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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of genetic factors in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unknown. We therefore examined whether previously identified genetic factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) are associated with the risk of CVD above and beyond established demographic and clinical factors in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) and individual genetic variants identified in previous studies were obtained from genome-wide genotyping performed in 1,371 DCCT/EDIC participants. Two composite CVD outcomes were considered: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (CVD death or nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke) and any CVD (MACE plus confirmed angina, silent MI, revascularization, or congestive heart failure). Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between the genetic factors and the risk of CVD with adjustment for other factors (including age, lipids, blood pressure, and glycemia). RESULTS: CAD PRS was strongly associated with the subsequent risk of any CVD (42% and 38% higher risk per 1-SD increase in unadjusted and fully adjusted models, respectively; P < 0.0001) and with the risk of MACE (50% and 40% higher risk per 1-SD increase in unadjusted and fully adjusted models, respectively; P < 0.0001). Several individual single nucleotide polymorphisms were also nominally associated with the risk of any CVD and MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic factors are associated with the risk of subsequent CVD in individuals with T1D above and beyond the effect of established risk factors such as age, lipids, blood pressure, and glycemia.

2.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731350

RESUMO

The role of the nuclear genome in maintaining the stability of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is incompletely known. mtDNA sequence variants can exist in a state of heteroplasmy, which denotes the coexistence of organellar genomes with different sequences. Heteroplasmic variants that impair mitochondrial capacity cause disease, and the state of heteroplasmy itself is deleterious. However, mitochondrial heteroplasmy may provide an intermediate state in the emergence of novel mitochondrial haplogroups. We used genome-wide genotyping data from 982,072 European ancestry individuals to evaluate variation in mitochondrial heteroplasmy and to identify the regions of the nuclear genome that affect it. Age, sex, and mitochondrial haplogroup were associated with the extent of heteroplasmy. GWAS identified 20 loci for heteroplasmy that exceeded genome-wide significance. This included a region overlapping mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), which has multiple roles in mtDNA packaging, replication, and transcription. These results show that mitochondrial heteroplasmy has a heritable nuclear component.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 131(3)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529168

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDWe investigated residual ß cell function in Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study participants with an average 35-year duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).METHODSSerum C-peptide was measured during a 4-hour mixed-meal tolerance test. Associations with metabolic outcomes and complications were explored among nonresponders (all C-peptide values after meal <0.003 nmol/L) and 3 categories of responders, classified by peak C-peptide concentration (nmol/L) as high (>0.2), intermediate (>0.03 to ≤0.2), and low (≥ 0.003 to ≤0.03).RESULTSOf the 944 participants, 117 (12.4%) were classified as responders. Residual C-peptide concentrations were associated with higher DCCT baseline concentrations of stimulated C-peptide (P value for trend = 0.0001). Residual C-peptide secretion was not associated with current or mean HbA1c, HLA high-risk haplotypes for T1DM, or the current presence of T1DM autoantibodies. The proportion of subjects with a history of severe hypoglycemia was lower with high (27%) and intermediate (48%) residual C-peptide concentrations than with low (74%) and no (70%) residual C-peptide concentrations (P value for trend = 0.0001). Responders and nonresponders demonstrated similar rates of advanced microvascular complications.CONCLUSIONß Cell function can persist in long-duration T1DM. With a peak C-peptide concentration of >0.03 nmol/L, we observed clinically meaningful reductions in the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT00360815 and NCT00360893.FUNDINGDivision of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (DP3-DK104438, U01 DK094176, and U01 DK094157).

