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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525280

RESUMO

Novel anabolic drug targets are needed to treat osteoporosis. Having established a large national cohort with unexplained high bone mass (HBM), we aimed to identify a novel monogenic cause of HBM and provide insight into a regulatory pathway potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. We investigated a pedigree with unexplained HBM in whom previous sequencing had excluded known causes of monogenic HBM. Whole exome sequencing identified a rare (minor allele frequency 0.0023), highly evolutionarily conserved, missense mutation in SMAD9 (c.65T>C, p.Leu22Pro) segregating with HBM in this autosomal dominant family. The same mutation was identified in another two unrelated individuals both with HBM. In-silico protein modelling predicts the mutation severely disrupts the MH1 DNA-binding domain of SMAD9. Affected individuals have bone mineral density [BMD] Z-Scores +3 to +5, mandible enlargement, a broad frame, torus palatinus/ mandibularis, pes planus, increased shoe size and a tendency to sink when swimming. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) measurement demonstrates increased trabecular volumetric BMD and increased cortical thickness conferring greater predicted bone strength; bone turnover markers are low/normal. Notably, fractures and nerve compression are not seen. Both genome-wide, and gene-based association testing involving estimated-BMD measured at the heel in 362,924 white British subjects from the UK Biobank Study showed strong associations with SMAD9 (PGWAS = 6 x 10-16 ; PGENE = 8 × 10-17 ). Furthermore, we found Smad9 to be highly expressed in both murine cortical bone derived osteocytes and skeletal elements of zebrafish larvae. Our findings support SMAD9 as a novel HBM gene, and a potential novel osteoanabolic target for osteoporosis therapeutics. SMAD9 is thought to inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) dependent target gene transcription to reduce osteoblast activity. Thus, we hypothesise SMAD9 c.65T>C is a loss-of-function mutation reducing BMP inhibition. Lowering SMAD9 as a potential novel anabolic mechanism for osteoporosis therapeutics warrants further investigation.

2.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases (eczema, wheeze and rhinitis) in children often present as heterogeneous phenotypes. Understanding genetic associations of specific patterns of symptoms might facilitate understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between allergic disease-related variants identified in a recent genome-wide association study and latent classes of allergic diseases (LCADs) in two population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: Eight previously defined LCADs between 1 and 11 years: 'No disease', 'Atopic march', 'Persistent eczema and wheeze', 'Persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis', 'Persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis', 'Transient wheeze', 'Eczema only' and 'Rhinitis only' were used as the study outcome. Weighted multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate associations between 135 SNPs (and a polygenic risk score, PRS) and LCADs among 6,345 individuals from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Heterogeneity across LCADs was assessed before and after Bonferroni correction. Results were replicated in Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) (n=896) and pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: We found strong evidence for differential genetic associations across the LCADs; pooled PRS heterogeneity p-value=3.3x10-14 , excluding 'no disease' class. The associations between the PRS and LCADs in MAAS were remarkably similar to ALSPAC. Two SNPs (a protein truncating variant in FLG and a SNP within an intron of GSDMB) had evidence for differential association (pooled p-values≤ 0.006). The FLG locus was differentially associated across LCADs that included eczema, with stronger associations for LCADs with comorbid wheeze and rhinitis. The GSDMB locus in contrast was equally associated across LCADs that included wheeze. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We have shown complex, but distinct patterns of genetic associations with LCADs, suggesting that heterogeneous mechanisms underlie individual disease trajectories. Establishing the combination of allergic diseases with which each genetic variant is associated may inform therapeutic development and/or predictive modelling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 710-719, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema onset is described primarily in early childhood, and the frequency and characteristics of adult-onset disease remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the proportion of subjects who report atopic eczema symptoms between birth and midadulthood and to examine demographic, immunologic, and genetic factors associated with period of symptom onset. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study using data from 2 nationally representative community-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom: the British Cohort Studies 1958 and 1970. Subjects were followed from birth through age 42 to 50 years. The primary outcome was the age period of self-reported atopic eczema symptom onset based on repeated measures of self-reported atopic eczema at each survey wave. RESULTS: The annual period prevalence of atopic eczema ranged from 5% to 15% in 2 cohorts of more than 17,000 participants each followed from birth through middle age. There was no clear trend in prevalence by age, and among adults reporting active atopic eczema during a given year, only 38% had symptom onset reported in childhood. When compared with subjects whose eczema started in childhood, those with adult-onset disease were more likely to be women, from Scotland or Northern England, of lower childhood socioeconomic group, smokers in adulthood, and less likely to have a history of asthma. In a subanalysis using data from the 1958 cohort only, genetic mutations previously associated with atopic eczema, including filaggrin-null mutations, and allergen-specific IgE were more common among those with childhood-onset disease. CONCLUSION: Rates of self-reported atopic eczema remain high after childhood, and adult-onset atopic eczema has different risk factor associations than childhood-onset eczema.

