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1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 30-42, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184565

RESUMO

Proponents of good-enough processing suggest that readers often (mis)interpret certain sentences using fast-and-frugal heuristics, such that for non-canonical sentences (e.g., The dog was bitten by the man) people confuse the thematic roles of the nouns. We tested this theory by examining the effect of sentence canonicality on the reading of a follow-up sentence. In a self-paced reading study, 60 young and 60 older adults read an implausible sentence in either canonical (e.g., It was the peasant that executed the king) or non-canonical form (e.g., It was the king that was executed by the peasant), followed by a sentence that was implausible given a good-enough misinterpretation of the first sentence (e.g., Afterwards, the peasant rode back to the countryside) or a sentence that was implausible given a correct interpretation of the first sentence (e.g., Afterwards, the king rode back to his castle). We hypothesised that if non-canonical sentences are systematically misinterpreted, then sentence canonicality would differentially affect the reading of the two different follow-up types. Our data suggested that participants derived the same interpretations for canonical and non-canonical sentences, with no modulating effect of age group. Our findings suggest that readers do not derive an incorrect interpretation of non-canonical sentences during initial parsing, consistent with theories of misinterpretation effects that instead attribute these effects to post-interpretative processes.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Idioma , Heurística , Humanos , Leitura
2.
Cognition ; 218: 104922, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634533

RESUMO

A compelling account of the reading process holds that words must be encoded serially, and so recognized strictly one at a time in the order they are encountered. However, this view has been challenged recently, based on evidence showing that readers sometimes fail to notice when adjacent words appear in ungrammatical order. This is argued to show that words are actually encoded in parallel, so that multiple words are processed simultaneously and therefore might be recognized out of order. We tested this account in an experiment in Chinese with 112 skilled readers, employing methods used previously to demonstrate flexible word order processing, and display techniques that allowed or disallowed the parallel encoding of words. The results provided evidence for flexible word order processing even when words must be encoded serially. Accordingly, while word order can be processed flexibly during reading, this need not entail that words are encoded in parallel.

3.
Psychol Aging ; 36(7): 822-833, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766800

RESUMO

We investigated parafoveal processing by 44 young (18-30 years) and 44 older (65+ years) Chinese readers using eye movement measures. Participants read sentences which included an invisible boundary after a two-character word (N) and before two one-character words (N + 1, N + 2). Before a reader's gaze crossed the boundary, N + 1 and N + 2 were shown normally or masked (i.e., as valid/invalid previews), after which they reverted to normal. Young adults obtained preview benefits (a processing advantage for valid over invalid previews) for both words. However, older adults obtained N + 2 preview benefits only when N + 1 was valid, suggesting their parafoveal processing is more limited. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Idoso , Envelhecimento , China , Fóvea Central , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632557

RESUMO

Contextual predictability influences both the probability and duration of eye fixations on words when reading Latinate alphabetic scripts like English and German. However, it is unknown whether word predictability influences eye movements in reading similarly for Semitic languages like Arabic, which are alphabetic languages with very different visual and linguistic characteristics. Such knowledge is nevertheless important for establishing the generality of mechanisms of eye-movement control across different alphabetic writing systems. Accordingly, we investigated word predictability effects in Arabic in two eye-movement experiments. Both produced shorter fixation times for words with high compared to low predictability, consistent with previous findings. Predictability did not influence skipping probabilities for (four- to eight-letter) words of varying length and morphological complexity (Experiment 1). However, it did for short (three- to four-letter) words with simpler structures (Experiment 2). We suggest that word-skipping is reduced, and affected less by contextual predictability, in Arabic compared to Latinate alphabetic reading, because of specific orthographic and morphological characteristics of the Arabic script.

5.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218211045987, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455862

RESUMO

In a self-paced reading study, we investigated whether older adults maintain a greater level of uncertainty about the identity of words in a sentence than younger adults, potentially due to deficits in visuo-perceptual processing of high-spatial frequencies associated with normal aging. In the experiment, 60 older adults and 60 younger adults read sentences in which an early preposition was either perceptually confusable with another word (at; confusable with as) or not (toward), and in which the reading of a subsequent ambiguous verb (e.g., tossed) should be affected by the confusability of the preposition, while the reading of an unambiguous verb (e.g., thrown) should not be. This design replicated that of an earlier study conducted by Levy et al. (2009) that found evidence in favour of participants maintaining uncertainty about the confusable preposition in go-past times during natural reading. However, in our study, there was no evidence that either younger or older adults maintained uncertainty about the identity of the perceptually confusable preposition, such that there was no interaction between the preposition's form and subsequent verb ambiguity in self-paced reading times, although we did observe a main effect of verb ambiguity. This represents a failure to replicate the effect observed by Levy et al. when using a different experimental paradigm, and we consider potential causes of our findings at both a methodological and theoretical level.