4.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(3): 374-383, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is highly variable. On average, protein-truncating PKD1 mutations are associated with the most severe kidney disease among all mutation classes. Here, we report that patients with protein-truncating PKD1 mutations may also have mild kidney disease, a finding not previously well recognized. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: From the extended Toronto Genetic Epidemiologic Study of Polycystic Kidney Disease, 487 patients had PKD1 and PKD2 sequencing and typical ADPKD imaging patterns by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Mayo Clinic Imaging Classification on the basis of age- and height-adjusted total kidney volume was used to assess their cystic disease severity; classes 1A or 1B were used as a proxy to define mild disease. Multivariable linear regression was performed to test the effects of age, sex, and mutation classes on log-transformed height-adjusted total kidney volume and eGFR. RESULTS: Among 174 study patients with typical imaging patterns and protein-truncating PKD1 mutations, 32 (18%) were found to have mild disease on the basis of imaging results (i.e., Mayo Clinic Imaging class 1A-1B), with their mutations spanning the entire gene. By multivariable analyses of age, sex, and mutation class, they displayed mild disease similar to patients with PKD2 mutations and Mayo Clinic Imaging class 1A-1B. Most of these mildly affected patients with protein-truncating PKD1 mutations reported a positive family history of ADPKD in preceding generations and displayed significant intrafamilial disease variability. CONCLUSIONS: Despite having the most severe mutation class, 18% of patients with protein-truncating PKD1 mutations had mild disease on the basis of clinical and imaging assessment. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2021_02_18_CJN11100720_final.mp3.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 44(5): 1125-1132, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with diabetes have higher resting heart rate compared with those without, which may be predictive of long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study, we evaluated whether the beneficial effect of intensive versus conventional diabetes therapy on heart rate persisted, the factors mediating the differences in heart rate between treatment groups, and the effects of heart rate on future CVD risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Longitudinal changes in heart rate, from annual electrocardiograms over 22 years of EDIC follow-up, were evaluated in 1,402 participants with type 1 diabetes. Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of DCCT treatment group on mean heart rate over time, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of heart rate on CVD risk during DCCT/EDIC. RESULTS: At DCCT closeout, 52% of participants were male and mean ± SD age was 33 ± 7 years, diabetes duration 12 ± 5 years, and HbA1c 7.4 ± 1.2% (intensive) and 9.1 ± 1.6% (conventional). Through EDIC, participants in the intensive group had significantly lower heart rate in comparison with the conventional group. While significant group differences in heart rate were fully attenuated by DCCT/EDIC mean HbA1c, higher heart rate predicted CVD and major adverse cardiovascular events independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: After 22 years of follow-up, former intensive versus conventional therapy remained significantly associated with lower heart rate, consistent with the long-term beneficial effects of intensive therapy on CVD. DCCT treatment group effects on heart rate were explained by differences in DCCT/EDIC mean HbA1c.

6.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635378

RESUMO

Specific variants in genes that encode the α3α4α5 chains of type IV collagen cause Alport syndrome (AS), which encompass a clinical spectrum from isolated hematuria to multisystem disease affecting sight, hearing and kidney function. The commonest form is X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS; COL4A5) with autosomal AS (COL4A3 and COL4A4) comprising a minority of cases. While historic data estimates the frequency of AS at 1:5000-10,000, recent population-based genetic studies suggest the prevalence is considerably higher. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in the Icelandic (deCODE) and UK (UK Biobank) populations, demonstrating an association of type IV collagen gene variants with AS relevant kidney traits. In the Icelandic population, 1 in 600 carries a 2.5-kb COL4A3 coding deletion or a COL4A3 missense variant (rs200287952[A], Gly695Arg), both of which are strongly associated with hematuria and albuminuria (P values = 1.9 × 10-5 to 2.5 × 10-20). In the UK Biobank, COL4A4 rs35138315 (Ser969X; carrier frequency 0.13%) is strongly associated with both hematuria and albuminuria (P = 1.5 × 10-73). Thus, the frequency for autosomal AS is 5-16 times higher than the historic prevalence of all forms of the disorder. Furthermore, COL4A4 rs3518315 (Ser969X) is also a reported founder mutation in families with autosomal dominant focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and autosomal recessive forms of AS. This supports an additive mode of inheritance for specific variants, wherein a number of copies of a mutation influence disease severity in a cumulative fashion. These studies did not include the X chromosome, excluding analysis of COL4A5, which represents an area for future study.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 91, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531474

RESUMO

Using a novel trait-based measure, we examined genetic variants associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) traits and tested whether OC traits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) shared genetic risk. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of OC traits using the Toronto Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (TOCS) in 5018 unrelated Caucasian children and adolescents from the community (Spit for Science sample). We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants associated with OC traits from the community would be associated with clinical OCD using a meta-analysis of all currently available OCD cases. Shared genetic risk was examined between OC traits and OCD in the respective samples using polygenic risk score and genetic correlation analyses. A locus tagged by rs7856850 in an intron of PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase δ) was significantly associated with OC traits at the genome-wide significance level (p = 2.48 × 10-8). rs7856850 was also associated with OCD in a meta-analysis of OCD case/control genome-wide datasets (p = 0.0069). The direction of effect was the same as in the community sample. Polygenic risk scores from OC traits were significantly associated with OCD in case/control datasets and vice versa (p's < 0.01). OC traits were highly, but not significantly, genetically correlated with OCD (rg = 0.71, p = 0.062). We report the first validated genome-wide significant variant for OC traits in PTPRD, downstream of the most significant locus in a previous OCD GWAS. OC traits measured in the community sample shared genetic risk with OCD case/control status. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and power of using trait-based approaches in community samples for genetic discovery.

