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2.
J Microbiol Methods ; 164: 105685, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400360

RESUMO

In our current study we were identifying 26 bacterial isolates using a SCIEX 5800 TOF/TOF MALDI instrument and an external database. The results were compared with the results of a Vitek® MS system and in case of discrepancies at the species level 16s rRNA sequencing was performed for further verification.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383670

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) can be mechanistically classified into carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and non-carbapenemase-producing carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (NCPCRE). We sought to investigate the effect of antecedent carbapenem exposure as a risk factor for NCPCRE versus CPE. Among all patients with CNSE colonization and infection, we conducted a case-control study comparing patients with NCPCRE (cases) and patients with CPE (controls). Presence of carbapenemases was investigated with phenotypic tests followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for predominant carbapenemase genes. We included 843 unique patients with first-episode CRE: 387 (45.9%) NCPCRE and 456 (54.1%) CPE. CPEs were mostly bla NDM (42.8%), bla KPC (38.4%), and bla OXA-48-like (12.1%). After adjusting for confounders and clustering at the institutional level, the odds of prior 30-day carbapenem exposure was three times higher among NCPCRE compared to CPE patients [lsqb]adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 3.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.19-4.55; P<0.001]. ). Odds of prior carbapenem exposure and NCPCRE detection persisted in stratified analyses by Enterobacteriaceae species (K. pneumoniae and E. coli) and carbapenemase gene (bla NDM and bla KPC). CPE was associated with male gender (aOR, 1.45; 95%CI, 1.07-1.97; P=0.02), intensive care unit stay (aOR, 1.84; 95%CI, 1.24-2.74; P=0.003), and hospitalization in the preceding 1 year (aOR, 1.42; 95%CI, 1.01-2.02; P=0.05). In a large nationwide study, antecedent carbapenem exposure was a significant risk factor for NCPCRE versus CPE, suggesting a differential effect of antibiotic selection pressure.

4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1145: 9-13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364068

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance has presented a major health challenge in the world and many isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa become resistant to almost all current antibiotics. This chapter provides an overview on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in these Gram-negative pathogens and outlines the formidable problem of the genetics of bacterial resistance. Prevalent multidrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria underscores the need for optimizing the clinical use of the last-line polymyxins.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) remain a significant patient safety issue, with point prevalence estimates being approximately 5% in high-income countries. In 2016 - 17, the Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) trial implemented an environmental cleaning bundle targeting communication, staff training, improved cleaning technique, product use and audit of frequent touch point cleaning. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the environmental cleaning bundle for reducing the incidence of HAIs. METHODS: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial was conducted in eleven hospitals recruited from six Australian states and territories. Bundle effectiveness was measured by the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB), Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections prevented in the intervention phase, based on estimated reductions in the relative risk of infection. Changes to costs were defined as the cost of implementing the bundle minus cost savings from fewer infections. Health benefits gained from fewer infections were measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Cost-effectiveness was evaluated using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and net monetary benefit of adopting the cleaning bundle over existing hospital cleaning practices. RESULTS: Implementing the cleaning bundle cost AUD$349,000 and generated $147,500 in cost savings. Infections prevented under the cleaning bundle returned a net monetary benefit of AUD$1.02 million and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $4,684 per QALY gained. There was an 86% chance that the bundle was cost-effective compared with existing hospital cleaning practices. CONCLUSIONS: A bundled, evidence-based approach to improving hospital cleaning is a cost-effective intervention for reducing the incidence of HAIs.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 571, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) have emerged as antibiotic-resistant bacteria of global concern. Here we assessed the performance of the Carba (beta) assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay developed by SpeeDx for the detection of key carbapenemase-encoding genes: KPC, NDM, OXA-48-like, IMP-4-like, and VIM. METHODS: DNA extracts of 180 isolates were tested with the Carba (beta) assay, using previously validated in-house TaqMan probe assays for the relevant carbapenemase genes as the reference standard. The Carba (beta) assay was then directly used to screen 460 DNA extracts of faecal specimens, with positive results subjected to the aforementioned in-house assays plus Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The Carba (beta) assay correctly identified the presence of the respective carbapenemase genes in 154 of 156 isolates and provided negative results for all 24 non-CPO isolates. Two isolates provided positive results for OXA-48-like carbapenemase by the Carba (beta) assay only. The Carba (beta) assay had sensitivities of 100% for all targets, and specificities of 100% for KPC, NDM, IMP-4-like, and VIM targets, and 98.5% for OXA-48-like targets. When applied directly to faecal specimens, eight samples were positive by the Carba (beta) assay, two of which were confirmed by in-house TaqMan probe PCR or DNA sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: The Carba (beta) assay is highly sensitive and specific for detecting key carbapenemase genes in isolates. Further testing is required to assess this assay's suitability for direct screening of clinical specimens.

