high-contrast, sensitive nodal visualization. Objective: To evaluate whether an ultrasmall, molecularly targeted core-shell silica nanoparticle (Cornell prime dots) can safely and reliably identify optically avid SLNs in head and neck melanoma during fluorescence-guided biopsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized clinical trial enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed melanoma in whom SLN mapping was indicated. Exclusion criteria included known pregnancy, breast-feeding, or medical illness unrelated to the tumor. The trial was conducted between February 2015 and March 2018 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, with postoperative follow-up of 2 years. Data analysis was conducted from February 2015 to March 2018. Interventions: Patients received standard-of-care technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid followed by a microdose administration of integrin-targeting, dye-encapsulated nanoparticles, surface modified with polyethylene glycol chains and cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-tyrosine peptides (cRGDY-PEG-Cy5.5-nanoparticles) intradermally. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end points were safety, procedural feasibility, lowest particle dose and volume for maximizing nodal fluorescence signal, and proportion of nodes identified by technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid that were optically visualized by cRGDY-PEG-Cy5.5-nanoparticles. Secondary end points included proportion of patients in whom the surgical approach or extent of dissection was altered because of nodal visualization. Results: Of 24 consecutive patients enrolled (median [interquartile range] age, 64 [51-71] years), 18 (75%) were men. In 24 surgical procedures, 40 SLNs were excised. Preoperative localization of SLNs with technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid was followed by particle dose-escalation studies, yielding optimized doses and volumes of 2 nmol and 0.4 mL, respectively, and maximum SLN signal-to-background ratios of 40. No adverse events were observed. The concordance rate of evaluable SLNs by technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid and cRGDY-PEG-Cy5.5-nanoparticles was 90% (95% CI, 74%-98%), 5 of which were metastatic. Ultrabright nanoparticle fluorescence enabled high-sensitivity SLN visualization (including difficult-to-access anatomic sites), deep tissue imaging, and, in some instances, detection through intact skin, thereby facilitating intraoperative identification without extensive dissection of adjacent normal tissue or nerves. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that nanoparticle-based fluorescence-guided SLN biopsy in head and neck melanoma was feasible and safe. This technology holds promise for improving lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy procedures, while potentially mitigating procedural risks. This study serves as a first step toward developing new multimodal approaches for perioperative care. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02106598.

3.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661329

RESUMO

Major pathology guidelines often mandate stating the histologic grade as a component of the pathology report for various types of cancer. However, the prognostic value of histologic grade in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is controversial at best, and there is a need for more reliable prognostic histologic factors to better stratify and manage patients with HNSCC. In this study, we compared three relevant histopathologic features (histologic grade, worst pattern of invasion (WPOI), and tumor budding) in a large single-center retrospective cohort of early oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) with tumor greatest dimension ≤ 4 cm. Only histologic grade predicted distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) on univariate analysis. Tumor budding was associated with nodal metastasis, overall survival (OS), regional recurrence-free survival (RRFS), and DMFS and was a significant predictor for nodal metastasis on the multivariable logistic regression model. WPOI 5 was associated with high frequency of nodal metastasis and shortened OS and was an independent adverse prognostic factor for OS on multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. WPOI and tumor budding were prognostically more relevant than histologic grade. Consideration should be given to include WPOI and tumor budding in the pathology reporting of OTSCC.

4.
Arch Med Res ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested anticancer potential of NSAIDs. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate novel indomethacin derivatives for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: The molecular docking of derivatives was carried out for prediction of inhibitory effect on PDGFR-α using pass online software, followed by cytotoxicity study by performing MTT assay. The disease was induced with N-Nitrosodiethylamine (200 mg/kg, i.p.) followed by 2-acetylaminofluorene orally for two weeks. After 12 weeks of induction, treatment was given for one week and blood was collected for determination of biochemical parameters and tumor markers. Liver samples were isolated for immunohistochemistry, histopathology, and gene expression study for VEGF. RESULTS: JI-MT has shown maximum inhibitory activity for PDGFRα in docking study also showed good cytotoxic effect in the HepG2 cell line and based on the IC50 values, JI-MT was selected for in-vivo study. We have found statistically significant reduction in body weight gain, number of nodules and liver weight to body weight ratio with treatment with JI-MT. Hepatoprotective role of JI-MT has been observed in tumor-specific markers like α-fetoprotein levels, carcinoembryonic antigen and PDGF-α levels. Liver markers like ALT, ALP, AST, LDH and total bilirubin levels were found to be reduced with treatments. Also, on histopathological examination, the protective effect of JI-MT was observed. Treatment also showed increased expression of P53 in immunohistochemical analysis and up-regulation of VEGF gene by JI-MT. CONCLUSION: From the present study, we can conclude that JI-MT has potential in treatment of HCC by the virtue of PDGFRα inhibitory activity.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586179