8.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 14, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a non-invasive marker of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). Recently, we demonstrated in the general population that elevated SAF levels predict the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We evaluated whether elevated SAF may predict the development of CVD and mortality in individuals with T2D. METHODS: We included 2349 people with T2D, available baseline SAF measurements (measured with the AGE reader) and follow-up data from the Lifelines Cohort Study. Of them, 2071 had no clinical CVD at baseline. 60% were already diagnosed with diabetes (median duration 5, IQR 2-9 years), while 40% were detected during the baseline examination by elevated fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l) and/or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) age was 57 ± 12 yrs., BMI 30.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2. 11% of participants with known T2D were treated with diet, the others used oral glucose-lowering medication, with or without insulin; 6% was using insulin alone. Participants with known T2D had higher SAF than those with newly-detected T2D (SAF Z-score 0.56 ± 0.99 vs 0.34 ± 0.89 AU, p < 0.001), which reflects a longer duration of hyperglycaemia in the former group. Participants with existing CVD and T2D had the highest SAF Z-score: 0.78 ± 1.25 AU. During a median follow-up of 3.7 yrs., 195 (7.6%) developed an atherosclerotic CVD event, while 137 (5.4%) died. SAF was strongly associated with the combined outcome of a new CVD event or mortality (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.10-3.20, p < 0.001), as well as incidence of CVD (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.61-2.61, p < 0.001) and death (OR 2.98, 2.25-3.94, p < 0.001) as a single outcome. In multivariable analysis for the combined endpoint, SAF retained its significance when sex, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol, eGFR, as well as antihypertensive and statin medication were included. In a similar multivariable model, SAF was independently associated with mortality as a single outcome, but not with incident CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Measuring SAF can assist in prediction of incident cardiovascular disease and mortality in individuals with T2D. SAF showed a stronger association with future CVD events and mortality than cholesterol or blood pressure levels.

9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283425

RESUMO

Weight loss attenuates many obesity related comorbidities, but is difficult to sustain with dietary change. Dietary adherence, not macronutrient composition, is a better predictor of weight loss. Weight loss induced endocrine changes promote food intake and increase energy efficiency contributing to the difficulty with dietary adherence and weight regain. Macronutrient preference is partly genetically determined, suggesting personalized dietary interventions might be more successful. In this issue, Li et al report that a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising the cumulative weighted effects of variants previously associated with increased lean mass associate with increased satiety and weight loss 6 months after initiating a low but not high fat diet. The effects were attenuated by 2-years. These findings suggest that genetic variants may influence response to specific diet. Further studies are now needed to assess whether genetically determined lean mass is causally associated with dietary response. Significant strides have recently been made in identifying additional genetic determinants of lean mass, which will enable such investigation and potentially inform future nutritional studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257509

RESUMO

Strabismus is a common condition, affecting 1%-4% of individuals. Isolated strabismus has been studied in families with Mendelian inheritance patterns. Despite the identification of multiple loci via linkage analyses, no specific genes have been identified from these studies. The current study is based on a seven-generation family with isolated strabismus inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. A total of 13 individuals from a common ancestor have been included for linkage analysis. Among these, nine are affected and four are unaffected. A single linkage signal has been identified at an 8.5 Mb region of chromosome 14q12 with a multipoint LOD (logarithm of the odds) score of 4.69. Disruption of this locus is known to cause FOXG1 syndrome (or congenital Rett syndrome; OMIM #613454 and *164874), in which 84% of affected individuals present with strabismus. With the incorporation of next-generation sequencing and in-depth bioinformatic analyses, a 4 bp non-coding deletion was prioritised as the top candidate for the observed strabismus phenotype. The deletion is predicted to disrupt regulation of FOXG1, which encodes a transcription factor of the Forkhead family. Suggestive of an autoregulation effect, the disrupted sequence matches the consensus FOXG1 and Forkhead family transcription factor binding site and has been observed in previous ChIP-seq studies to be bound by Foxg1 in early mouse brain development. Future study of this specific deletion may shed light on the regulation of FOXG1 expression and may enhance our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to strabismus and FOXG1 syndrome.

