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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670181

RESUMO

Background: on 7 January 2020, a new type of coronavirus was isolated, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2), the organism causing the outbreak that has affected the lives of all humans and has modified the rules of coexistence around the world. In Mexico, from 3 January 2020 to 9 January 2021, there have been 1439, 569 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 131,031 deaths. The World Health Organization reported that Mexico was ranked twelfth, in terms of confirmed cases of COVID-19 by country. Aim: the objective of this study was to determine what modifications dentists from the Mexican Republic have made to their dental practice during theCOVID-19 pandemic. Methods: the study was conducted based on a questionnaire to evaluate the dentists' response and knowledge on the modifications in their dental practice to combat the new coronavirus's cross-transmission. The questionnaire was piloted before it was distributed. The questionnaire was disseminated through the social network Facebook. The questionnaire was distributed to groups of dentists on Facebook, in each of the Mexican Republic states. The survey was carried out during June 2020. Results and Conclusions: from the 32 states of the Mexican Republic, 29 participated with at least one respondent. The results of the applied survey suggest that dentists, at least the population of surveyed ones, have proper knowledge of detection methods of patients suspected of COVID-19, preventive measures that must be applied in the dental office to decrease the risk of infection, and the appropriate procedures and solutions for dental office disinfection.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Odontólogos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Competência Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23782, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350764

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Researchers have reported false positive/negative results of the cold test in the diagnosis of pulpitis. Knowledge of the correlation between results of the cold test and proteins could aid in decreasing the frequency of incorrect diagnosis. To associate the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) with the responses (in seconds) to the cold test in teeth diagnosed with reversible and irreversible pulpitis.A cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 150 subjects were evaluated, of which 60 subjects met the selection criteria. The participants were divided into 3 groups: Group 1, healthy pulps, 20 subjects with 20 posterior teeth (premolars) with clinically normal pulp tissue; Group 2, reversible pulpitis, 20 patients with 20 teeth diagnosed with reversible pulpitis; and Group 3, irreversible pulpitis, 20 subjects with 20 teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. All participants were evaluated based on the following variables: medical and dental history, cold test, and expression of MMP-8 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in dentin samples.Responses to the cold test between 4 to 5 seconds (second evaluation; P < .0001) were associated with high levels of MMP-8 (mean, 0.36 ng/mL) in the reversible pulpitis group. In the irreversible pulpitis group, the responses from 6 to ≥10 seconds (second evaluation; P < .0001) were associated with a higher average of MMP-8 levels (mean, 1.97 ng/mL).We determined that an increase in the duration of response to the cold test was associated with an increase in MMP-8 levels (Rho = 0.81, P < .0001) in teeth with pulpitis. The above correlations can be considered an adjunct to the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Sensibilidade da Dentina/diagnóstico , Dentina , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/análise , Pulpite , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dentina/metabolismo , Dentina/fisiopatologia , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Prognóstico , Pulpite/diagnóstico , Pulpite/metabolismo
3.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(5): 597-602, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two polymorphisms in the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene have been associated with inflammatory diseases (-794 CATT5-8 and -173G>C); however, so far there are no reports of studies related to oral health. OBJECTIVES: To genotype the -794 CATT5-8 and -173G>C MIF polymorphisms in Mexican patients with apical periodontitis as a genetic risk of exacerbation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 120 patients with apical periodontitis: 60 with a diagnosis of acute apical periodontitis (Group A) and 60 without previous episodes of exacerbation (Group B). Allelic discrimination was performed from peripheral blood DNA; the repeat polymorphism -794 CATT5-8 was genotyped with sequencing, while the -173G>C polymorphism was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using TaqMan probes. The associations between MIF polymorphisms, haplotypes and the risk of exacerbated apical periodontitis were assessed. RESULTS: The allele CATT7 was associated with the risk of a stage of acute inflammation (OR = 4.13; 95% CI = 1.82-9.63; p =< 0.001). Regarding the -173G >C polymorphism, a process of inflammation exacerbation was only associated with the CC genotype (OR = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.02-20.84; p = 0.045). The analysis of the haplotype showed that the combination CATT7/C increases the risk of exacerbation of apical periodontitis (OR = 3.57; 95% CI = 1.038-13.300; p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: The polymorphisms -794 CATT5-8 and -173G>C MIF seem to significantly influence the development of a state of exacerbated inflammation in patients with apical periodontitis.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/genética , Periodontite Periapical/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19092, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049814