RESUMO

High-dose (HD) cisplatin remains the standard of care with chemoradiation for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Cooperative group trials mandate bolus-HD (100 mg/m2 × 1 day, every 3 weeks) cisplatin administration at the beginning of the week to optimize radiosensitization-a requirement which may be unnecessary. This analysis evaluates the impact of chemotherapy administration day of week (DOW) on outcomes. We also report our institutional experience with an alternate dosing schedule, split-HD (50 mg/m2 × 2 days, every 3 weeks). We retrospectively reviewed 435 definitive chemoradiation OPC patients from 10 December 2001 to 23 December 2014. Those receiving non-HD cisplatin regimens or induction chemotherapy were excluded. Data collected included DOW, dosing schedule (bolus-HD vs split-HD), smoking, total cumulative dose (TCD), stage, Karnofsky Performance Status, human papillomavirus status and creatinine (baseline, peak and posttreatment baseline). Local failure (LF), regional failure (RF), locoregional failure (LRF), distant metastasis (DM), any failure (AF, either LRF or DM) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from radiation therapy start. Median follow-up was 8.0 years (1.8 months-17.0 years). DOW, dosing schedule and TCD were not associated with any outcomes in univariable or multivariable regression models. There was no statistically significant difference in creatinine or association with TCD in split-HD vs bolus-HD. There was no statistically significant association between DOW and outcomes, suggesting that cisplatin could be administered any day. Split-HD had no observed differences in outcomes, renal toxicity or TCD compared to bolus-HD cisplatin. Our data suggest that there is some flexibility of when and how to give HD cisplatin compared to clinical trial mandates.

6.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608957

RESUMO

Chronic hyperglycemia induces activation of the polyol-sorbitol pathway, which is a major contributor to microvascular complications like stroke. The current study was designed to elucidate the therapeutic role of α-glucose inhibitor in chronic hyperglycemia-induced impaired polyol pathway and associated micro-complications. Male albino-Wistar rats (200-250 g) were treated with voglibose 10 mg kg-1  day-1 /p.o. for 2 weeks before middle cerebral artery occlusion; 72 hr after surgery, neurological score was evaluated and blood was collected for the assessment of various serum biochemical parameters like CRP, CK-MB, LDH, lipid profile, and blood glucose levels. In the end, brain samples were excised for determination of brain infarct volume, brain hemisphere weight difference, Na+-K+ ATPase activity oxidative stress-related parameters, aldose reductase activity, and gene expression studies. Results from the present study indicate that pre-treatment with voglibose showed significant improvement in lipid parameters but did not impact glucose levels. Voglibose has shown a statistically significant (p < .05) reduction in neurological score and brain infarct volume, and the difference in brain hemisphere weight as compared to the disease control group. Voglibose significantly (p < .05) improve all biochemical parameters and reduced Na+-K+ ATPase and aldose reductase activity. Moreover, voglibose produced a significant reduction in oxidative stress and down-regulation of TNF-α and BCl-2 gene expression which reduces the risk of factors related to stroke. In conclusion, the pleiotropic effect of voglibose on cerebrovascular complications may be due to inhibition of aldose reductase or anti-inflammatory pathways.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 729, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526794

RESUMO

Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has demonstrated clinical benefit for a wide range of cancer types. Because only a subset of patients experience clinical benefit, there is a strong need for biomarkers that are easily accessible across diverse practice settings. Here, in a retrospective cohort study of 1714 patients with 16 different cancer types treated with ICI, we show that higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is significantly associated with poorer overall and progression-free survival, and lower rates of response and clinical benefit, after ICI therapy across multiple cancer types. Combining NLR with tumor mutational burden (TMB), the probability of benefit from ICI is significantly higher (OR = 3.22; 95% CI, 2.26-4.58; P < 0.001) in the NLR low/TMB high group compared to the NLR high/TMB low group. NLR is a suitable candidate for a cost-effective and widely accessible biomarker, and can be combined with TMB for additional predictive capacity.