7.
Am J Infect Control ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) break the skin barrier, and preinsertion antiseptic disinfection and sterile dressings are used to reduce risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). In this study, the impact of PIVC skin site colonization on tip colonization and the development of CRBSI was investigated. METHODS: A total of 137 patients' PIVC skin site swabs and paired PIVC tips were collected at catheter removal, cultured, and bacterial species and clonality were identified. RESULTS: Of 137 patients, 45 (33%) had colonized skin sites and/or PIVC tips. Of 16 patients with paired colonization of both the skin site and PIVC tips, 11 (69%) were colonized with the same bacterial species. Of these, 77% were clonally related, including 1 identical clone of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with systemic infection and the same organism identified in blood culture. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that opportunistic pathogen colonization at the skin site poses a significant risk for PIVC colonization and CRBSI. Further research is needed to improve current preinsertion antiseptic disinfection of PIVC skin site and the sterile insertion procedure to potentially reduce PIVC colonization and infection risk.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal antibiotic regimen for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia is controversial. Though beta-lactam monotherapy is common, data to guide the choice between antibiotics are scarce. We aimed to compare ceftazidime, carbapenems, and piperacillin-tazobactam as definitive monotherapy. METHODS: A multinational retrospective study (9 countries, 25 centers), including hospitalized patients with P . aeruginosa bacteremia treated with beta-lactam monotherapy during 2009-2015. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses, including propensity adjusted analysis, were conducted introducing monotherapy type as an independent variable. RESULTS: We included 767 patients. Thirty-day mortality was 37/213 (17.4%) in the ceftazidime group; 42/210 (20%) in the carbapenem group, and 55/344 (16%) in the piperacillin-tazobactam group. Type of monotherapy was not significantly associated with mortality in either univariate, multivariate or propensity adjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-2.46 for ceftazidime, OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.67-2.51 for piperacillin-tazobactam with carbapenems as reference in propensity adjusted multivariate analysis, 542 patients). No significant difference between antibiotics was demonstrated for clinical failure, microbiological failure, or adverse events. Isolation of P. aeruginosa with new resistance to antipseudomonal drugs was significantly more frequently with carbapenems (36/206, 17.5% versus ceftazidime 25/201, 12.4% and piperacillin-tazobactam 28/332, 8.4%, p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference in mortality, clinical, and microbiological outcomes or adverse events was demonstrated between ceftazidime, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam as definitive treatment of P. aeruginosa bacteremia. Higher rates of resistant P. aeruginosa after patients were treated with carbapenems, along with the general preference for carbapenem-sparing regimens, suggests using ceftazidime or piperacillin-tazobactam for treating susceptible infection.