RESUMO

To determine the treatment needs and the care index for dental caries in the primary dentition and permanent dentition of schoolchildren and to quantify the cost of care that would represent the treatment of dental caries in Mexico.A secondary analysis of data from the First National Caries Survey was conducted, which was a cross-sectional study conducted in the 32 states of Mexico. Based on dmft (average number of decayed, extracted, and filled teeth in the primary dentition) and DMFT (average number of decayed, extracted, and filled teeth in permanent dentition) information, a treatment needs index (TNI) and a caries care index (CI) were calculated.At age 6, the TNI for the primary dentition ranged from 81.7% to 99.5% and the CI ranged from 0.5% to 17.6%. In the permanent dentition, the TNI ranged from 58.8% to 100%, and the CI ranged from 0.0% to 41.2%. At age 12, the TNI ranged from 55.4% to 93.4%, and the CI ranged from 6.5% to 43.4%. At age 15, the TNI ranged from 50.4% to 98.4%, and the CI ranged from 1.4% to 48.3%. The total cost of treatment at 6 years of age was estimated to range from a purchasing power parity (PPP) of USD $49.1 to 287.7 million in the primary dentition, and from a PPP of USD $3.7 to 24 million in the permanent dentition. For the treatment of the permanent dentition of 12-year-olds, the PPP ranged from USD $13.3 to 85.4 million. The estimated cost of treatment of the permanent dentition of the 15-year-olds ranged from a PPP of USD $10.9 to 70.3 million. The total estimated cost of caries treatment ranged from a PPP of USD $77.1 to 499.6 million, depending on the type of treatment and provider (public or private).High percentages of TNI for dental caries and low CI values were observed. The estimated costs associated with the treatment for caries have an impact because they represent a considerable percentage of the total health expenditure in Mexico.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 108(2): 333-342, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041849

RESUMO

Biofilms are matrices synthesized by bacteria containing polysaccharides, DNA, and proteins. The development of biofilms in infectious processes can induce a chronic inflammatory response that may progress to the destruction of tissues. The treatment of biofilms is difficult because they serve as a bacterial mechanism of defense and high doses of antibiotics are necessary to treat these infections with limited positive results. It has been demonstrated that photothermal therapy using gold nanorods (AuNRs) is an attractive treatment because of its anti-biofilm activity. The purpose of this work was to generate a novel chitosan-based hydrogel embedded with AuNRs to evaluate its anti-biofilm activity. AuNRs were synthesized by the seed-mediated growth method and mixed with the chitosan-based hydrogel. Hydrogels were characterized and tested against two bacterial strains by irradiating the produced biofilm in the presence of the nanoformulation with a laser adjusted at the near infrared spectrum. In addition, the safety of the nanoformulation was assessed with normal human gingival fibroblasts. Results showed that a significant bacterial killing was measured when biofilms were exposed to an increase of 10°C for a short time of 2 min. Moreover, no cytotoxicity was measured when normal gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the nanoformulation using the bactericidal conditions. The development of the reported formulation can be used as a direct application to treat periodontal diseases or biofilm-produced bacteria that colonize the oral cavity.

