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1.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191290

RESUMO

Importance: Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, occurs in a high number of cancer predisposition syndromes that are defined by highly penetrant germline mutations. The germline genetic susceptibility to osteosarcoma outside of familial cancer syndromes remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the germline genetic architecture of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Whole-exome sequencing (n = 1104) or targeted sequencing (n = 140) of the DNA of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma from 10 participating international centers or studies was conducted from April 21, 2014, to September 1, 2017. The results were compared with the DNA of 1062 individuals without cancer assembled internally from 4 participating studies who underwent comparable whole-exome sequencing and 27 173 individuals of non-Finnish European ancestry who were identified through the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. In the analysis, 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes were assessed followed by testing of the mutational burden across 736 additional candidate genes. Principal component analyses were used to identify 732 European patients with osteosarcoma and 994 European individuals without cancer, with outliers removed for patient-control group comparisons. Patients were subsequently compared with individuals in the ExAC group. All data were analyzed from June 1, 2017, to July 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The frequency of rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants. Results: Among 1244 patients with osteosarcoma (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 16 [8.9] years [range, 2-80 years]; 684 patients [55.0%] were male), an analysis restricted to individuals with European ancestry indicated a significantly higher pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant burden in 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes among patients with osteosarcoma compared with the control group (732 vs 994, respectively; P = 1.3 × 10-18). A pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was identified in 281 of 1004 patients with osteosarcoma (28.0%), of which nearly three-quarters had a variant that mapped to an autosomal-dominant gene or a known osteosarcoma-associated cancer predisposition syndrome gene. The frequency of a pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was 128 of 1062 individuals (12.1%) in the control group and 2527 of 27 173 individuals (9.3%) in the ExAC group. A higher than expected frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants was observed in genes not previously linked to osteosarcoma (eg, CDKN2A, MEN1, VHL, POT1, APC, MSH2, and ATRX) and in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome-associated gene, TP53. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, approximately one-fourth of patients with osteosarcoma unselected for family history had a highly penetrant germline mutation requiring additional follow-up analysis and possible genetic counseling with cascade testing.

2.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107177

RESUMO

Despite being a rare disease, cancer is the first cause of mortality due to disease during the paediatric age in the developed countries. The current, great increase in new treatments, such as immunotherapy, constitutes a new clinical and regulatory paradigm. Cellular immunotherapy is one of these types of immunotherapy. In particular, the advanced therapy drugs with chimeric antigen receptors in the T-lymphocytes (CAR-T), and particularly the CAR-T19 cells, has opened up a new scenario in the approach to haematology tumours like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and the B-Cell lymphomas. The approval of tisagenlecleucel and axicabtagene ciloleucel by the regulatory authorities has led to the setting up of the National Plan for Advanced Therapies-CAR-T drugs in Spain. There is evidence of, not only the advantage of identifying the centres most suitable for their administration, but also the need for these to undergo a profound change in order that their healthcare activity is extended, in some cases, to the ability for the in-house manufacture of these types of therapies. The hospitals specialised in paediatric haematology-oncology thus have the challenge of progressing towards a healthcare model that integrates cellular immunotherapy, having the appropriate capacity to manage all aspects relative to their use, manufacture, and administration of these new treatments.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14368, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591461

RESUMO

Last advances in the treatment of pediatric tumors has led to an increase of survival rates of children affected by primitive neuroectodermal tumors, however, still a significant amount of the patients do not overcome the disease. In addition, the survivors might suffer from severe side effects caused by the current standard treatments. Oncolytic virotherapy has emerged in the last years as a promising alternative for the treatment of solid tumors. In this work, we study the anti-tumor effect mediated by the oncolytic adenovirus VCN-01 in CNS-PNET models. VCN-01 is able to infect and replicate in PNET cell cultures, leading to a cytotoxicity and immunogenic cell death. In vivo, VCN-01 increased significantly the median survival of mice and led to long-term survivors in two orthotopic models of PNETs. In summary, these results underscore the therapeutic effect of VCN-01 for rare pediatric cancers such as PNETs, and warrants further exploration on the use of this virus to treat them.