11.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 115, 2020 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371892

RESUMO

The identification of genetic variation that directly impacts infection susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and disease severity of COVID-19 is an important step towards risk stratification, personalized treatment plans, therapeutic, and vaccine development and deployment. Given the importance of study design in infectious disease genetic epidemiology, we use simulation and draw on current estimates of exposure, infectivity, and test accuracy of COVID-19 to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting host genetic factors associated with susceptibility and severity in published COVID-19 study designs. We demonstrate that limited phenotypic data and exposure/infection information in the early stages of the pandemic significantly impact the ability to detect most genetic variants with moderate effect sizes, especially when studying susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our insights can aid in the interpretation of genetic findings emerging in the literature and guide the design of future host genetic studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genômica/métodos , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genética , Teste para COVID-19 , Simulação por Computador , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Expossoma , Reações Falso-Negativas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 204, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses have identified many variants associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development. Among these variants, the ones located within the NOD2 gene have the highest odds ratio of all IBD genetic risk variants. Also, patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have been shown to have an altered gut microbiome, which might be a reflection of inflammation itself or an effect of other parameters that contribute to the risk of the disease. Since NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that senses bacterial peptidoglycan in the cytosol and stimulates the host immune response (Al Nabhani et al., PLoS Pathog 13:e1006177, 2017), it is hypothesized that NOD2 variants represent perfect candidates for influencing host-microbiome interactions. We hypothesized that NOD2 risk variants affect the microbiome composition of healthy first degree relative (FDR) of CD patients and thus potentially contribute to an altered microbiome state before disease onset. METHODS: Based on this, we studied a large cohort of 1546 healthy FDR of CD patients and performed a focused analysis of the association of three major CD SNPs in the coding region of the NOD2 gene, which are known to confer a 15-40-fold increased risk of developing CD in homozygous or compound heterozygous individuals. RESULTS: Our results show that carriers of the C allele at rs2066845 was significantly associated with an increase in relative abundance in the fecal bacterial family Erysipelotrichaceae. CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that NOD2 polymorphisms contribute to fecal microbiome composition in asymptomatic individuals. Whether this modulation of the microbiome influences the future development of CD remains to be assessed.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Firmicutes/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Família , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936915

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level is used to screen and diagnose diabetes. Genetic determinants of HbA1c can vary across populations and many of the genetic variants influencing HbA1c level were specific to populations. OBJECTIVE: To discover genetic variants associated with HbA1c level in nondiabetic Malay individuals. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis for HbA1c using 2 Malay studies, the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES, N = 1721 on GWAS array) and the Living Biobank study (N = 983 on GWAS array and whole-exome sequenced). We built a Malay-specific reference panel to impute ethnic-specific variants and validate the associations with HbA1c at ethnic-specific variants. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the 1000 Genomes imputed array data identified 4 loci at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8). Of the 4 loci, 3 (ADAM15, LINC02226, JUP) were novel for HbA1c associations. At the previously reported HbA1c locus ATXN7L3-G6PC3, association analysis using the exome data fine-mapped the HbA1c associations to a 27-bp deletion (rs769664228) at SLC4A1 that reduced HbA1c by 0.38 ±â€…0.06% (P = 3.5 × 10-10). Further imputation of this variant in SiMES confirmed the association with HbA1c at SLC4A1. We also showed that these genetic variants influence HbA1c level independent of glucose level. CONCLUSION: We identified a deletion at SLC4A1 associated with HbA1c in Malay. The nonglycemic lowering of HbA1c at rs769664228 might cause individuals carrying this variant to be underdiagnosed for diabetes or prediabetes when HbA1c is used as the only diagnostic test for diabetes.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 159(6): 2092-2100.e5, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Increased intestinal permeability has been associated with Crohn's disease (CD), but it is not clear whether it is a cause or result of the disease. We performed a prospective study to determine whether increased intestinal permeability is associated with future development of CD. METHODS: We assessed the intestinal permeability, measured by the urinary fractional excretion of lactulose-to-mannitol ratio (LMR) at recruitment in 1420 asymptomatic first-degree relatives (6-35 years old) of patients with CD (collected from 2008 through 2015). Participants were then followed up for a diagnosis of CD from 2008 to 2017, with a median follow-up time of 7.8 years. We analyzed data from 50 participants who developed CD after a median of 2.7 years during the study period, along with 1370 individuals who remained asymptomatic until October 2017. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate time-related risk of CD based on the baseline LMR. RESULTS: An abnormal LMR (>0.03) was associated with a diagnosis of CD during the follow-up period (hazard ratio, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.64-5.63; P = 3.97 × 10-4). This association remained significant even when the test was performed more than 3 years before the diagnosis of CD (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.051-2.50; P = .029). CONCLUSIONS: Increased intestinal permeability is associated with later development of CD; these findings support a model in which altered intestinal barrier function contributes to pathogenesis. Abnormal gut barrier function might serve as a biomarker for risk of CD onset.