6.
Front Psychol ; 12: 514016, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859586

RESUMO

Smiles play an important role in social perception. However, it is unclear whether a similar role is played by static facial features associated with smiles (e.g., stretched mouth and visible teeth). In dental science, maxillary dental protrusions increase the baring of the teeth and thus produce partial facial features of a smile even when the individual is not choosing to smile, whereas mandibular dental protrusions do not. We conducted three experiments to assess whether individuals ascribe positive evaluations to these facial features, which are not genuine emotional expressions. In Experiment 1, participants viewed facial photographs of maxillary and mandibular protrusions and indicated the smiling and emotional status of the faces. The results showed that, while no difference was observed in participants' perception of the presence of a smile across both types of dental protrusion, participants felt more positive to faces with maxillary than mandibular protrusions. In Experiment 2, participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) test measuring implicit attitudes toward faces with maxillary vs. mandibular protrusions. The results showed that participants had more positive attitude toward faces with maxillary than mandibular protrusions. In Experiment 3, individuals with either maxillary or mandibular protrusions completed the same IAT test to assess whether any preference would be affected by in-group/out-group preferences. The results showed both groups had more positive attitudes toward faces with maxillary protrusion, indicating that this preference is independent of the group effect. These findings suggest that facial features associated with smiles are viewed positively in social situations. We discuss this in terms of the social-function account.

7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 74(1): 68-76, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749198

RESUMO

Older adults are thought to compensate for slower lexical processing by making greater use of contextual knowledge, relative to young adults, to predict words in sentences. Accordingly, compared to young adults, older adults should produce larger contextual predictability effects in reading times and skipping rates for words. Empirical support for this account is nevertheless scarce. Perhaps the clearest evidence to date comes from a recent Chinese study showing larger word predictability effects for older adults in reading times but not skipping rates for two-character words. However, one possibility is that the absence of a word-skipping effect in this experiment was due to the older readers skipping words infrequently because of difficulty processing two-character words parafoveally. We therefore took a further look at this issue, using one-character target words to boost word-skipping. Young (18-30 years) and older (65+ years) adults read sentences containing a target word that was either highly predictable or less predictable from the prior sentence context. Our results replicate the finding that older adults produce larger word predictability effects in reading times but not word-skipping, despite high skipping rates. We discuss these findings in relation to ageing effects on reading in different writing systems.


Assuntos
Atenção , Idoso , Envelhecimento , China , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Idioma
8.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 74(1): 45-53, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686987

RESUMO

Contrastive focus implies a contrast between two elements. However, it is unclear whether and how any interplay between such a contrast and similarity between potentially contrasting elements might affect focus processing. Accordingly, we report an eye movement experiment investigating this issue. The experiment used a background story to introduce eight characters whose social identities were manipulated to be similar or dissimilar. Participants first read this background story, then a series of two-sentence discourses while their eye movements were recorded. Each discourse referred to two characters from the passage who had either similar or dissimilar identities, with one (the target character) either focused using the Chinese particle zhiyou (meaning only) or unfocused. The results showed a typical focus facilitation effect, such that target character names were processed more quickly when focused than unfocused. We also observed a main effect of the similarity/dissimilarly of characters and, crucially, an interaction between this variable and focus. This interaction was due to slower processing of a post-target region when the target character was focused and the two characters had similar rather than dissimilar identities, but no such effect when the target character was unfocused. The findings suggest that establishing a contrast between referents is effortful during reading when these have similar rather than dissimilar social identities and so are more difficult to differentiate. The distinctiveness of referents in a discourse context may therefore constrain the establishment of contrastive focus during reading. We discuss these findings in relation to current theories of focus interpretation.