4.
J Invest Dermatol ; 139(7): 1416-1421.e1, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230636

RESUMO

Observational epidemiological studies have identified associations between a number of modifiable exposures and outcomes, including in dermatology, such as between smoking and psoriasis. However, it is challenging to determine if such relationships are causal because of the potential of confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization (MR) is a statistical method that can be used to investigate the causal relationships between an exposure and outcome by using a genetic instrument that proxies the exposure. The resulting estimate (under certain assumptions) can be interpreted as the causal estimate, free of confounding and reverse causation. In this review, we provide an overview of how to undertake an MR analysis, with examples from the dermatology literature. We also discuss the challenges and future directions of this method.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(2): 470-481, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, complex, and highly heritable inflammatory skin disease. Genome-wide association studies offer opportunities to identify molecular targets for drug development. A risk locus on chromosome 11q13.5 lies between 2 candidate genes, EMSY and LRRC32 (leucine-rich repeat-containing 32) but the functional mechanisms affecting risk of AD remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We sought to apply a combination of genomic and molecular analytic techniques to investigate which genes are responsible for genetic risk at this locus and to define mechanisms contributing to atopic skin disease. METHODS: We used interrogation of available genomic and chromosome conformation data in keratinocytes, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown in skin organotypic culture and functional assessment of barrier parameters, mass spectrometric global proteomic analysis and quantitative lipid analysis, electron microscopy of organotypic skin, and immunohistochemistry of human skin samples. RESULTS: Genomic data indicate active promoters in the genome-wide association study locus and upstream of EMSY; EMSY, LRRC32, and intergenic variants all appear to be within a single topologically associating domain. siRNA-knockdown of EMSY in organotypic culture leads to enhanced development of barrier function, reflecting increased expression of structural and functional proteins, including filaggrin and filaggrin-2, as well as long-chain ceramides. Conversely, overexpression of EMSY in keratinocytes leads to a reduction in markers of barrier formation. Skin biopsy samples from patients with AD show greater EMSY staining in the nucleus, which is consistent with an increased functional effect of this transcriptional control protein. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate an important role for EMSY in transcriptional regulation and skin barrier formation, supporting EMSY inhibition as a therapeutic approach.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 804-814, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043758

RESUMO

Birth weight variation is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors, and has been reproducibly associated with future cardio-metabolic health outcomes. In expanded genome-wide association analyses of own birth weight (n = 321,223) and offspring birth weight (n = 230,069 mothers), we identified 190 independent association signals (129 of which are novel). We used structural equation modeling to decompose the contributions of direct fetal and indirect maternal genetic effects, then applied Mendelian randomization to illuminate causal pathways. For example, both indirect maternal and direct fetal genetic effects drive the observational relationship between lower birth weight and higher later blood pressure: maternal blood pressure-raising alleles reduce offspring birth weight, but only direct fetal effects of these alleles, once inherited, increase later offspring blood pressure. Using maternal birth weight-lowering genotypes to proxy for an adverse intrauterine environment provided no evidence that it causally raises offspring blood pressure, indicating that the inverse birth weight-blood pressure association is attributable to genetic effects, and not to intrauterine programming.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Troca Materno-Fetal/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 665-684, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929738