6.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e077, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531564

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to identify the relationship between the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the responses of pulp sensitivity tests in healthy pulps and irreversible pulps by performing a cross-sectional study on patients. Two hundred subjects were evaluated. A total of 75 subjects complied with the criteria. The participants were divided into two groups: a) Healthy pulp (subjects [n = 35] having posterior teeth with clinically normal pulp tissue), and b) Irreversible pulpitis (subjects [n = 40] having posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis). All participants were evaluated using the following variables: a) medical and dental history, b) pulp sensitivity tests, c) expression of CGRP by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and d) expression levels of mRNA CGRP and mRNA CGRP receptor genes. We determined that the responses of the cold test between 4 and ≥12 s presented a higher average of the expression of CGRP in the group having irreversible pulpitis (p = 0.0001). When we compared the groups with the value of the electrical impulse, we found statistically significant differences (p = 0.0001), observing positive responses to the test with electrical impulses of 7 to 10, with an average of 72.15 ng/mL of CGRP in the irreversible pulpitis group. High values of CGRP expression were observed in that group in the responses of pulp sensitivity.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/análise , Teste da Polpa Dentária/métodos , Polpa Dentária/patologia , Pulpite/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pulpite/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 189, 2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cold test is a specific test of pulp sensitivity and is part of the endodontic diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify the diagnostic accuracy including sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in three sites for the cold test in teeth with a need for endodontic treatment within different age groups from both genders. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed, evaluating 425 subjects. Two hundred and fifty-eight subjects from both genders from the ages of 17-27, 28-39, 40-50, and 51-65 years-old participated in the study. The cold test studied was 1, 1, 1, 2-tetrafluoroethane, and the gold standard was established through direct pulp inspection. The sites evaluated in the study were: The sites evaluated in the study were: a) the middle third of the buccal surface; b) the cervical third of the buccal surface, and c) the middle third of the lingual surface. RESULTS: The highest diagnosted accuracy was observed on the middle third buccal surface with an accuracy of = 0.97, a sensitivity of = 1.00, a specificity of 0.95, a predictive value of = 0.95 and a negative predictive value of = 1.00. This was in the female group aged from 40 to 50 years old. CONCLUSION: The tables of this study can be used as an auxiliary for pulp sensitivity tests.


Assuntos
Necrose da Polpa Dentária , Teste da Polpa Dentária , Adulto , Idoso , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Transversais , Necrose da Polpa Dentária/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Oral Dis ; 25(6): 1627-1633, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the sialic acid (SA) levels in saliva among periodontitis-affected, gingivitis and control patients. METHODS: The study involved 93 subjects. The participants were divided into three groups: (1) 30 subjects without periodontal disease (control group); (2) 30 subjects with gingivitis; and (3) 33 subjects with periodontitis. The oral parameters examined were as follows: (a) Simplified Oral Hygiene Index; (b) Calculus Index; (c) Gingival Index; (d) probing pocket depth; and (e) level of epithelial attachment. SA levels in saliva were measured by means of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This method has demonstrated the capacity to detect extremely low concentrations of molecules. The spectrum was calibrated using analytical reagent SA. RESULTS: The obtained median values for SA concentrations were 5.98, 7.32, and 17.12 mg/dl for control, gingivitis, and periodontitis patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our measurements by SERS corroborate that in periodontitis-affected patients, the SA concentration is larger than their concentrations in either control or gingivitis patients. This confirms previous reports and opens the possibility of using SERS as a diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/análise , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Saliva/química , Adulto , Feminino , Gengivite , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/química , Índice Periodontal , Saliva/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e077, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019597

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of the present study was to identify the relationship between the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the responses of pulp sensitivity tests in healthy pulps and irreversible pulps by performing a cross-sectional study on patients. Two hundred subjects were evaluated. A total of 75 subjects complied with the criteria. The participants were divided into two groups: a) Healthy pulp (subjects [n = 35] having posterior teeth with clinically normal pulp tissue), and b) Irreversible pulpitis (subjects [n = 40] having posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis). All participants were evaluated using the following variables: a) medical and dental history, b) pulp sensitivity tests, c) expression of CGRP by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and d) expression levels of mRNA CGRP and mRNA CGRP receptor genes. We determined that the responses of the cold test between 4 and ≥12 s presented a higher average of the expression of CGRP in the group having irreversible pulpitis (p = 0.0001). When we compared the groups with the value of the electrical impulse, we found statistically significant differences (p = 0.0001), observing positive responses to the test with electrical impulses of 7 to 10, with an average of 72.15 ng/mL of CGRP in the irreversible pulpitis group. High values of CGRP expression were observed in that group in the responses of pulp sensitivity.