Assuntos
Leitura , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos
9.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(8): 3788-3794, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893310

RESUMO

Studies using a grammaticality decision task suggest surprising flexibility in the processing of the relative order of words in sentences when reading alphabetic scripts like French. In these studies, participants made rapid grammaticality decisions for ungrammatical stimuli created by transposing two adjacent words in either a grammatical or an ungrammatical base sentence, which were intermixed with equal numbers of grammatically correct stimuli. The key finding was that participants made more errors and were slower to reject transposed-word stimuli created from grammatical than ungrammatical base sentences. This suggested that flexibility in the processing of word order allowed participants to access representations of the base grammatical sentences, interfering with their decisions to correctly reject transposed-word stimuli. With the present research, we investigated if a similar transposed-word effect is observed for a non-alphabetic script (Chinese) that uses few grammatical markers and primarily conveys grammatical structure via word order. Such scripts may require stricter processing of word order during reading and so provide a strong test of the cross-linguistic generality of the transposed-word effect. We report three experiments using the same design and procedure as previous research, while varying the length of the transposed words across experiments. In all three experiments, participants made more errors and were slower to reject transposed-word stimuli derived from grammatical than ungrammatical base sentences. This replicates previous findings with alphabetic scripts and provides novel evidence for a transposed-word effect in Chinese reading. We consider the implications for models of reading in alphabetic and non-alphabetic scripts.


Assuntos
Idioma , Leitura , Humanos , Linguística
10.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(11): 1921-1929, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513058

RESUMO

The "positivity effect" (PE) reflects an age-related increase in the preference for positive over negative information in attention and memory. The present experiment investigated whether Chinese and UK participants produce a similar PE. In one experiment, we presented pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures simultaneously and participants decided which picture they liked or disliked on a third of trials, respectively. We recorded participants' eye movements during this task and compared time looking at, and memory for, pictures. The results suggest that older but not younger adults from both China and UK participant groups showed a preference to focus on and remember pleasant pictures, providing evidence of a PE in both cultures. Bayes Factor analysis supported these observations. These findings are consistent with the view that older people preferentially focus on positive emotional information, and that this effect is observed cross-culturally.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Emoções , Movimentos Oculares , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Teorema de Bayes , China/etnologia , Humanos , Memória , Reino Unido/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(6): 2793-2801, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406003

RESUMO

Several eye-movement studies have revealed flexibility in the parafoveal processing of character-order information in Chinese reading. In particular, studies show that processing a two-character word in a sentence benefits more from parafoveal preview of a nonword created by transposing rather than replacing its two characters. One issue that has not been investigated is whether the contextual predictability of the target word influences this processing of character order information. However, such a finding would provide novel evidence for an early influence of context on lexical processing in Chinese reading. Accordingly, we investigated this issue in an eye-movement experiment using the boundary paradigm and sentences containing two-character target words with high or low contextual predictability. Prior to the reader's gaze crossing an invisible boundary, each target word was shown normally (i.e. a valid preview) or with its two characters either transposed or replaced by unrelated characters to create invalid nonword previews. These invalid previews reverted to the target word once the reader's gaze crossed the invisible boundary. The results showed larger preview benefits (i.e. a decrease in fixation times) for target words following transposed-character than substituted-character previews, revealing a transposed-character effect similar to that in previous research. In addition, a word predictability effect (shorter fixation times for words with high than low predictability) was observed following both valid and transposed-character previews, but not substituted-character previews. The findings therefore reveal that context can influence an early stage of lexical processing in Chinese reading during which character order is processed flexibly.


Assuntos
Atenção , Movimentos Oculares , Leitura , Fixação Ocular , Fóvea Central , Humanos , Idioma , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
12.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(8): 1189-1205, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931668

RESUMO

Older readers (aged 65+ years) of both alphabetic languages and character-based languages like Chinese read more slowly than their younger counterparts (aged 18-30 years). A possible explanation for this slowdown is that, due to age-related visual and cognitive declines, older readers have a smaller perceptual span and so acquire less information on each fixational pause. However, although aging effects on the perceptual span have been investigated for alphabetic languages, no such studies have been reported to date for character-based languages like Chinese. Accordingly, we investigated this issue in three experiments that used different gaze-contingent moving window paradigms to assess the perceptual span of young and older Chinese readers. In these experiments, text was shown either entirely as normal or normal only within a narrow region (window) comprising either the fixated word, the fixated word, and one word to its left, or the fixated word and either one or two words to its right. Characters outside these windows were replaced using a pattern mask (Experiment 1) or a visually similar character (Experiment 2), or blurred to render them unidentifiable (Experiment 3). Sentence reading times were overall longer for the older compared with the younger adults and differed systematically across display conditions. Crucially, however, the effects of display condition were essentially the same across the two age groups, indicating that the perceptual span for Chinese does not differ substantially for the older and young adults. We discuss these findings in relation to other evidence suggesting the perceptual span is preserved in older adulthood.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Vision (Basel) ; 4(1)2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947552