Assuntos
/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Idoso , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(2): 160-170, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ulcerative colitis is common types of severe, progressive, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease that involves the mucosal lining of the large intestine. The purpose of the study is to explore the effects of hecogenin in TNBS (2, 4, 6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) induced ulcerative colitis model in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: (i) Normal Control (NC), (ii) Disease Control (DC), (iii) Hecogenin (HG) (50 µg/rat), (iv) Fluticasone (FC) (50 µg/rat), (v) Hecogenin + Fluticasone (HG + FC) combination (25 µg/rat). Colitis was induced by trans-rectal administration of TNBS using a catheter inserted 8 cm into the rectal portion of the rat. Colitis was evaluated by an independent observer who was blinded to the treatment. All treatment group results were compared to the TNBS group results. RESULTS: The study results revealed that treatment of rats with HG and HG + FC significantly improved the body weight and colon length whereas; decreased the spleen weight, colon weight/length ratio, macroscopic lesions score, diarrhea score and adhesion score. The drug treatment in rats substantially decreased the development of inflammatory cytokines, levels of serum immunoglobulin E, colonic nitric oxide contents and restoration of antioxidant stress markers. Histopathological colon sample study significantly reduced colonic inflammation with a substantial decrease in inflammation score. CONCLUSION: Thus, HG and HG + FC combination could change the pathogenesis of the disease and may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ulcerative colitis by a reduction in dose in conjunction with FC to prevent the persistent adverse effects associated with FC.

9.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820976317, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address the lack of validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments that define and quantify patient expectations in thyroid cancer surgery, we developed and initially validated ThyroidEx, a novel disease-specific PRO instrument. STUDY DESIGN: Survey study. SETTING: Single-institution tertiary care cancer center. METHODS: An expert panel drafted an initial set of thyroid cancer-specific concepts, which was used in semistructured concept elicitation interviews with patients with thyroid cancer 4 weeks before and 8 weeks after surgery. Candidate items were generated per patient responses and refined via cognitive interviewing and additional review by the expert panel. The draft ThyroidEx was then preoperatively administered to a separate cohort undergoing thyroid cancer surgery to establish a final item set and initial psychometric evidence. RESULTS: Prospective concept elicitation interviews generated 358 patient-elicited concepts (n = 15 patients). These were then placed into 70 unique subcategories from which 41 items were generated for cognitive interviews with 20 patients preoperatively and 28 postoperatively. After expert panel review, ThyroidEx included 18 items across 2 scales (Expectations and Concerns), with an additional item about beliefs. In the preoperative cohort in phase 2 (n = 67), internal consistency Cronbach's α values ranged from 0.81 to 0.89. Descriptive analysis showed significant differences between patients' concerns and expectations and clinicians' perceptions. CONCLUSION: Defining expectations represents an important modifier in the measurement of PROs. Preliminary validation of ThyroidEx revealed incongruent expectations between expert opinion and patients. Future development and implementation of ThyroidEx may affect preoperative consultation and the consent process.

10.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188153

RESUMO

Despite efforts in prevention, cervical cancer still presents with a high worldwide incidence and remains a great problem in public health, especially in low-income countries. Screening programs, such as colposcopy with Papanicolaou testing, have greatly improved mortality rates. However, the agents currently used to delineate those lesions (topical application of acetic acid and/or Lugol's iodine) lack specificity and sometimes can lead to unnecessary biopsies or even cervical excisions. A tool to enable in vivo histology to quickly and quantitatively distinguish between tumor, dysplastic and healthy tissue would be of great clinical interest. Here we describe the use of PARPi-FL, a fluorescent imaging agent that targets PARP1, a nuclear enzyme that is overexpressed in cancer when compared to the normal surrounding tissues. We exploit its use as an optical imaging agent to specifically target PARP1 expression, which was demonstrated to be higher in cervical cancer when compared to the normal surrounding tissue. After its topical application on freshly excised cone biopsies, the nuclei of tumor cells emitted a specific fluorescent signal that could be visualized using a hand-held fluorescence confocal microscope. This approach has the potential to improve in vivo identification of tumor cells during colposcopy examination allowing a rapid, non-invasive, and accurate histopathological assessment.