4.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 64, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036068

RESUMO

Pediatric high grade gliomas (pHGG), including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), are aggressive tumors with a dismal outcome. Radiotherapy (RT) is part of the standard of care of these tumors; however, radiotherapy only leads to a transient clinical improvement. Delta-24-RGD is a genetically engineered tumor-selective adenovirus that has shown safety and clinical efficacy in adults with recurrent gliomas. In this work, we evaluated the feasibility, safety and therapeutic efficacy of Delta-24-RGD in combination with radiotherapy in pHGGs and DIPGs models. Our results showed that the combination of Delta-24-RGD with radiotherapy was feasible and resulted in a synergistic anti-glioma effect in vitro and in vivo in pHGG and DIPG models. Interestingly, Delta-24-RGD treatment led to the downregulation of relevant DNA damage repair proteins, further sensitizing tumors cells to the effect of radiotherapy. Additionally, Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy treatment significantly increased the trafficking of immune cells (CD3, CD4+ and CD8+) to the tumor niche compared with single treatments. In summary, administration of the Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy combination to pHGG and DIPG models is safe and significantly increases the overall survival of mice bearing these tumors. Our data offer a rationale for the combination Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy as a therapeutic option for children with these tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy administration is safe and significantly increases the survival of treated mice. These positive data underscore the urge to translate this approach to the clinical treatment of children with pHGG and DIPGs.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2235, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138805

RESUMO

Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive pediatric brain tumors in desperate need of a curative treatment. Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a solid therapeutic approach. Delta-24-RGD is a replication competent adenovirus engineered to replicate in tumor cells with an aberrant RB pathway. This virus has proven to be safe and effective in adult gliomas. Here we report that the administration of Delta-24-RGD is safe in mice and results in a significant increase in survival in immunodeficient and immunocompetent models of pHGG and DIPGs. Our results show that the Delta-24-RGD antiglioma effect is mediated by the oncolytic effect and the immune response elicited against the tumor. Altogether, our data highlight the potential of this virus as treatment for patients with these tumors. Of clinical significance, these data have led to the start of a phase I/II clinical trial at our institution for newly diagnosed DIPG (NCT03178032).


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/terapia , Glioma/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Vírus Oncolíticos , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Gradação de Tumores , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
J Ophthalmol ; 2019: 7454250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863626

RESUMO

Introduction: Even though ocular refractive state is highly heritable and under strong genetic control, the identification of susceptibility genes remains a challenge. Several HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) gene variants have been associated with ocular refractive errors and corneal pathology. Purpose: Here, we assess the association of an HGF gene variant, previously reported as associated with hyperopia, and ocular biometric parameters in a multicenter Spanish cohort. Methods: An observational prospective multicenter cross-sectional study was designed, including a total of 403 unrelated subjects comprising 188 hyperopic children (5 to 17 years) and 2 control groups: 52 emmetropic adolescents (13 to 17 years) and 163 emmetropic young adults (18 to 28 years). Each individual underwent a comprehensive eye examination including cycloplegic refraction, and topographic and ocular biometric analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral swabs. HGF single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12536657 was genotyped. Genotypic, allelic, and logistic regression analyses were performed comparing the different groups. A quantitative trait association test analyzing several biometric parameters was also performed using generalized estimating equations (GEEs) adjusting for age and gender. Results: No association between rs12536657 and hyperopia was found through gender-adjusted logistic regression comparing the hyperopic children with either of the two control groups. Significant associations between mean topographic corneal curvature and rs12536657 for G/A (slope = +0.32; CI 95%: 0.04-0.60; p=0.023) and A/A (slope = +0.76; CI 95%: 0.12-1.40; p=0.020) genotypes were observed with the age- and gender-adjusted univariate GEE model. Both flat and steep corneal topographic meridians were also significantly associated with rs12536657 for the G/A and A/A genotypes. No association was found between rs12536657 and any other topographic or biometric measurements. Conclusions: Our results support a possible role for HGF gene variant rs12536657 in corneal curvature in our population. To our knowledge, this is the first multicenter quantitative trait association study of HGF genotypes and ocular biometric parameters comprising a pediatric cohort.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 145(7): 1991-2001, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848481