RESUMO

Substantial progress has been made in understanding the mostly detrimental effects of normative aging on eye movements during reading. This article provides a review of research on aging effects on eye movements during reading for different writing systems (i.e., alphabetic systems like English compared to non-alphabetic systems like Chinese), focused on appraising the importance of visual and cognitive factors, considering key methodological issues, and identifying vital questions that need to be addressed and topics for further investigation.

14.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(4): 1566-1572, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898063

RESUMO

Readers can acquire useful information from only a narrow region of text around each fixation (the perceptual span), which extends asymmetrically in the direction of reading. Studies with bilingual readers have additionally shown that this asymmetry reverses with changes in horizontal reading direction. However, little is known about the perceptual span's flexibility following orthogonal (vertical vs. horizontal) changes in reading direction, because of the scarcity of vertical writing systems and because changes in reading direction often are confounded with text orientation. Accordingly, we assessed effects in a language (Mongolian) that avoids this confound, in which text is conventionally read vertically but can also be read horizontally. Sentences were presented normally or in a gaze-contingent paradigm in which a restricted region of text was displayed normally around each fixation and other text was degraded. The perceptual span effects on reading rates were similar in both reading directions. These findings therefore provide a unique (nonconfounded) demonstration of perceptual span flexibility.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Leitura , Adolescente , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Orientação/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Redação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vision (Basel) ; 3(1)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735812

RESUMO

Research suggests that pattern complexity (number of strokes) limits the visual span for Chinese characters, and that this may have important consequences for reading. With the present research, we investigated age differences in the visual span for Chinese characters by presenting trigrams of low, medium or high complexity at various locations relative to a central point to young (18-30 years) and older (60+ years) adults. A sentence reading task was used to assess their reading speed. The results showed that span size was smaller for high complexity stimuli compared to low and medium complexity stimuli for both age groups, replicating previous findings with young adult participants. Our results additionally showed that this influence of pattern complexity was greater for the older than younger adults, such that while there was little age difference in span size for low and medium complexity stimuli, span size for high complexity stimuli was almost halved in size for the older compared to the young adults. Finally, our results showed that span size correlated with sentence reading speed, confirming previous findings taken as evidence that the visual span imposes perceptual limits on reading speed. We discuss these findings in relation to age-related difficulty reading Chinese.

16.
Exp Aging Res ; 45(5): 387-399, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518213

RESUMO

Background: The visual span (i.e., an estimate of the number of letters that can be recognized reliably on a single glance) is widely considered to impose an important sensory limitation on reading speed. With the present research, we investigated adult age differences in the visual span for alphabetic stimuli (i.e., Latin alphabetic letters), as aging effects on span size may make an important contribution to slower reading speeds in older adulthood. Method: A trigram task, in which sets of three letters were displayed randomly at specified locations to the right and left of a central fixation point, was used to estimate the size of the visual span for young (18-30 years) and older (65+years) adults while an eye tracker was used to ensure accurate central fixation during stimulus presentation. Participants also completed tests of visual acuity and visual crowding. Results: There were clear age differences in the size of the visual span. The older adults produced visual spans which were on average 1.2 letters smaller than the spans of young adults. However, both young and older adults produced spans smaller than those previously reported. In addition, span size correlated with measures of both visual acuity and measures of visual crowding. Conclusion: The findings show that the size of the visual span is smaller for older compared to young adults. The age-related reduction in span size is relatively small but may make a significant contribution to reduced parafoveal processing during natural reading so may play a role in the greater difficulty experienced by older adult readers. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of carefully controlling fixation location in visual span experiments.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Visuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 780-790, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380666

RESUMO

An influential account of normative aging effects on reading holds that older adults make greater use of contextual predictability to facilitate word identification. However, supporting evidence is scarce. Accordingly, we used measures of eye movements to experimentally investigate age differences in word predictability effects in Chinese reading, as this nonalphabetic language has characteristics that may promote such effects. Word-skipping rates were higher and reading times lower for more highly predictable words for both age groups. Effects of word predictability on word skipping did not differ across the 2 adult age groups. However, word predictability effects in reading time measures sensitive to both lexical identification (i.e., gaze duration) and contextual integration (i.e., regression-path reading times) were larger for the older than younger adults. Our findings therefore reveal that older Chinese readers make greater use of a word's predictability to facilitate both its lexical identification and integration with the prior sentence context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Idioma , Leitura , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2626-2634, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410763