10.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 20(1): 79-88, Jan.-Apr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091439

RESUMO

Abstract A test frequently used to complement endodontic diagnoses is the cold test; however, in the last 20 years, authors have reported incorrect results within pulp sensitivity tests. Specifically, a high frequency of false results in posterior teeth, were found. The aim of this study was to identify the most appropriate site for the cold test in molar teeth with a need for endodontic treatment, calculating predictive values, accuracy and reproducibility. A cross-sectional study was performed, evaluating 390 subjects. A total of 152 subjects of both genders from the ages of 15-65 years old participated. The ideal standard was established by direct pulp inspection, and the cold test agent used was 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane. The patients were divided into four groups in relation to the molar tooth: (1) mandibular first molar, (2) mandibular second molar, (3) maxillary first molar, and (4) maxillary second molar. 169 teeth and 676 sites were studied. (a) The most appropriate sites for cold test were the middle third of the buccal surface and cervical third of the buccal surface in the mandibular molars with the following results: Middle third of the first molar: Accuracy 0.93, positive predictive value 0.90 and negative predictive value 0.96. Middle third of the second molar: Accuracy 0.93, positive predictive value 1.00 and negative predictive value 0.90. In relation to third cervical the results were: First molar: Accuracy 0.93, positive predictive value 0.89 and negative predictive value 0.97 y second molar: Accuracy 0.93, positive predictive value 1.00 and negative predictive value 0.90. (b) The highest reproducibility was observed in the middle third of the buccal surface with cervical third of the buccal surface in the mandibular second molar (1.00). The most appropriate site and reproducibility of the sites are auxiliary to complement endodontic diagnose with the cold test.


Resumen Una prueba frecuentemente utilizada para complementar los diagnósticos endodónticos es la prueba de frío. Sin embargo, en los últimos 20 años, los autores han reportado resultados incorrectos con las pruebas de sensibilidad pulpar. Específicamente, se ha observado una alta frecuencia de resultados falsos en dientes posteriores. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar el sitio más adecuado para la prueba de frío en dientes molares con necesidad de tratamiento endodóntico, calculando valores predictivos, exactitud y reproducibilidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal donde se evaluaron a 390 sujetos. 152 sujetos de ambos sexos de 15 a 65 años cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. El estándar ideal que se utilizó en el estudio fue la inspección directa de pulpa en la cámara pulpar y la prueba de frío utilizada fue el 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroetano. Los pacientes fueron divididos en cuatro grupos en relación al diente molar: (1) primer molar mandibular, (2) segundo molar mandibular, (3) primer molar maxilar, y (4) segundo molar maxilar. En el estudio se evaluaron 169 dientes con 676 sitios. (a) Los sitios más adecuados para la prueba de frío fueron el tercio medio y el tercio cervical de la superficie bucal en los molares mandibulares con los siguientes resultados: Tercio medio del primer molar: Exactitud 0.93, valor predictivo positivo 0.90 y valor predictivo negativo 0.96. Tercio medio del segundo molar: Exactitud 0.93, valor predictivo positivo 1.00 y valor predictivo negativo 0.90. En relación al tercio cervical los resultados fueron: Primer molar: Exactitud 0.93, valor predictivo positivo 0.89 y valor predictivo negativo 0,97 y segundo molar: Exactitud 0.93, valor predictivo positivo 1.00 y valor predictivo negativo 0.90. (b) La más alta reproducibilidad (1.00) se observó entre el tercio medio con el tercio cervical de la superficie bucal en el segundo molar inferior. El sitio más apropiado y la reproducibilidad de los sitios son auxiliares para complementar el diagnóstico endodóntico con la prueba de frío.