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205573

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) suffer from persistent exercise limitation despite improvement of their heart failure syndrome. Exercise training (ET) programmes to improve aerobic capacity have shown modest efficacy. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), as an alternative to moderate continuous training, has not been systematically tested in this population. We examine the feasibility of a short, personalized HIIT programme in patients with LVAD and describe its effects on aerobic capacity and left ventricular remodelling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients on durable LVAD support were prospectively enrolled in a 15-session, 5 week HIIT programme. Turndown echocardiogram, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, and cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed before and after HIIT. Training workloads for each subject were based on pretraining peak cardiopulmonary exercise test work rate (W). Percentage of prescribed training workload completed and adverse events were recorded for each subject. Fifteen subjects were enrolled [10 men, age = 51 (29-71) years, HeartMate II = 12, HeartMate 3 = 3, and time on LVAD = 18 (3-64) months]. Twelve completed post-training testing. HIIT was well tolerated, and 90% (inter-quartile range: 78, 99%) of the prescribed workload (W) was completed with no major adverse events. Improvements were seen in aV̇O2 at ventilatory threshold [7.1 (6.5, 9.1) to 8.5 (7.7, 9.3) mL/kg/min, P = 0.04], work rate at ventilatory threshold [44 (14, 54) to 55 (21, 66) W, P = 0.05], and left ventricular end-diastolic volume [168 (144, 216) to 159 (124, 212) mL, n = 7, P = 0.02]. HIIT had no effect on maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak ) or Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiopulmonary exercise test-guided HIIT is feasible and can improve submaximal aerobic capacity in stable patients with chronic LVAD support. Further studies are needed on its effects on the myocardium and its potential role in cardiac rehabilitation programmes.

12.
Circulation ; 142(21): 2016-2028, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) unloading and hemodynamic support in patients with advanced chronic heart failure can result in significant improvement in cardiac function allowing LVAD removal; however, the rate of this is generally considered to be low. This prospective multicenter nonrandomized study (RESTAGE-HF [Remission from Stage D Heart Failure]) investigated whether a protocol of optimized LVAD mechanical unloading, combined with standardized specific pharmacological therapy to induce reverse remodeling and regular testing of underlying myocardial function, could produce a higher incidence of LVAD explantation. METHODS: Forty patients with chronic advanced heart failure from nonischemic cardiomyopathy receiving the Heartmate II LVAD were enrolled from 6 centers. LVAD speed was optimized with an aggressive pharmacological regimen, and regular echocardiograms were performed at reduced LVAD speed (6000 rpm, no net flow) to test underlying myocardial function. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with sufficient improvement of myocardial function to reach criteria for explantation within 18 months with sustained remission from heart failure (freedom from transplant/ventricular assist device/death) at 12 months. RESULTS: Before LVAD, age was 35.1±10.8 years, 67.5% were men, heart failure mean duration was 20.8±20.6 months, 95% required inotropic and 20% temporary mechanical support, left ventricular ejection fraction was 14.5±5.3%, end-diastolic diameter was 7.33±0.89 cm, end-systolic diameter was 6.74±0.88 cm, pulmonary artery saturations were 46.7±9.2%, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 26.2±7.6 mm Hg. Four enrolled patients did not undergo the protocol because of medical complications unrelated to the study procedures. Overall, 40% of all enrolled (16/40) patients achieved the primary end point, P<0.0001, with 50% (18/36) of patients receiving the protocol being explanted within 18 months (pre-explant left ventricular ejection fraction, 57±8%; end-diastolic diameter, 4.81±0.58 cm; end-systolic diameter, 3.53±0.51 cm; pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, 8.1±3.1 mm Hg; pulmonary artery saturations 63.6±6.8% at 6000 rpm). Overall, 19 patients were explanted (19/36, 52.3% of those receiving the protocol). The 15 ongoing explanted patients are now 2.26±0.97 years after explant. After explantation survival free from LVAD or transplantation was 90% at 1-year and 77% at 2 and 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter prospective study, this strategy of LVAD support combined with a standardized pharmacological and cardiac function monitoring protocol resulted in a high rate of LVAD explantation and was feasible and reproducible with explants occurring in all 6 participating sites. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01774656.

14.
Histopathology ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging introduced depth of invasion (DOI) into the pT category of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. However, we noted multiple practical obstacles in accurately measuring DOI histologically in our daily practice. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Aiming to compare the prognostic effects of DOI and tumor thickness (TT), a meticulous pathology review was conducted in a retrospective cohort of 293 patients with AJCC 7th edition pT1/T2 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Overall survival (OS) and nodal metastasis rate at initial resection were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We found that TT and DOI were highly correlated with a correlation coefficient of 0.984. The upstage rate was merely 6% (18 out of 293 patients) when using TT in the pT stage compared with using DOI. More importantly, DOI, TT, as well as pT stage using DOI and pT stage using TT performed identically in predicting risk of nodal metastasis and OS. CONCLUSIONS: We therefore propose to replace DOI, a complicated measurement with many challenges, with TT in the pT staging system.