RESUMO

Sunitinib is one of the most widely used targeted therapeutics for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but acquired resistance against targeted therapies remains a major clinical challenge. To dissect mechanisms of acquired resistance and unravel reliable predictive biomarkers for sunitinib in RCC, we sequenced the exons of 409 tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes in paired tumor samples from an RCC patient, obtained at baseline and after development of acquired resistance to sunitinib. From newly arising mutations, we selected, using in silico prediction models, six predicted to be deleterious, located in G6PD, LRP1B, SETD2, TET2, SYNE1, and DCC. Consistently, immunoblotting analysis of lysates derived from sunitinib-desensitized RCC cells and their parental counterparts showed marked differences in the levels and expression pattern of the proteins encoded by these genes. Our further analysis demonstrates essential roles for these proteins in mediating sunitinib cytotoxicity and shows that their loss of function renders tumor cells resistant to sunitinib in vitro and in vivo. Finally, sunitinib resistance induced by continuous exposure or by inhibition of the six proteins was overcome by treatment with cabozantinib or a low-dose combination of lenvatinib and everolimus. Collectively, our results unravel novel markers of acquired resistance to sunitinib and clinically relevant approaches for overcoming this resistance in RCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Mutação , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Éxons , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sunitinibe
8.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 7954921, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809319