11.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(4): 320-329, July.-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-899432

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Systemic blockade of TNF-α in Rheumatoid arthritis with insulin resistance seems to produce more improvement in insulin sensitivity in normal weight patients with Rheumatoid arthritis than in obese patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting that systemic-inflammation and obesity are independent risk factors for insulin resistance in Rheumatoid arthritis patients. Objectives: To evaluate the insulin resistance in: normal weight patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, overweight patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, obese Rheumatoid arthritis patients, and matched control subjects with normal weight and obesity; and its association with major cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods: Assessments included: body mass index, insulin resistance by Homeostasis Model Assessment, ELISA method, and enzymatic colorimetric assay. Results: Outstanding results from these studies include: (1) In Rheumatoid arthritis patients, insulin resistance was well correlated with body mass index, but not with levels of serum cytokines. In fact, levels of cytokines were similar in all Rheumatoid arthritis patients, regardless of being obese, overweight or normal weight (2) Insulin resistance was significantly higher in Rheumatoid arthritis with normal weight than in normal weight (3) No significant difference was observed between insulin resistances of Rheumatoid arthritis with obesity and obesity (4) As expected, levels of circulating cytokines were significantly higher in Rheumatoid arthritis patients than in obesity. Conclusions: Obesity appears to be a dominant condition above inflammation to produce IR in RA patients. The dissociation of the inflammation and obesity components to produce IR suggests the need of an independent therapeutic strategy in obese patients with RA.


RESUMO Introdução: O bloqueio sistêmico do Fator de Necrose Tumoral-α (TNF-α) nos indivíduos com artrite reumatoide (AR) com resistência à insulina (RI) parece produzir mais melhoria na sensibilidade à insulina em pacientes com AR com peso normal do que em pacientes obesos com AR. Isso sugere que a inflamação sistêmica e a obesidade são fatores de risco independentes para a RI em pacientes com AR. Objetivos: Avaliar a resistência à insulina em pacientes com peso normal com AR (AR-PN), pacientes com sobrepeso com AR (AR-SP), pacientes com AR obesos (AR-OB) e indivíduos controle com peso normal (PN) e obesidade (OB) pareados; e a associação com as principais citocinas envolvidas na patogênese da doença. Métodos: As avaliações incluíram: índice de massa corporal (IMC), resistência à insulina com o modelo de avaliação da homeostase (Homa-IR), método Elisa e ensaio colorimétrico enzimático. Resultados: Os resultados marcantes do presente estudo incluíram: (1) Em pacientes com AR, a RI estava bem correlacionada com o Índice de Massa Corporal (quanto maior o IMC, maior a RI), mas não com os níveis séricos de citocinas. Na verdade, os níveis de citocinas eram semelhantes em todos os pacientes com AR, independentemente de serem obesos, com sobrepeso ou peso normal. (2) A RI foi significativamente maior no grupo AR-PN do que no grupo PN. (3) Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a RI de pacientes AR-OB e OB. (4) Como esperado, os níveis circulantes de citocinas foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com AR do que em OB. Conclusões: A obesidade parece ser uma condição mais importante do que a inflamação em produzir RI em pacientes com AR. A dissociação dos componentes da inflamação e da obesidade na produção de RI sugere a necessidade de uma estratégia terapêutica independente em pacientes obesos com AR.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações
12.
Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed ; 57(4): 320-329, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic blockade of TNF-α in Rheumatoid arthritis with insulin resistance seems to produce more improvement in insulin sensitivity in normal weight patients with Rheumatoid arthritis than in obese patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting that systemic-inflammation and obesity are independent risk factors for insulin resistance in Rheumatoid arthritis patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the insulin resistance in: normal weight patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, overweight patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, obese Rheumatoid arthritis patients, and matched control subjects with normal weight and obesity; and its association with major cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Assessments included: body mass index, insulin resistance by Homeostasis Model Assessment, ELISA method, and enzymatic colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Outstanding results from these studies include: (1) In Rheumatoid arthritis patients, insulin resistance was well correlated with body mass index, but not with levels of serum cytokines. In fact, levels of cytokines were similar in all Rheumatoid arthritis patients, regardless of being obese, overweight or normal weight (2) Insulin resistance was significantly higher in Rheumatoid arthritis with normal weight than in normal weight (3) No significant difference was observed between insulin resistances of Rheumatoid arthritis with obesity and obesity (4) As expected, levels of circulating cytokines were significantly higher in Rheumatoid arthritis patients than in obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity appears to be a dominant condition above inflammation to produce IR in RA patients. The dissociation of the inflammation and obesity components to produce IR suggests the need of an independent therapeutic strategy in obese patients with RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/imunologia , Obesidade/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações
13.
Dent Mater J ; 36(3): 266-274, 2017 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154313