15.
Blood ; 136(23): 2679-2690, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663239

RESUMO

Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) is an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder with a unique, platelet-dependent, gain-of-function defect in fibrinolysis, without systemic fibrinolysis. The hallmark feature of QPD is a >100-fold overexpression of PLAU, specifically in megakaryocytes. This overexpression leads to a >100-fold increase in platelet stores of urokinase plasminogen activator (PLAU/uPA); subsequent plasmin-mediated degradation of diverse α-granule proteins; and platelet-dependent, accelerated fibrinolysis. The causative mutation is a 78-kb tandem duplication of PLAU. How this duplication causes megakaryocyte-specific PLAU overexpression is unknown. To investigate the mechanism that causes QPD, we used epigenomic profiling, comparative genomics, and chromatin conformation capture approaches to study PLAU regulation in cultured megakaryocytes from participants with QPD and unaffected controls. QPD duplication led to ectopic interactions between PLAU and a conserved megakaryocyte enhancer found within the same topologically associating domain (TAD). Our results support a unique disease mechanism whereby the reorganization of sub-TAD genome architecture results in a dramatic, cell-type-specific blood disorder phenotype.

16.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(5): 799-806, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685888

RESUMO

Background: The bleeding risks for nonsyndromic platelet function disorders (PFDs) that impair aggregation responses and/or cause dense granule deficiency (DGD) are uncertain. Objectives: Our goal was to quantify bleeding risks for a cohort of consecutive cases with uncharacterized PFD. Methods: Sequential cases with uncharacterized PFDs that had reduced maximal aggregation (MA) with multiple agonists and/or nonsyndromic DGD were invited to participate along with additional family members to reduce bias. Index cases were further evaluated by exome sequencing, with analysis of RUNX1-dependent genes for cases with RUNX1 sequence variants. Bleeding assessment tools were used to estimate bleeding scores, with bleeding risks estimated as odds ratios (ORs) relative to general population controls. Relationships between symptoms and laboratory findings were also explored. Results: Participants with uncharacterized PFD (n = 37; 23 index cases) had impaired aggregation function (70%), nonsyndromic DGD (19%) or both (11%), unlike unaffected relatives. Probable pathogenic RUNX1 variants were found in 2 (9%) index cases/families, whereas others had PFD of unknown cause. Participants with PFD had increased bleeding scores compared to unaffected family members and general population controls, and increased risks for mucocutaneous (OR, 4-207) and challenge-related bleeding (OR, 12-43), and for receiving transfusions for bleeding (OR, 100). Reduced MA with collagen was associated with wound healing problems and bruising, and more severe DGD was associated with surgical bleeding (P < .04). Conclusions: PFDs that impair MA and/or cause nonsyndromic DGD have significantly increased bleeding risks, and some symptoms are more common in those with more severe DGD or impaired collagen aggregation.

17.
Nat Metab ; 2(8): 744-762, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694834

RESUMO

Metabolic memory, the persistent benefits of early glycaemic control on preventing and/or delaying the development of diabetic complications, has been observed in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) follow-up study, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show the involvement of epigenetic DNA methylation (DNAme) in metabolic memory by examining its associations with preceding glycaemic history, and with subsequent development of complications over an 18-yr period in the blood DNA of 499 randomly selected DCCT participants with type 1 diabetes who are also followed up in EDIC. We demonstrate the associations between DNAme near the closeout of DCCT and mean HbA1c during DCCT (mean-DCCT HbA1c) at 186 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) (FDR < 15%, including 43 at FDR < 5%), many of which were located in genes related to complications. Exploration studies into biological function reveal that these CpGs are enriched in binding sites for the C/EBP transcription factor, as well as enhancer/transcription regions in blood cells and haematopoietic stem cells, and open chromatin states in myeloid cells. Mediation analyses show that, remarkably, several CpGs in combination explain 68-97% of the association of mean-DCCT HbA1c with the risk of complications during EDIC. In summary, DNAme at key CpGs appears to mediate the association between hyperglycaemia and complications in metabolic memory, through modifying enhancer activity at myeloid and other cells.