10.
Crit Care Resusc ; 21(1): 63-68, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: ß-Lactam antibiotics display a time-dependent mechanism of action, with evidence suggesting improved outcomes when administering these drugs via continuous infusion compared with standard intermittent infusion. However, there is no phase 3 randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence to support one method of administration over another in critically ill patients with sepsis. DESIGN AND SETTING: The ß-Lactam Infusion Group (BLING) III study is a prospective, multicentre, open, phase 3 RCT to compare continuous infusion with standard intermittent infusion of ß-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients with sepsis. The study will be conducted in about 70 intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Belgium and selected other countries, from 2018 to 2021. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: BLING III will recruit 7000 critically ill patients with sepsis being treated with one of two ß-lactam antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam or meropenem) to receive the ß-lactam antibiotic by either continuous or intermittent infusion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome is allcause mortality within 90 days after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are clinical cure at Day 14 after randomisation, new acquisition, colonisation or infection with a multiresistant organism or Clostridium difficile diarrhoea up to 14 days after randomisation, all-cause ICU mortality and all-cause hospital mortality. Tertiary outcomes are ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of renal replacement therapy up to 90 days after randomisation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The BLING III study will compare the effect on 90-day mortality of ß-lactam antibiotics administered via continuous versus intermittent infusion in 7000 critically ill patients with sepsis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03213990).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Estado Terminal/terapia , Meropeném/administração & dosagem , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/administração & dosagem , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Lactamas/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Meropeném/uso terapêutico , Nova Zelândia , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico
11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(4): 410-418, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hospital environment is a reservoir for the transmission of microorganisms. The effect of improved cleaning on patient-centred outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an environmental cleaning bundle to reduce health care-associated infections in hospitals. METHODS: The REACH study was a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised trial done in 11 acute care hospitals in Australia. Eligible hospitals had an intensive care unit, were classified by the National Health Performance Authority as a major hospital (public hospitals) or having more than 200 inpatient beds (private hospitals), and had a health-care-associated infection surveillance programme. The stepped-wedge design meant intervention periods varied from 20 weeks to 50 weeks. We introduced the REACH cleaning bundle, a multimodal intervention, focusing on optimising product use, technique, staff training, auditing with feedback, and communication, for routine cleaning. The primary outcomes were incidences of health-care-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, Clostridium difficile infection, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci infection. The secondary outcome was the thoroughness of cleaning of frequent touch points, assessed by a fluorescent marking gel. This study is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, number ACTRN12615000325505. FINDINGS: Between May 9, 2016, and July 30, 2017, we implemented the cleaning bundle in 11 hospitals. In the pre-intervention phase, there were 230 cases of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infection, 362 of S aureus bacteraemia, and 968 C difficile infections, for 3 534 439 occupied bed-days. During intervention, there were 50 cases of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infection, 109 of S aureus bacteraemia, and 278 C difficile infections, for 1 267 134 occupied bed-days. After the intervention, vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections reduced from 0·35 to 0·22 per 10 000 occupied bed-days (relative risk 0·63, 95% CI 0·41-0·97, p=0·0340). The incidences of S aureus bacteraemia (0·97 to 0·80 per 10 000 occupied bed-days; 0·82, 0·60-1·12, p=0·2180) and C difficile infections (2·34 to 2·52 per 10 000 occupied bed-days; 1·07, 0·88-1·30, p=0·4655) did not change significantly. The intervention increased the percentage of frequent touch points cleaned in bathrooms from 55% to 76% (odds ratio 2·07, 1·83-2·34, p<0·0001) and bedrooms from 64% to 86% (1·87, 1·68-2·09, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: The REACH cleaning bundle was successful at improving cleaning thoroughness and showed great promise in reducing vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections. Our work will inform hospital cleaning policy and practice, highlighting the value of investment in both routine and discharge cleaning practice. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia).

12.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 94(4): 413-425, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905487

RESUMO

Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are burdened by high mortality and represent an urgent threat to address. Clinicians are currently at a dawn of a new era in which antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacilli is being dealt with by the availability of the first new antibiotics in this field for many years. Although new antibiotics have shown promising results in clinical trials, there is still uncertainty over whether their use will improve clinical outcomes in real world practice. Some observational studies have reported a survival benefit in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections using combination therapy, often including "old" antibiotics such as colistin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, and carbapenems. These regimens, however, are linked to increased risk of antimicrobial resistance, and their efficacy has yet to be compared to new antimicrobial options. While awaiting more definitive evidence, antibiotic stewards need clear direction on how to optimize the use of old and novel antibiotic options. Furthermore, carbapenem-sparing regimens should be carefully considered as a potential tool to reduce selective antimicrobial pressure.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805180