RESUMO

The extent to which genetic risk factors are shared between childhood-onset (COA) and adult-onset (AOA) asthma has not been estimated. On the basis of data from the UK Biobank study (n = 447,628), we found that the variance in disease liability explained by common variants is higher for COA (onset at ages between 0 and 19 years; h2g = 25.6%) than for AOA (onset at ages between 20 and 60 years; h2g = 10.6%). The genetic correlation (rg) between COA and AOA was 0.67. Variation in age of onset among COA-affected individuals had a low heritability (h2g = 5%), which we confirmed in independent studies and also among AOA-affected individuals. To identify subtype-specific genetic associations, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the UK Biobank for COA (13,962 affected individuals) and a separate GWAS for AOA (26,582 affected individuals) by using a common set of 300,671 controls for both studies. We identified 123 independent associations for COA and 56 for AOA (37 overlapped); of these, 98 and 34, respectively, were reproducible in an independent study (n = 262,767). Collectively, 28 associations were not previously reported. For 96 COA-associated variants, including five variants that represent COA-specific risk factors, the risk allele was more common in COA- than in AOA-affected individuals. Conversely, we identified three variants that are stronger risk factors for AOA. Variants associated with obesity and smoking had a stronger contribution to the risk of AOA than to the risk of COA. Lastly, we identified 109 likely target genes of the associated variants, primarily on the basis of correlated expression quantitative trait loci (up to n = 31,684). GWAS informed by age of onset can identify subtype-specific risk variants, which can help us understand differences in pathophysiology between COA and AOA and so can be informative for drug development.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2880, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814568

RESUMO

Self-reported tiredness or low energy, often referred to as fatigue, has been linked to low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), a biomarker of vitamin D status. Although it is uncertain if the association is causal, fatigue is a common indication for testing, and correcting, low 25OHD-levels. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization to test for genetic evidence of a causal association between low 25OHD-levels and fatigue. Genetic-25OHD associations were estimated from the largest genome-wide association study of vitamin D to date, and genetic-fatigue associations were estimated in 327,478 individuals of European descent in UK Biobank, of whom 19,526 (5.96%) reported fatigue (tiredness or low energy nearly every day over the past two weeks). Using seven genome-wide significant 25OHD-reducing genetic variants, there was little evidence for a causal effect of 25OHD on fatigue (odds ratio for fatigue was 1.05 with 95% confidence interval of 0.87-1.27 per 1-SD decrease in log-transformed 25OHD). There was also little evidence of association between any individual 25OHD-reducing variant and fatigue. Our results suggest that a clinically relevant protective effect of 25OHD-levels on fatigue is unlikely. Therefore, vitamin D supplementation of the general population to raise 25OHD-levels is not likely to be useful in preventing fatigue.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1052, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837455

RESUMO

Mouth ulcers are the most common ulcerative condition and encompass several clinical diagnoses, including recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Despite previous evidence for heritability, it is not clear which specific genetic loci are implicated in RAS. In this genome-wide association study (n = 461,106) heritability is estimated at 8.2% (95% CI: 6.4%, 9.9%). This study finds 97 variants which alter the odds of developing non-specific mouth ulcers and replicate these in an independent cohort (n = 355,744) (lead variant after meta-analysis: rs76830965, near IL12A, OR 0.72 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.73); P = 4.4e-483). Additional effect estimates from three independent cohorts with more specific phenotyping and specific study characteristics support many of these findings. In silico functional analyses provide evidence for a role of T cell regulation in the aetiology of mouth ulcers. These results provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of a common, important condition.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores Imunológicos/genética , Úlceras Orais/genética , Estomatite Aftosa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlceras Orais/imunologia , Estomatite Aftosa/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
10.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002739, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease that has been reported to be associated with obesity. We aimed to investigate a possible causal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and psoriasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Following a review of published epidemiological evidence of the association between obesity and psoriasis, mendelian randomization (MR) was used to test for a causal relationship with BMI. We used a genetic instrument comprising 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI as a proxy for BMI (expected to be much less confounded than measured BMI). One-sample MR was conducted using individual-level data (396,495 individuals) from the UK Biobank and the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway. Two-sample MR was performed with summary-level data (356,926 individuals) from published BMI and psoriasis genome-wide association studies (GWASs). The one-sample and two-sample MR estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effect model. To test for a potential reverse causal effect, MR analysis with genetic instruments comprising variants from recent genome-wide analyses for psoriasis were used to test whether genetic risk for this skin disease has a causal effect on BMI. Published observational data showed an association of higher BMI with psoriasis. A mean difference in BMI of 1.26 kg/m2 (95% CI 1.02-1.51) between psoriasis cases and controls was observed in adults, while a 1.55 kg/m2 mean difference (95% CI 1.13-1.98) was observed in children. The observational association was confirmed in UK Biobank and HUNT data sets. Overall, a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with 4% higher odds of psoriasis (meta-analysis odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% CI 1.03-1.04; P = 1.73 × 10(-60)). MR analyses provided evidence that higher BMI causally increases the odds of psoriasis (by 9% per 1 unit increase in BMI; OR = 1.09 (1.06-1.12) per 1 kg/m2; P = 4.67 × 10(-9)). In contrast, MR estimates gave little support to a possible causal effect of psoriasis genetic risk on BMI (0.004 kg/m2 change in BMI per doubling odds of psoriasis (-0.003 to 0.011). Limitations of our study include possible misreporting of psoriasis by patients, as well as potential misdiagnosis by clinicians. In addition, there is also limited ethnic variation in the cohorts studied. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, using genetic variants as instrumental variables for BMI, provides evidence that higher BMI leads to a higher risk of psoriasis. This supports the prioritization of therapies and lifestyle interventions aimed at controlling weight for the prevention or treatment of this common skin disease. Mechanistic studies are required to improve understanding of this relationship.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Psoríase/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Psoríase/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 333, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659178