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the effect of adding silver nanoparticles into three commercial adhesive systems (Excite™, Adper Prompt L-Pop™ and AdheSE™). Nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical method then mixed with the commercial adhesive systems. This was later applied to the fluorotic enamel, and then micro-tensile bond strength, contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy observations were conducted. The commercial adhesive systems achieved the lowest micro-tensile bond strength (Excite™: 11.0±2.1, Adper Prompt L-Pop™: 14.0±5.4 and AdheSE™: 16.0±3.0 MPa) with the highest adhesive failure mode related with the highest contact angle (46.0±0.6º, 30.0±0.5º and 28.0±0.4º respectively). The bond strength achieved in all the experimental adhesive systems (19.0±5.4, 20.0±4.0 and 19.0±3.5 MPa respectively) was statistically higher (p<0.05) than the control and showed the highest cohesive failures related to the lowest contact angle. Adding silver nanoparticles in order to decrease the contact angle improve the adhesive system wetting and its bond strength.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Prata , Adesivos , Resinas Compostas , Colagem Dentária , Esmalte Dentário , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Adesivos Dentinários , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cimentos de Resina , Resistência à Tração
14.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40686, 2017 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28094800

RESUMO

We determined the prevalence of hyposalivation and xerostomia in older Mexicans (≥60 years), and its relationship with diverse factors. A cross-sectional study was realized in elderly subjects from Pachuca, Mexico. Chewing-stimulated saliva was collected under standardized conditions and salivary flow was measured; subjects were considered to have hyposalivation if their stimulated salivary flow was less than 0.7 mL per minute. Xerostomia was evaluated by asking subjects 'Does your mouth feel dry?'. Hyposalivation was present in 59.7%, and xerostomia in 25.2% of subjects. 16.5% of subjects had both conditions. Xerostomia was present in 27.7% of subjects with hyposalivation and 21.4% of subjects without hyposalivation, but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Thus, 68.3% of older Mexicans had xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. Factors associated with hyposalivation were: using fewer devices in oral hygiene, lacking social benefits for retirement/pension, living in a public retirement home, brushing teeth less than twice a day and lacking teeth without dentures. None of the factors included in this study were associated with xerostomia. We concluded that several variables studied were associated with hyposalivation, but none for xerostomia. Additional research should examine the amount of hyposalivation and factors associated with hyposalivation especially in elderly with increased risk for hyposalivation.


Assuntos
Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Xerostomia/terapia
15.
Bioinorg Chem Appl ; 2016: 1057260, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965525

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to synthetize europium-doped nanohydroxyapatite using a simple aqueous precipitation method and, thereafter, characterize and impregnate selected samples with 5-fluorouracil in order to explore the properties and the releasing capacity of this material. The nanohydroxyapatite was doped with 3, 5, 10, and 20 wt% of europium. The obtained samples were characterized after they were dried at 80°C and hydrothermal treated at 120°C by 2 hours. The samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Also, impregnation and release of 5-fluorouracil were assessed in PBS. The toxicity effects of all samples were studied using viability assays on human fibroblasts cells (HGF-1) in vitro. The sizes of the crystallites were about 10-70 nm with irregular morphology and present the phase corresponding to the JCPDS card 9-0432 for hydroxyapatite. The results of the toxicity experiments indicated that doped and undoped powders are biocompatible with fibroblasts cells. Hydroxyapatite samples doped with 5% of europium and loaded with 5-fluorouracil release almost 7 mg/L of the drug after 60 minutes in PBS and decrease the viability of HeLa cells after 24 hours.