RESUMO

Background: This is the first review of literature and synthesis of data on community onset methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) infections in Australia. Incidence of CO-MRSA varies considerably in Australia, depending on geographic and demographic factors. Methods: Data for the rates of MRSA infections were collected from articles identified using PubMed, Scopus, the grey literature and data from State and Federal Government Surveillance Systems. We synthesized data and developed a framework for how data was selected, collated, linked, organized and interpreted. Results: The results of our literature search demonstrates considerable gaps in the reporting of CO-MRSA in Australia. Consequently, total incidences were under reported; however the available data suggests the incidence varied between 44 (Tasmania) and 388 (southern Northern Territory) cases per 100,000 person years. Hospitalised cases of CO-MRSA varied between 3.8 (regional Victoria) and 329 (southern Northern Territory). Taking the median percentage of infections by site for all regions available, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) consisted of 56% of hospitalized CO-MRSA, compared with bacteremias, which represented 14%. No region had a complete data set of CO-MRSA infections treated in out-patient settings and so incidences were underestimates. Nevertheless, estimates of the incidence of CO-MRSA treated outside hospitals varied between 11.3 (Melbourne) and 285 (Northern Territory) per 100,000 person-years. These infections were chiefly SSTIs, although urinary tract infections were also noted.Incidences of CO-MRSA blood-stream infections and outpatient skin and soft tissue infections have been increasing with time, except in Tasmania. CO-MRSA is observed to affect people living in remote areas and areas of socioeconomic disadvantage disproportionately. Conclusions: We generated the first estimates of the incidence of CO-MRSA infections in Australia and identified stark regional differences in the nature and frequency of infections. Critically, we demonstrate that there has been a lack of consistency in reporting CO-MRSA and a general dearth of data. The only government in Australia that requires reporting of CO-MRSA is the Tasmanian, where the infection was least prevalent. Some regions of Australia have very high incidences of CO-MRSA. To improve surveillance and inform effective interventions, we recommend a standardized national reporting system in Australia that reports infections at a range of infection sites, has broad geographic coverage and consistent use of terminology. We have identified limitations in the available data that hinder understanding the prevalence of CO-MRSA.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670431

RESUMO

Polymyxins are used as a last-line therapy against multidrug-resistant (MDR) New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae However, polymyxin resistance can emerge with monotherapy; therefore, novel strategies are urgently needed to minimize the resistance and maintain their clinical utility. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B in combination with the antiretroviral drug zidovudine against K. pneumoniae Three isolates were evaluated in static time-kill studies (0 to 64 mg/liter) over 48 h. An in vitro one-compartment pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model (IVM) was used to simulate humanized dosage regimens of polymyxin B (4 mg/liter as continuous infusion) and zidovudine (as bolus dose thrice daily to achieve maximum concentration of drug in broth [C max] of 6 mg/liter) against K. pneumoniae BM1 over 72 h. The antimicrobial synergy of the combination was further evaluated in a murine thigh infection model against K. pneumoniae 02. In the static time-kill studies, polymyxin B monotherapy produced rapid and extensive killing against all three isolates followed by extensive regrowth, whereas zidovudine produced modest killing followed by significant regrowth at 24 h. Polymyxin B in combination with zidovudine significantly enhanced the antimicrobial activity (≥4 log10 CFU/ml) and minimized bacterial regrowth. In the IVM, the combination was synergistic and the total bacterial loads were below the limit of detection for up to 72 h. In the murine thigh infection model, the bacterial burden at 24 h in the combination group was ≥3 log10 CFU/thigh lower than each monotherapy against K. pneumoniae 02. Overall, the polymyxin B-zidovudine combination demonstrates superior antimicrobial efficacy and minimized emergence of resistance to polymyxins.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(suppl_2): S217-S224, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423047