RESUMO

Large studies use genotype data to discover genetic contributions to complex traits and infer relationships between those traits. Co-incident geographical variation in genotypes and health traits can bias these analyses. Here we show that single genetic variants and genetic scores composed of multiple variants are associated with birth location within UK Biobank and that geographic structure in genotype data cannot be accounted for using routine adjustment for study centre and principal components derived from genotype data. We find that major health outcomes appear geographically structured and that coincident structure in health outcomes and genotype data can yield biased associations. Understanding and accounting for this phenomenon will be important when making inference from genotype data in large studies.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Epidemiologia , Genótipo , Herança Multifatorial , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Geografia , Humanos , Fenótipo , Gestantes , Alinhamento de Sequência , Reino Unido
12.
Front Genet ; 9: 413, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405682

RESUMO

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) is a frequent malformation of the facial region. Genetic variants (SNPs) within nineteen loci have been previously associated with NSCL/P in GWAS studies of European individuals. These common variant SNPs may have subtler effects on the morphology of the lip and face in unaffected individuals. Several studies have investigated the genetic influences on facial morphology using land-marking methods, but these landmarks are sparse in the lip region. The aim of this study is to assess for associations between the nineteen NSCL/P SNPs and normal lip phenotypes, using a detailed categorical scale. Three-dimensional laser scanned facial images were obtained of 4,747 subjects recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and genetic data was available for 3,643 of them. A polygenetic risk score (PRS) combining the nineteen NSCL/P SNPs was associated with V-shaped Cupid's bow (P = 3 × 10-4) and narrow philtrum (P = 2 × 10-4) phenotypes. Analysis of individual SNPs found strong evidence for association between rs227731 and skeletal II pattern (P = 5 × 10-6). This study finds that known NSCL/P SNPs affect lip phenotypes in the general population, and an increased PRS is associated with narrow philtrum and V-shaped Cupid's bow. However, the difference in NSCL/P PRS between people with and without certain lip features is unlikely to be great enough to serve as a useful marker of NSCL/P risk.

14.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 90, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345378

RESUMO

Puberty is a time of substantial biological and psychological changes. One of the hallmarks of puberty is a rapid growth spurt, however its timing varies between individuals. The impact of pubertal timing on later health outcomes has been of interest in life course epidemiology, however its measurement can be challenging. Age at peak height velocity (aPHV) offers an objective measure of pubertal timing without having to rely on physical examination or self-report. We describe the derivation of aPHV estimates in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) offspring, using Superimposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) mixed effects growth curve analysis. ALSPAC is a rich source of phenotypic and genotypic data and given the importance of pubertal timing for later health outcomes, these data offer an opportunity to explore the determinants and consequences of aPHV.

15.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320955

RESUMO

We aimed to report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modeling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS), and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total N = 15,934). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. Five genomewide significant (p < 5 × 10-9 , adjusted for 10 independent outcomes) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with HSM1, and three SNPs with HSM2. One SNP, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2158915 associated with HSM1, was associated with HSM5 at genomewide significance. In a look-up of previous GWASs, three of the identified SNPs were associated with hip osteoarthritis, one with hip fracture, and five with height. Seven SNPs were within 200 kb of genes involved in endochondral bone formation, namely SOX9, PTHrP, RUNX1, NKX3-2, FGFR4, DICER1, and HHIP. The SNP adjacent to DICER1 also showed osteoblast cis-regulatory activity of GSC, in which mutations have previously been reported to cause hip dysplasia. For three of the lead SNPs, SNPs in high LD (r2 > 0.5) were identified, which intersected with open chromatin sites as detected by ATAC-seq performed on embryonic mouse proximal femora. In conclusion, we identified eight SNPs independently associated with hip shape, most of which were associated with height and/or mapped close to endochondral bone formation genes, consistent with a contribution of processes involved in limb growth to hip shape and pathological sequelae. These findings raise the possibility that genetic studies of hip shape might help in understanding potential pathways involved in hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