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational testing in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is usually performed in tumor tissue, although cfDNA (cell-free DNA) could be an alternative. We evaluated EGFR mutations in cfDNA as a complementary tool in patients, who had already known EGFR mutations in tumor tissue and were treated with either EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or chemotherapy. We obtained plasma samples from 21 advanced NSCLC patients with known EGFR tumor mutations, before and during therapy with EGFR-TKIs and/or chemotherapy. cfDNA was isolated and EGFR mutations were analyzed with the multiple targeted cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2. EGFR mutations were detected at baseline in cfDNA from 57% of patients. The semiquantitative index (SQI) significantly decreased from the baseline (median = 11, IQR = 9.5-13) to the best response (median = 0, IQR = 0-0, p < 0.01), followed by a significant increase at progression (median = 11, IQR = 11-15, p < 0.01) in patients treated with either EGFR-TKIs or chemotherapy. The SQI obtained with the cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2 did not correlate with the concentration in copies/mL determined by droplet digital PCR. Resistance mutation p.T790M was observed at progression in patients with either type of treatment. In conclusion, cfDNA multiple targeted EGFR mutation analysis is useful for treatment monitoring in tissue of EGFR-positive NSCLC patients independently of the drug received.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
9.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 62, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary bone malignancy in children and young adults. These tumors are highly metastatic, leading to poor outcome. We previously demonstrated that Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61/CCN1) expression level is correlated to osteosarcoma aggressiveness in preclinical model and in patient tumor samples. The aim of the present study was to investigate the CYR61-induced intracellular mechanisms leading to the acquisition of an invasive phenotype by osteosarcoma cells. METHODS: Modified murine and human osteosarcoma cell lines were evaluated for cell adhesion, aggregation (spheroid), motility (wound healing assay), phenotypic markers expression (RT-qPCR, western blot). Cell-derived xenograft FFPE samples and patients samples (TMA) were assessed by IHC. RESULTS: CYR61 levels controlled the expression of markers related to an Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process, allowing tumor cells to migrate acquiring a competent morphology, and to be able to invade the surrounding stroma. This phenotypic shift indeed correlated with tumor grade and aggressiveness in patient samples and with the metastatic dissemination potential in cell-derived xenograft models. Unlike EGFR or PDGFR, IGF1Rß levels correlated with CYR61 and N-cadherin levels, and with the aggressiveness of osteosarcoma and overall survival. The expression levels of IGF1Rß/IGF1 axis were controlled by CYR61, and anti-IGF1 neutralizing antibody prevented the CYR61-induced phenotypic shift, aggregation, and motility abilities. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study provides new evidence that CYR61 acts as a key inducing factor in the metastatic progression of osteosarcoma by playing a critical role in primary tumor dissemination, with a process associated with IGF1/IGFR stimulation. This suggests that CYR61 may represent a potential pivotal target for therapeutic management of metastases spreading in osteosarcoma, in correlation with IGF1/IGFR pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Proteína Rica em Cisteína 61/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Osteossarcoma/etiologia , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatomedina/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Caderinas/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/genética , Comunicação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proteína Rica em Cisteína 61/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Osteossarcoma/patologia
10.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1193, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults that produces aberrant osteoid. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of 2-deoxy-2-[18F-] fluoro-D-glucose ([18F] FDG) and sodium [18F] Fluoride (Na [18F] F) PET scans in orthotopic murine models of osteosarcoma to describe the metabolic pattern of the tumors, to detect and diagnose tumors and to evaluate the efficacy of a new treatment based in oncolytic adenoviruses. METHODS: Orthotopic osteosarcoma murine models were created by the injection of 143B and 531MII cell lines. [18F]FDG and Na [18F] F PET scans were performed 30 days (143B) and 90 days (531MII) post-injection. The antitumor effect of two doses (107 and 108 pfu) of the oncolytic adenovirus VCN-01 was evaluated in 531 MII model by [18F] FDG PET studies. [18F] FDG uptake was quantified by SUVmax and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG) indexes. For Na [18F] F, the ratio tumor SUVmax/hip SUVmax was calculated. PET findings were confirmed by histopathological techniques. RESULTS: The metabolic pattern of tumors was different between both orthotopic models. All tumors showed [18F] FDG uptake, with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The [18F] FDG uptake was significantly higher for the 143B model (p < 0.001). Sensitivity for Na [18F] F was around 70% in both models, with a specificity of 100%. 531MII tumors showed a heterogeneous Na [18F] F uptake, significantly higher than 143B tumors (p < 0.01). Importantly, [18F] FDG and Na [18F] F uptake corresponded to highly cellular or osteoid-rich tumors in the histopathological analysis, respectively. [18F] FDG data confirmed that the oncolytic treatment of 531MII tumors produced a significant reduction in growth even with the 107 pfu dose. CONCLUSIONS: PET studies demonstrated that the different osteosarcoma xenograft models developed tumors with diverse metabolic patterns that can be described by multitracer PET studies. Since not all tumors produced abundant osteoid, [18F] FDG demonstrated a better sensitivity for tumor detection and was able to quantitatively monitor in vivo response to the oncolytic adenovirus VCN-01.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15414, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337581

RESUMO

Association studies in osteosarcoma risk found significant results in intergenic regions, suggesting that regions which do not codify for proteins could play an important role. The deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been already associated with osteosarcoma. Consequently, genetic variants affecting miRNA function could be associated with risk. This study aimed to evaluate the involvement of all genetic variants in pre-miRNAs described so far in relationship to the risk of osteosarcoma. We analyzed a total of 213 genetic variants in 206 pre-miRNAs in two cohorts of osteosarcoma patients (n = 100) and their corresponding controls (n = 256) from Spanish and Slovenian populations, using Goldengate Veracode technology (Illumina). Four polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs at 14q32 miRNA cluster were associated with osteosarcoma risk in the Spanish population (rs12894467, rs61992671, rs58834075 and rs12879262). Pathway enrichment analysis including target genes of these miRNAs pointed out the WNT signaling pathways overrepresented. Moreover, different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects between the two populations included were observed, suggesting the existence of population differences. In conclusion, 14q32 miRNA cluster seems to be a hotspot for osteosarcoma susceptibility in the Spanish population, but not in the Slovenian, which supports the idea of the existence of population differences in developing this disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteossarcoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteossarcoma/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3184, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093639