15.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114598

RESUMO

Sinigrin, a precursor of allyl isothiocyanate, present in the Raphanus sativus exhibits diverse biological activities, and has an immense role against cancer proliferation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the sinigrin in the R. sativus roots using developed and validated RP-HPLC method and further evaluated its' anticancer activity. To achieve the objective, the roots of R. sativus were lyophilized to obtain a stable powder, which were extracted and passed through an ion-exchange column to obtain sinigrin-rich fraction. The RP-HPLC method using C18 analytical column was used for chromatographic separation and quantification of sinigrin in the prepared fraction, which was attained using the mobile phase consisting of 20 mM tetrabutylammonium: acetonitrile (80:20%, v/v at pH 7.0) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The chromatographic peak for sinigrin was showed at 3.592 min for pure sinigrin, where a good linearity was achieved within the concentration range of 50 to 800 µg/mL (R2 > 0.99), with an excellent accuracy (-1.37% and -1.29%) and precision (1.43% and 0.94%), for intra and inter-day, respectively. Finally, the MTT assay was performed for the sinigrin-rich fraction using three different human cancer cell lines, viz. prostate cancer (DU-145), colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15), and melanoma (A-375). The cell-based assays were extended to conduct apoptotic and caspase-3 activities, to determine the mechanism of action of sinigrin in the treatment of cancer. MTT assay showed IC50 values of 15.88, 21.42, and 24.58 µg/mL for DU-145, HCT-15, and A-375 cell lines, respectively. Increased cellular apoptosis and caspase-3 expression were observed with sinigrin-rich fraction, indicating significant increase in overexpression of caspase-3 in DU-145 cells. In conclusion, a simple, sensitive, fast, and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of sinigrin in the prepared fraction. The data observed here indicate that sinigrin can be beneficial in treating prostate cancer possibly by inducing apoptosis.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e018475, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092446

RESUMO

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a proinflammatory state with high mortality. Statins have anti-inflammatory effects and may attenuate the severity of COVID-19. Methods and Results An observational study of all consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a single center located in Bronx, New York, was conducted from March 1, 2020, to May 2, 2020. Patients were grouped as those who did and those who did not receive a statin, and in-hospital mortality was compared by competing events regression. In addition, propensity score matching and inverse probability treatment weighting were used in survival models to examine the association between statin use and death during hospitalization. A total of 4252 patients were admitted with COVID-19. Diabetes mellitus modified the association between statin use and in-hospital mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus on a statin (n=983) were older (69±11 versus 67±14 years; P<0.01), had lower inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, 10.2; interquartile range, 4.5-18.4 versus 12.9; interquartile range, 5.9-21.4 mg/dL; P<0.01) and reduced cumulative in-hospital mortality (24% versus 39%; P<0.01) than those not on a statin (n=1283). No difference in hospital mortality was noted in patients without diabetes mellitus on or off statin (20% versus 21%; P=0.82). Propensity score matching (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.94; P<0.01) and inverse probability treatment weighting (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.92; P<0.01) showed a 12% lower risk of death during hospitalization for statin users than for nonusers. Conclusions Statin use was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus. These findings, if validated, may further reemphasize administration of statins to patients with diabetes mellitus during the COVID-19 era.

17.
Curr Gene Ther ; 20(3): 223-235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postprandial hyperglycemia considered to be a major risk factor for cerebrovascular complications. OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to elucidate the beneficial role of voglibose via in-silico in vitro to in-vivo studies in improving the postprandial glycaemic state by protection against strokeprone type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-Silico molecular docking and virtual screening were carried out with the help of iGEMDOCK+ Pymol+docking software and Protein Drug Bank database (PDB). Based on the results of docking studies, in-vivo investigation was carried out for possible neuroprotective action. T2DM was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (90mg/kg, i.v.) to neonates. Six weeks after induction, voglibose was administered at the dose of 10mg/kg p.o. for two weeks. After eight weeks, diabetic rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, and after 72 hours of surgery, neurological deficits were determined. The blood was collected for the determination of serum glucose, CK-MB, LDH and lipid levels. Brains were excised for determination of brain infarct volume, brain hemisphere weight difference, Na+-K+ ATPase activity, ROS parameters, NO levels, and aldose reductase activity. RESULTS: In-silico docking studies showed good docking binding score for stroke associated proteins, which possibly hypotheses neuroprotective action of voglibose in stroke. In the present in-vivo study, pre-treatment with voglibose showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in serum glucose and lipid levels. Voglibose has shown significant (p<0.05) reduction in neurological score, brain infarct volume, the difference in brain hemisphere weight. On biochemical evaluation, treatment with voglibose produced significant (p<0.05) decrease in CK-MB, LDH, and NO levels in blood and reduction in Na+-K+ ATPase, oxidative stress, and aldose reductase activity in brain homogenate. CONCLUSION: In-silico molecular docking and virtual screening studies and in-vivo studies in MCAo induced stroke, animal model outcomes support the strong anti-stroke signature for possible neuroprotective therapeutics.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058805