16.
Addiction ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209858

RESUMO

AIMS: To use the rs1229984 variant associated with alcohol consumption as an instrument for alcohol consumption to test the causality of the association of alcohol consumption with hay fever, asthma, allergic sensitization and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E. DESIGN: Observational and Mendelian randomization analyses using genetic variants as unbiased markers of exposure to estimate causal effects, subject to certain assumptions. SETTING: Europe. PARTICIPANTS: We included a total of 466 434 people aged 15-82 years from 17 population-based studies conducted from 1997 to 2015. MEASUREMENTS: The rs1229984 (ADH1B) was genotyped; alcohol consumption, hay fever and asthma were self-reported. Specific and total IgE were measured from serum samples. FINDINGS: Observational analyses showed that ever-drinking versus non-drinking, but not amount of alcohol intake, was positively associated with hay fever and inversely associated with asthma but not with allergic sensitization or serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E. However, Mendelian randomization analyses did not suggest that the observational associations are causal. The causal odds ratio (OR) per genetically assessed unit of alcohol/week was an OR = 0.907 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.806, 1.019; P = 0.101] for hay fever, an OR = 0.897 (95% CI = 0.790, 1.019; P = 0.095) for asthma, an OR = 0.971 (95% CI =  0.804, 1.174; P = 0.763) for allergic sensitization and a 4.7% change (95% CI = -5.5%, 14.9%; P = 0.366) for total IgE. CONCLUSIONS: In observational analyses, ever-drinking versus not drinking was positively associated with hay fever and negatively associated with asthma. However, the Mendelian randomization results were not consistent with these associations being causal.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2976, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061609

RESUMO

Nearly 100 loci have been identified for pulmonary function, almost exclusively in studies of European ancestry populations. We extend previous research by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies of 1000 Genomes imputed variants in relation to pulmonary function in a multiethnic population of 90,715 individuals of European (N = 60,552), African (N = 8429), Asian (N = 9959), and Hispanic/Latino (N = 11,775) ethnicities. We identify over 50 additional loci at genome-wide significance in ancestry-specific or multiethnic meta-analyses. Using recent fine-mapping methods incorporating functional annotation, gene expression, and differences in linkage disequilibrium between ethnicities, we further shed light on potential causal variants and genes at known and newly identified loci. Several of the novel genes encode proteins with predicted or established drug targets, including KCNK2 and CDK12. Our study highlights the utility of multiethnic and integrative genomics approaches to extend existing knowledge of the genetics of lung function and clinical relevance of implicated loci.

18.
Bone ; 114: 62-71, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generalised high bone mass (HBM), associated with features of a mild skeletal dysplasia, has a prevalence of 0.18% in a UK DXA-scanned adult population. We hypothesized that the genetic component of extreme HBM includes contributions from common variants of small effect and rarer variants of large effect, both enriched in an extreme phenotype cohort. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adults with either extreme high or low BMD. Adults included individuals with unexplained extreme HBM (n = 240) from the UK with BMD Z-scores ≥+3.2, high BMD females from the Anglo-Australasian Osteoporosis Genetics Consortium (AOGC) (n = 1055) with Z-scores +1.5 to +4.0 and low BMD females also part of AOGC (n = 900), with Z-scores -1.5 to -4.0. Following imputation, we tested association between 6,379,332 SNPs and total hip and lumbar spine BMD Z-scores. For potential target genes, we assessed expression in human osteoblasts and murine osteocytes. RESULTS: We observed significant enrichment for associations with established BMD-associated loci, particularly those known to regulate endochondral ossification and Wnt signalling, suggesting that part of the genetic contribution to unexplained HBM is polygenic. Further, we identified associations exceeding genome-wide significance between BMD and four loci: two established BMD-associated loci (5q14.3 containing MEF2C and 1p36.12 containing WNT4) and two novel loci: 5p13.3 containing NPR3 (rs9292469; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.33%) associated with lumbar spine BMD and 11p15.2 containing SPON1 (rs2697825; MAF = 0.17%) associated with total hip BMD. Mouse models with mutations in either Npr3 or Spon1 have been reported, both have altered skeletal phenotypes, providing in vivo validation that these genes are physiologically important in bone. NRP3 regulates endochondral ossification and skeletal growth, whilst SPON1 modulates TGF-ß regulated BMP-driven osteoblast differentiation. Rs9292469 (downstream of NPR3) also showed some evidence for association with forearm BMD in the independent GEFOS sample (n = 32,965). We found Spon1 was highly expressed in murine osteocytes from the tibiae, femora, humeri and calvaria, whereas Npr3 expression was more variable. CONCLUSION: We report the most extreme-truncate GWAS of BMD performed to date. Our findings, suggest potentially new anabolic bone regulatory pathways that warrant further study.