16.
Rev. ADM ; 73(5): 241-244, sept.-oct. 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-835301

RESUMO

El efecto Doppler es la base científica de la flujometría láser Doppler. El efecto fue descrito por primera vez en el año de 1842 por el físico austriaco Christian Doppler en su tratado Über das farbige licht der doppelsterne und einige andere gestirne des himmels (Sobre el color de la luz en estrellas binarias y otros astros). Este principio ha permitido desarrollar técnicas y aparatos que han sido empleados en el ramo médico para medir la perfusión en diversos órganos y tejidos del cuerpo, y que han sido útiles como método diagnóstico. En la odontología, poco a poco comienza a reportarse información acerca del uso del Doppler en las diversas estructuras bucodentales, y ha demostrado ser no invasivo y de gran utilidad diagnóstica. Son pocos los estudios reportados en la rama de la odontología en cuanto a esta nueva tecnología; es importante comenzar líneas de investigación apoyadas en ella para beneficio de los pacientes.


The Doppler eff ect, the scientifi c basis of laser Doppler fl owmetry, wasfi rst described in 1842 by Austrian physicist Christian Doppler in histreatise Über das farbige Licht der doppelsterne und einige andere gestirnedes Himmels (On the Colored Light of the Binary Stars and SomeOther Stars of the Heavens). This principle has led to the developmentof techniques and devices that have been used in the fi eld of medicineto measure perfusion in various organs and tissues, and have provideda useful method of diagnosis. In dentistry, information on the use ofthis method in the various structures of the mouth has slowly begunto be published. As a result, the need for its continued use in the fi eldof oral health has become evident, given that it has proven to be noninvasiveand extremely useful in diagnosis. It is a diagnostic technique that is commonly used in healthcare and has been widely developedin the fi eld of medicine, yet there have been few reported studies of it suse in dentistry, which is an important step towards opening new linesof research based on this new technology for the benefi t of patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler/normas , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler/tendências , Odontologia/tendências , Cicatrização/efeitos da radiação , Dente/efeitos da radiação , Fraturas dos Dentes/diagnóstico , Tecnologia Odontológica/tendências , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos da radiação
17.
Rev. ADM ; 73(2): 81-87, mar.-abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-789838

RESUMO

Diversos estudios han demostrado mayor o menor grado de afectacióndel esmalte después del uso de los distintos tratamientos para blanqueamiento dental. Por este motivo, se han propuesto varios métodos ytratamientos remineralizantes que pudieran revertir los efectos negativosde dicho tratamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del Opalescence PF 15 por ciento (peróxido de carbamida al 15%) y delremineralizante Flor-Opal (NaF al 1.1 por ciento), ambos de la casa comercialUltradent, así como de la saliva artifi cial sobre la microdureza y la micromorfología del esmalte humano. Se utilizaron 10 incisivos centrales superiores recién extraídos provenientes de centros de salud del Puerto de Veracruz, México. Réplicas de estos dientes fueron obtenidas en lasdiferentes fases del tratamiento de blanqueamiento para ser posteriormente observadas en el microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB). Asimismo, se realizaron mediciones de microdureza en la superficie del esmalte de los dientes seleccionados durante las diferentes fases del tratamiento de blanqueamiento. Se observó que la microdureza del esmalte se ve disminuida (aunque no significativamente) después de la aplicación del peróxido de carbamida al 15 por ciento, y vuelve a subir después de la aplicación de los remineralizantes, para posteriormente volver a descender siete días después del uso de los mismos. Los datos de microdureza coincidieron con los de micromorfología obtenidos enel MEB. Se concluye que el peróxido de carbamida al 15 opr ciento sí afecta lamicromorfología de la superficie del esmalte, además de que disminuyela microdureza del mismo. Con el uso del remineralizante Flor-Opal se onsiguieron mayores valores de microdureza y mejores características micromorfológicas comparado con la saliva artificial.