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a pediatric cancer characterized by the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion. We performed a genome-wide association study of 733 EWS cases and 1346 unaffected individuals of European ancestry. Our study replicates previously reported susceptibility loci at 1p36.22, 10q21.3 and 15q15.1, and identifies new loci at 6p25.1, 20p11.22 and 20p11.23. Effect estimates exhibit odds ratios in excess of 1.7, which is high for cancer GWAS, and striking in light of the rarity of EWS cases in familial cancer syndromes. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate genes at 6p25.1 (RREB1) and 20p11.23 (KIZ). The 20p11.22 locus is near NKX2-2, a highly overexpressed gene in EWS. Interestingly, most loci reside near GGAA repeat sequences and may disrupt binding of the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion protein. The high locus to case discovery ratio from 733 EWS cases suggests a genetic architecture in which moderate risk SNPs constitute a significant fraction of risk.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Alelos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica c-fli-1/genética , Controle de Qualidade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Risco , Sarcoma de Ewing/etnologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(7)2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987215

RESUMO

In recent years, we have seen an important progress in our comprehension of the molecular basis of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs). However, they still represent the main cause of death by disease in children. Due to the poor prognosis of some types of PBTs and the long-term adverse effects associated with the traditional treatments, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have emerged as an interesting therapeutic option since they displayed safety and high tolerability in pre-clinical and clinical levels. In this review, we summarize the OVs evaluated in different types of PBTs, mostly in pre-clinical studies, and we discuss the possible future direction of research in this field. In this sense, one important aspect of OVs antitumoral effect is the stimulation of an immune response against the tumor which is necessary for a complete response in preclinical immunocompetent models and in the clinic. The role of the immune system in the response of OVs needs to be evaluated in PBTs and represents an experimental challenge due to the limited immunocompetent models of these diseases available for pre-clinical research.

14.
Cancer Lett ; 430: 193-200, 2018 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802930

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent paediatric bone cancer, responsible for 9% of all cancer-related deaths in children. In this paper, a new strategy based on delivering edelfosine (ET) in lipid nanoparticles (LN) was explored in order to target the primary tumour and eliminate metastases. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the free drug, drug loaded into lipid nanoparticles (ET-LN) and doxorubicin (DOX) against osteosarcoma (OS) cells was analysed. ET and ET-LN decreased the growth of OS cells in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the uptake of ET and ET-LN was lower when OS cells were pre-treated with DOX. In vivo studies revealed that ET and ET-LN slowed down the primary tumour growth in two OS models. However, the combination of both drugs showed no additional anti-tumour effect. Importantly, ET-LN successfully prevented the metastatic spread of OS cells from the primary tumour to the lungs. On the whole, ET-LN are a promising candidate for OS chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Éteres Fosfolipídicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/química , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Cancer Med ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766673

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may modulate individual susceptibility to carcinogens. We designed a genome-wide association study to characterize individuals presenting extreme phenotypes of high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and we validated our results. We hypothesized that this strategy would enrich the frequencies of the alleles that contribute to the observed traits. We genotyped 2.37 million SNPs in 95 extreme phenotype individuals, that is: heavy smokers that either developed NSCLC at an early age (extreme cases); or did not present NSCLC at an advanced age (extreme controls), selected from a discovery set (n = 3631). We validated significant SNPs in 133 additional subjects with extreme phenotypes selected from databases including >39,000 individuals. Two SNPs were validated: rs12660420 (pcombined  = 5.66 × 10-5 ; ORcombined  = 2.80), mapping to a noncoding transcript exon of PDE10A; and rs6835978 (pcombined  = 1.02 × 10-4 ; ORcombined  = 2.57), an intronic variant in ATP10D. We assessed the relevance of both proteins in early-stage NSCLC. PDE10A and ATP10DmRNA expressions correlated with survival in 821 stage I-II NSCLC patients (p = 0.01 and p < 0.0001). PDE10A protein expression correlated with survival in 149 patients with stage I-II NSCLC (p = 0.002). In conclusion, we validated two variants associated with extreme phenotypes of high and low risk of developing tobacco-induced NSCLC. Our findings may allow to identify individuals presenting high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced NSCLC and to characterize molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and resistance to develop NSCLC.