19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(12): 1984-1993, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between known osteoarthritis (OA) susceptibility loci and hip shape in a population-based cohort of perimenopausal women in order to investigate whether hip shape contributes to OA development. METHODS: Hip shape was measured, using statistical shape modeling, on dual x-ray absorptiometry scans of the hip from mothers in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The proximal femur and superior acetabulum were outlined, and independent hip shape modes were generated. In a subregional model, points were restricted to the acetabulum and superior femoral head. Associations between 11 OA-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms, identified by literature search, and shape modes were analyzed in a multivariate canonical correlation analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,111 women (mean age 48 years) had genetic and hip shape data. The KLHDC5/PTHLH rs10492367 OA risk allele was associated with a wider upper femur in the whole shape model (P = 1 × 10-5 ). The DOT1L rs12982744 OA risk allele was associated with reduced superior joint space in the subregional shape model (P = 2 × 10-3 ). The COL11A1 rs4907986 OA risk allele was associated with lateral displacement of the femoral head relative to the acetabulum in the subregional shape model (P = 5 × 10-4 ). Regional association plots identified an additional COL11A1 locus in moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs4907986, which was more strongly associated with hip shape (rs10047217; P = 3 × 10-6 ). Colocalization analysis indicated sharing of genetic signals for hip shape and hip OA for the KLHDC5/PTHLH and COL11A1 loci. CONCLUSION: Hip OA susceptibility loci were associated with shape in this study, suggesting that these loci (and potentially yet-to-be-identified hip OA loci) could contribute to hip OA in later life via perturbing biologic pathways that mediate morphology development.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 99 loci that contain genetic risk variants shared between asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Many more risk loci shared between these common allergic diseases remain to be discovered, which could point to new therapeutic opportunities. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify novel risk loci shared between asthma, hay fever, and eczema by applying a gene-based test of association to results from a published GWAS that included data from 360,838 subjects. METHODS: We used approximate conditional analysis to adjust the results from the published GWAS for the effects of the top risk variants identified in that study. We then analyzed the adjusted GWAS results with the EUGENE gene-based approach, which combines evidence for association with disease risk across regulatory variants identified in different tissues. Novel gene-based associations were followed up in an independent sample of 233,898 subjects from the UK Biobank study. RESULTS: Of the 19,432 genes tested, 30 had a significant gene-based association at a Bonferroni-corrected P value of 2.5 × 10-6. Of these, 20 were also significantly associated (P < .05/30 = .0016) with disease risk in the replication sample, including 19 that were located in 11 loci not reported to contain allergy risk variants in previous GWASs. Among these were 9 genes with a known function that is directly relevant to allergic disease: FOSL2, VPRBP, IPCEF1, PRR5L, NCF4, APOBR, IL27, ATXN2L, and LAT. For 4 genes (eg, ATXN2L), a genetically determined decrease in gene expression was associated with decreased allergy risk, and therefore drugs that inhibit gene expression or function are predicted to ameliorate disease symptoms. The opposite directional effect was observed for 14 genes, including IL27, a cytokine known to suppress TH2 responses. CONCLUSION: Using a gene-based approach, we identified 11 risk loci for allergic disease that were not reported in previous GWASs. Functional studies that investigate the contribution of the 19 associated genes to the pathophysiology of allergic disease and assess their therapeutic potential are warranted.

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