RESUMO

Peripheral venous pressure (PVP) monitoring is a noninvasive method to assess volume status. We investigated the correlation between PVP and central venous pressure (CVP) in heart failure (HF), heart transplant (HTx), and left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients undergoing right heart catheterization (RHC). A prospective, cross-sectional study examining PVP in 100 patients from October 2018 to January 2020 was conducted. The analysis included patients undergoing RHC admitted for HF, post-HTx monitoring, or LVAD hemodynamic testing. Sixty percent of patients had HF, 30% were HTx patients, and 10% were LVAD patients. The mean PVP was 9.4 ± 5.3 mm Hg, and the mean CVP was 9.2 ± 5.8 mm Hg. The PVP and CVP were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.93, p < 0.00001). High correlation was also noted when broken down by HF (r = 0.93, p < 0.00001), HTx (r = 0.93, p < 0.00001), and LVAD groups (r = 0.94, p < 0.00005). In conclusion, there is a high degree of correlation between PVP and CVP in HF, HTx, and LVAD patients. PVP measurements can be used as a rapid, reliable, noninvasive estimate of volume status in these patient populations.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081068

RESUMO

Estrogen is instrumental in the pathological process of osteoporosis because a deficiency of this hormone increases the release of bone-resorbing cytokines. Acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid (AKBA), a constituent from Boswellia serrata, has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression, which leads to a decline in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand, and consequently, a reduction in osteoclast activity. Hence, AKBA may be beneficial against bone loss during osteoporosis. Therefore, the current study intended to evaluate the beneficial effects of AKBA in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis and to investigate its mechanism of action. Sham-operation or ovariectomy female Sprague Dawley rats were used for evaluating the antiosteoporotic effect of AKBA in this study. AKBA (35 mg/kg, p.o.) and estradiol (0.05 mg/kg, i.m.) were administered for 42 days. At the end of the experiment, body and uterus weights, serum and urine calcium and phosphorus, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urinary creatinine levels, besides serum levels of NF-κB and TNF-α were determined. Weight, length, thickness, hardness, calcium content, as well as the bone mineral density of femur bone and lumbar vertebra were measured. A histopathological examination was also carried out. AKBA ameliorated all tested parameters and restored a normal histological structure. Thus, AKBA showed good antiosteoporotic activity, which may be mediated through its suppression of the NF-κB-induced TNF-α signaling pathway.

20.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081674

RESUMO

Sodium-Glucose co-transporter inhibitors are a novel class of drugs that are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus medical management. This class of drugs has a simple mechanism of action by which they decrease blood glucose levels. They prevent the uptake or re-absorption of glucose in the blood by inhibiting the SGLT2 co-transport channels located in the renal proximal convoluted tubule. Since, SGLT2 is the low affinity, high capacity glucose transporter, it allows the co-transport of sodium and glucose through it. SGLT2s are accountable for around 90% of the renal glucose reuptake. Cerebrovascular complications or accidents (CVAs) are the world's leading cause of mortality, resulting in around 6 million deaths annually. Diabetics are prone to develop mitochondrian dysfunction and neurodegeneration due to hyperglycemia and oxidative stress end products. Due to hyperglycemic condition in diabetes, it's always an elevated risk of cerebrovascular dysfunction due to hyperglycemia as it includes endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress, renal reperfusion injury which may lead to neuronal degeneration and cognitive impairment. A diabetic individual is more prone to develop risk factors for transient ischemic attacks than non-diabetic patient. These inhibitors reduce hyperglycemia by blocking renal glucose reabsorption, therefore promoting an increase in renal glucose excretion. This review discusses the potential role of SGLT2 inhibitors in treating CVAs associated with T2DM.

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