16.
Front Oncol ; 8: 61, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594041

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive glial brain tumors that primarily affect children, for which there is no curative treatment. Median overall survival is only one year. Currently, the scientific focus is on expanding the knowledge base of the molecular biology of DIPG, and identifying effective therapies. Oncolytic adenovirus DNX-2401 is a replication-competent, genetically modified virus capable of infecting and killing glioma cells, and stimulating an anti-tumor immune response. Clinical trials evaluating intratumoral DNX-2401 in adults with recurrent glioblastoma have demonstrated that the virus has a favorable safety profile and can prolong survival. Subsequently, these results have encouraged the transition of this biologically active therapy from adults into the pediatric population. To this aim, we have designed a clinical Phase I trial for newly diagnosed pediatric DIPG to investigate the feasibility, safety, and preliminary efficacy of delivering DNX-2401 into tumors within the pons following biopsy. This case report presents a pediatric patient enrolled in this ongoing Phase I trial for children and adolescents with newly diagnosed DIPG. The case involves an 8-year-old female patient with radiologically diagnosed DIPG who underwent stereotactic tumor biopsy immediately followed by intratumoral DNX-2401 in the same biopsy track. Because there were no safety concerns or new neurological deficits, the patient was discharged 3 days after the procedures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of intratumoral DNX-2401 for a patient with DIPG in a clinical trial. We plan to demonstrate that intratumoral delivery of an oncolytic virus following tumor biopsy for pediatric patients with DIPG is a novel and feasible approach and that DNX-2401 represents an innovative treatment for the disease.

17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 167(1): 249-256, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913729

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anthracyclines are widely used chemotherapeutic drugs that can cause progressive and irreversible cardiac damage and fatal heart failure. Several genetic variants associated with anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) have been identified, but they explain only a small proportion of the interindividual differences in AIC susceptibility. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the association of low-frequency variants with risk of chronic AIC using the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip array in a discovery cohort of 61 anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients with replication in a second independent cohort of 83 anthracycline-treated pediatric cancer patients, using gene-based tests (SKAT-O). RESULTS: The most significant associated gene in the discovery cohort was ETFB (electron transfer flavoprotein beta subunit) involved in mitochondrial ß-oxidation and ATP production (P = 4.16 × 10-4) and this association was replicated in an independent set of anthracycline-treated cancer patients (P = 2.81 × 10-3). Within ETFB, we found that the missense variant rs79338777 (p.Pro52Leu; c.155C > T) made the greatest contribution to the observed gene association and it was associated with increased risk of chronic AIC in the two cohorts separately and when combined (OR 9.00, P = 1.95 × 10-4, 95% CI 2.83-28.6). CONCLUSIONS: We identified and replicated a novel gene, ETFB, strongly associated with chronic AIC independently of age at tumor onset and related to anthracycline-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Although experimental verification and further studies in larger patient cohorts are required to confirm our finding, we demonstrated that exome array data analysis represents a valuable strategy to identify novel genes contributing to the susceptibility to chronic AIC.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Flavoproteínas Transferidoras de Elétrons/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Cardiotoxicidade/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia
18.
Int J Cancer ; 142(8): 1594-1601, 2018 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210060