RESUMO

Objectives: mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in bacteria is concerning, as colistin is used in treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. And mcr-1-producing bacteria have been identified in multiple sources. Up to 248 million people use public transportation daily in China, however; public transportation hasn't been studied as a potential source of community-based transmission of mcr-1. Herein we investigated mcr-1-producing isolates from public transportation and explored the genomic characteristics of them. Methods: Surface samples were collected from public transportation in Guangzhou, China, from October 2016 to April 2017. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect mcr-1 gene, plasmid replicon type and phylogenetic group. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by microdilution method. S1-nuclease digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) and Southern blotting were performed with mcr-1-harboring plasmids. Whole-genome sequencing was performed with mcr-1-producing isolates. Results: Of the 737 samples with bacterial growth, 26 isolates were positive for mcr-1, including 23 Escherichia coli and 3 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. The E. coli isolates belonged to phylogroups A and B1. Most mcr-1-producing isolates were resistant to ampicillin (25), cefotaxime (21), fosfomycin (16), and gentamicin (15). S1-PFGE, Southern blotting and replicon typing showed that mcr-1 was mainly located on ~33.3 kb to ~220 kb IncX4, IncI2 and IncHI2 plasmids in E. coli, while located on ~33.3 kb untyped plasmid in K. pneumoniae. Several sequence types (ST), including ST2253, ST101, ST10 complex and ST37, were revealed. Between 53 and 66 (mean = 61.8) resistance genes were identified among mcr-1-producing isolates. Conclusions: Public transportation may serve as a source of mcr-1-producing bacteria.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351426

RESUMO

Patient management is not based on a single decision. Rather it is dynamic, based on a sequence of decisions with therapeutic adjustments made over time. Adjustments are personalized, tailored to individual patients as new information becomes available. However strategies allowing for such adjustments are infrequently studied. Traditional antibiotic trials are often nonpragmatic, comparing drugs for definitive therapy when drug susceptibilities are known. COMparing Personalized Antibiotic StrategieS (COMPASS) is a trial design that compares strategies consistent with clinical practice, decision-rules that guides empiric and definitive therapy decisions. Sequential multiple assignment randomized (SMART) COMPASS allows evaluation when there are multiple definitive therapy options. SMART COMPASS is pragmatic, mirroring clinical antibiotic treatment decision-making and addressing the most relevant issue for treating patients: identification of the patient-management strategy that optimizes ultimate patient outcomes. SMART COMPASS is valuable in the setting of antibiotic resistance when therapeutic adjustments may be necessary due to resistance.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323035

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a perilous nosocomial pathogen causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment options for CRAB are limited and suffer from pharmacokinetic limitations such as high toxicity and low plasma levels. As a result, CRAB is declared as the top priority pathogen by the World Health Organization for investment in new drugs. This urgent need for new therapies, in combination with faster FDA approval process accelerated new drug development and placed several drug candidates in the pipeline. This article reviews available information about the new drugs and other therapeutic options focusing on agents in clinical or late stage pre-clinical studies for the treatment of CRAB and evaluates their expected benefits and potential shortcomings.

20.
mSphere ; 3(5)2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305321

RESUMO

Resistance to last-line polymyxins mediated by the plasmid-borne mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) represents a new threat to global human health. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an mcr-1-positive multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain (MS8345). We show that MS8345 belongs to serotype O2:K1:H4, has a large 241,164-bp IncHI2 plasmid that carries 15 other antibiotic resistance genes (including the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase bla CTX-M-1) and 3 putative multidrug efflux systems, and contains 14 chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes. MS8345 also carries a large ColV-like virulence plasmid that has been associated with E. coli bacteremia. Whole-genome phylogeny revealed that MS8345 clusters within a discrete clade in the sequence type 95 (ST95) lineage, and MS8345 is very closely related to the highly virulent O45:K1:H4 clone associated with neonatal meningitis. Overall, the acquisition of a plasmid carrying resistance to colistin and multiple other antibiotics in this virulent E. coli lineage is concerning and might herald an era where the empirical treatment of ST95 infections becomes increasingly more difficult.IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli ST95 is a globally disseminated clone frequently associated with bloodstream infections and neonatal meningitis. However, the ST95 lineage is defined by low levels of drug resistance amongst clinical isolates, which normally provides for uncomplicated treatment options. Here, we provide the first detailed genomic analysis of an E. coli ST95 isolate that has both high virulence potential and resistance to multiple antibiotics. Using the genome, we predicted its virulence and antibiotic resistance mechanisms, which include resistance to last-line antibiotics mediated by the plasmid-borne mcr-1 gene. Finding an ST95 isolate resistant to nearly all antibiotics that also has a high virulence potential is of major clinical importance and underscores the need to monitor new and emerging trends in antibiotic resistance development in this important global lineage.

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