RESUMO

Older adults experience greater difficulty compared to young adults during both alphabetic and nonalphabetic reading. However, while this age-related reading difficulty may be attributable to visual and cognitive declines in older adulthood, the underlying causes remain unclear. With the present research, we focused on effects related to the visual complexity of written language. Chinese is ideally suited to investigating such effects, as characters in this logographic writing system can vary substantially in complexity (in terms of their number of strokes, i.e., lines and dashes) while always occupying the same square area of space, so that this complexity is not confounded with word length. Nonreading studies suggests older adults have greater difficulty than young adults when recognizing characters with high compared to low numbers of strokes. The present research used measures of eye movements to investigate adult age differences in these effects during natural reading. Young adult (18-28 years) and older adult (65+ years) participants read sentences that included one of a pair of two-character target words matched for lexical frequency and contextual predictability, but composed of either high-complexity (>9 strokes) or low-complexity (≤7 strokes) characters. Typical patterns of age-related reading difficulty were observed. However, an effect of visual complexity in reading times for words was greater for the older than for the younger adults, due to the older readers experiencing greater difficulty identifying words containing many rather than few strokes. We interpret these findings in terms of the influence of subtle deficits in visual abilities on reading capabilities in older adulthood.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Movimentos Oculares , Linguística , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(12): 2742-2751, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184264

RESUMO

To understand a discourse, readers must rapidly process semantic and syntactic information and extract the pragmatic information these sources imply. An important question concerns how this pragmatic information influences discourse processing in return. We address this issue in two eye movement experiments that investigate the influence of pragmatic inferences on the processing of inter-sentence integration. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants read two-sentence discourses in Chinese in which the first sentence introduced an event and the second described its consequence, where the sentences were linked using either the causal connective "suoyi" (meaning "so" or "therefore") or not. The second sentence included a target word that was unmarked or marked using the focus particle "zhiyou" (meaning "only") in Experiment 1a or "shi" (equivalent to an it-cleft) in Experiment 1b. These particles have the pragmatic function of implying a contrast between a target element and its alternatives. The results showed that while the causal connective facilitated the processing of unmarked words in causal contexts (a connective facilitation effect), this effect was eliminated by the presence of the focus particle. This implies that contrastive information is inferred sufficiently rapidly during reading that it can influence semantic processes involved in sentence integration. Experiment 2 showed that disruption due to conflict between the processing requirements of focus and inter-sentence integration occurred only in causal and not adversative connective contexts, confirming that processing difficulty occurred when a contrastive relationship was not possible.


Assuntos
Psicolinguística , Leitura , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(6): 2226-2236, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112607

RESUMO

Purpose: Normal readers make immediate and precise adjustments in eye movements during sentence reading in response to individual word features, such as lexical difficulty (e.g., common or uncommon words) or word length. Our purpose was to assess the effect of infantile nystagmus (IN) on these adaptive mechanisms. Methods: Eye movements were recorded from 29 participants with IN (14 albinism, 12 idiopathic, and 3 congenital stationary night blindness) and 15 controls when reading sentences containing either common/uncommon words or long/short target words. Parameters assessed included: duration of first foveation/fixation, number of first-pass and percentage second-pass foveations/fixations, percentage words skipped, gaze duration, acquisition time (gaze + nongaze duration), landing site locations, clinical and experimental reading speeds. Results: Participants with IN could not modify first foveation durations in contrast to controls who made longer first fixations on uncommon words (P < 0.001). Participants with IN made more first-pass foveations on uncommon and long words (P < 0.001) to increase gaze durations. However, this also increased nongaze durations (P < 0.001) delaying acquisition times. Participants with IN reread shorter words more often (P < 0.005). Similar to controls, participants with IN landed more first foveations between the start and center of long words. Reading speeds during experiments were lower in IN participants compared to controls (P < 0.01). Conclusions: People with IN make more first-pass foveations on uncommon and long words influencing reading speeds. This demonstrates that the "slow to see" phenomenon occurs during word reading in IN. These deficits are not captured by clinical reading charts.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Nistagmo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
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