RESUMO

Survival rates for osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone cancer, have changed little over the past three decades and are particularly low for patients with metastatic disease. We conducted a multi-institutional genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify germline genetic variants associated with overall survival in 632 patients with osteosarcoma, including 523 patients of European ancestry and 109 from Brazil. We conducted a time-to-event analysis and estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards models, with and without adjustment for metastatic disease. The results were combined across the European and Brazilian case sets using a random-effects meta-analysis. The strongest association after meta-analysis was for rs3765555 at 9p24.1, which was inversely associated with overall survival (HR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.41-2.18, p = 4.84 × 10-7 ). After imputation across this region, the combined analysis identified two SNPs that reached genome-wide significance. The strongest single association was with rs55933544 (HR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.5-2.4; p = 1.3 × 10-8 ), which localizes to the GLDC gene, adjacent to the IL33 gene and was consistent across both the European and Brazilian case sets. Using publicly available data, the risk allele was associated with lower expression of IL33 and low expression of IL33 was associated with poor survival in an independent set of patients with osteosarcoma. In conclusion, we have identified the GLDC/IL33 locus on chromosome 9p24.1 as associated with overall survival in patients with osteosarcoma. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and shed light on the biological underpinnings of this susceptibility locus.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Interleucina-33/genética , Osteossarcoma/genética , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Alelos , Brasil , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
J Bone Oncol ; 9: 41-47, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226089

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer among those with non-hematological origin and affects mainly pediatric patients. In the last 50 years, refinements in surgical procedures, as well as the introduction of aggressive neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapeutic cocktails, have increased to nearly 70% the survival rate of these patients. Despite the initial therapeutic progress the fight against osteosarcoma has not substantially improved during the last three decades, and almost 30% of the patients do not respond or recur after the standard treatment. For this group there is an urgent need to implement new therapeutic approaches. Oncolytic adenoviruses are conditionally replicative viruses engineered to selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells, while remaining quiescent in healthy cells. In the last years there have been multiple preclinical and clinical studies using these viruses as therapeutic agents in the treatment of a broad range of cancers, including osteosarcoma. In this review, we summarize some of the most relevant published literature about the use of oncolytic adenoviruses to treat human osteosarcoma tumors in subcutaneous, orthotopic and metastatic mouse models. In conclusion, up to date the preclinical studies with oncolytic adenoviruses have demonstrated that are safe and efficacious against local and metastatic osteosarcoma. Knowledge arising from phase I/II clinical trials with oncolytic adenoviruses in other tumors have shown the potential of viruses to awake the patient´s own immune system generating a response against the tumor. Generating osteosarcoma immune-competent adenoviruses friendly models will allow to better understand this potential. Future clinical trials with oncolytic adenoviruses for osteosarcoma tumors are warranted.

20.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 27(12): 445-453, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric cancer survivors are a steadily growing population; however, chronic anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) is a serious long-term complication leading to considerable morbidity. We aimed to identify new genes and low-frequency variants influencing the susceptibility to AIC for pediatric cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied the association of variants on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip array in 83 anthracycline-treated pediatric cancer patients. In addition to single-variant association tests, we carried out a gene-based analysis to investigate the combined effects of common and low-frequency variants to chronic AIC. RESULTS: Although no single-variant showed an association with chronic AIC that was statistically significant after correction for multiple testing, we identified a novel significant association for G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) by gene-based testing, a gene with potential roles in cardiac physiology and pathology (P=7.0×10), which remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing (PFDR=0.03). The greatest contribution to this observed association was made by rs12468485, a missense variant (p.Thr253Met, c.758C>T, minor allele frequency=0.04), with the T allele associated with an increased risk of chronic AIC and more severe symptomatic cardiac manifestations at low anthracycline doses. CONCLUSION: Using exome array data, we identified GPR35 as a novel susceptibility gene associated with chronic AIC in pediatric cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Osteossarcoma/complicações , Sarcoma de Ewing/complicações
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