18.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(5): 268-276, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372567

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a relatively common childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic etiology. While progress has been made in identifying the de novo mutational landscape of ASD, the genetic factors that underpin the ASD's tendency to run in families are not well understood. In this study, nine extended pedigrees each with three or more individuals with ASD, and others with a lesser autism phenotype, were phenotyped and genotyped in an attempt to identify heritable copy number variants (CNVs). Although these families have previously generated linkage signals, no rare CNV segregated with these signals in any family. A small number of clinically relevant CNVs were identified. Only one CNV was identified that segregated with ASD phenotype; namely, a duplication overlapping DLGAP2 in three male offspring each with an ASD diagnosis. This gene encodes a synaptic scaffolding protein, part of a group of proteins known to be pathologically implicated in ASD. On the whole, however, the heritable nature of ASD in the families studied remains poorly understood.

19.
Bioinformatics ; 36(17): 4544-4550, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449747

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Research supports the potential use of microbiome as a predictor of some diseases. Motivated by the findings that microbiome data is complex in nature, and there is an inherent correlation due to hierarchical taxonomy of microbial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), we propose a novel machine learning method incorporating a stratified approach to group OTUs into phylum clusters. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) were used to train within each of the clusters individually. Further, through an ensemble learning approach, features obtained from each cluster were then concatenated to improve prediction accuracy. Our two-step approach comprising stratification prior to combining multiple CNNs, aided in capturing the relationships between OTUs sharing a phylum efficiently, as compared to using a single CNN ignoring OTU correlations. RESULTS: We used simulated datasets containing 168 OTUs in 200 cases and 200 controls for model testing. Thirty-two OTUs, potentially associated with risk of disease were randomly selected and interactions between three OTUs were used to introduce non-linearity. We also implemented this novel method in two human microbiome studies: (i) Cirrhosis with 118 cases, 114 controls; (ii) type 2 diabetes (T2D) with 170 cases, 174 controls; to demonstrate the model's effectiveness. Extensive experimentation and comparison against conventional machine learning techniques yielded encouraging results. We obtained mean AUC values of 0.88, 0.92, 0.75, showing a consistent increment (5%, 3%, 7%) in simulations, Cirrhosis and T2D data, respectively, against the next best performing method, Random Forest. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://github.com/divya031090/TaxoNN_OTU. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

20.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 52, 2020 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many CpGs become hyper or hypo-methylated with age. Multiple methods have been developed by Horvath et al. to estimate DNA methylation (DNAm) age including Pan-tissue, Skin & Blood, PhenoAge, and GrimAge. Pan-tissue and Skin & Blood try to estimate chronological age in the normal population whereas PhenoAge and GrimAge use surrogate markers associated with mortality to estimate biological age and its departure from chronological age. Here, we applied Horvath's four methods to calculate and compare DNAm age in 499 subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study using DNAm data measured by Illumina EPIC array in the whole blood. Association of the four DNAm ages with development of diabetic complications including cardiovascular diseases (CVD), nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, and their risk factors were investigated. RESULTS: Pan-tissue and GrimAge were higher whereas Skin & Blood and PhenoAge were lower than chronological age (p < 0.0001). DNAm age was not associated with the risk of CVD or retinopathy over 18-20 years after DNAm measurement. However, higher PhenoAge (ß = 0.023, p = 0.007) and GrimAge (ß = 0.029, p = 0.002) were associated with higher albumin excretion rate (AER), an indicator of diabetic renal disease, measured over time. GrimAge was also associated with development of both diabetic peripheral neuropathy (OR = 1.07, p = 9.24E-3) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (OR = 1.06, p = 0.011). Both HbA1c (ß = 0.38, p = 0.026) and T1D duration (ß = 0.01, p = 0.043) were associated with higher PhenoAge. Employment (ß = - 1.99, p = 0.045) and leisure time (ß = - 0.81, p = 0.022) physical activity were associated with lower Pan-tissue and Skin & Blood, respectively. BMI (ß = 0.09, p = 0.048) and current smoking (ß = 7.13, p = 9.03E-50) were positively associated with Skin & Blood and GrimAge, respectively. Blood pressure, lipid levels, pulse rate, and alcohol consumption were not associated with DNAm age regardless of the method used. CONCLUSIONS: Various methods of measuring DNAm age are sub-optimal in detecting people at higher risk of developing diabetic complications although some work better than the others.

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