Studies have shown varying degrees of involvement of the enamel following the use of tooth-whitening treatments. Consequently, a range of methods and remineralizing treatments have been proposed to reverse their negative effects. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effect of Opalescence PF 15% (carbamide peroxide 15%) and the remineralizing treatment Flor-Opal (1.1% NaF), both produced by Ultradent, as well as artifi cial saliva on the microhard-ness and micromorphology of human enamel. Ten recently-extracted central incisors from health centers in the port of Veracruz, Mexico, were used. Replicas of these teeth were made at the various stages of the whitening treatment in order to observe these under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Microhardness measurements were also taken on the surface of the enamel of the teeth selected at each of the various stages of the whitening treatment. The microhardness of the enamel was found to decrease (though not signifi cantly) after the ap-plication of carbamide peroxide 15%, then increase again following the application of the remineralizing agents, only to decrease again seven days after these were applied. The microhardness data coincided with that for micromorphology obtained from the SEM. We conclude that carbamide peroxide 15% does affect the micromorphology of the enamel surface and also decreases its microhardness. Flor-Opal produced higher microhardness values and better micromorphological characteristics compared to artifi cial saliva.


Assuntos
Humanos , Clareamento Dental/instrumentação , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Remineralização Dentária/instrumentação , Testes de Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Análise Estatística , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21147, 2016 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26916132

RESUMO

We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Cárie Dentária , Higiene Bucal , Perda de Dente/patologia , Dente Decíduo/patologia , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Prevalência , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/prevenção & controle
19.
Am J Infect Control ; 43(10): 1092-5, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26190385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biologic indicator tests (BIs) are considered the most meaningful way to verify sterilization. OBJECTIVE: To monitor the cycles of sterilization using BIs in dry heat sterilizers and steam autoclaves and to identify the causes of failures in the cycles of sterilization in dental offices in San Luis Potosí, México. METHODS: An invitation to participate was sent to 400 dental offices, and 206 practitioners of 200 dental offices were included. A questionnaire was given to each of the participants, asking for the following information: sterilizer type, operational parameters used (eg, temperature, pressure, and length of exposure), frequency of sterilization cycles per day, use of BIs, and maintenance procedures of the sterilizer. Two hundred thirty sterilizers were monitored using BIs. The sterilizers with positive results were monitored a second and third time to identify the cause of the failure. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of practitioners (n = 46) used BIs, and 17% (n = 39) of the sterilizers reported positive results (bacterial growth). The detected failures were a mistake in the procedure (eg, temperature, time, or pressure), an absence of supervision of the procedure performed by the assistant, and improper maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: There are opportunities to increase information on infection control, to improve the adoption of standard quality control methods for sterilization as a routine process, to improve training on proper testing, and standardize processes.


Assuntos
Consultórios Odontológicos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Esterilização/métodos , Esterilização/normas , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , México
20.
Odontology ; 102(1): 105-15, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23224521

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine the impact of socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and other risk indicators on dental fluorosis (DF) among Mexican adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1,538 adolescents 12 and 15 years of age in semi-rural communities located at high altitude (>2,000 m) and with high concentration of fluoride in water (1.38-3.07 ppm) in Hidalgo, Mexico. DF was determined by means of Dean's Index and all teeth were examined. Remaining variables were collected using a questionnaire. The adjusted final model was performed using ordered logistic regression. After adjusting for sex, the variables associated with DF were (p < 0.05): being 12 years old (OR = 1.10) versus 15 years old; having lived the first 6 years of life in El Llano (3.07 F ppm) (OR = 3.19) or San Marcos (1.38 F ppm) (OR = 1.63) versus Tula (1.42 F ppm); having public (OR = 1.35) or private health insurance (OR = 1.36) versus those without insurance; belonging to the lower quartiles of socioeconomic position (SEP) [1st quartile (OR = 2.48), 2nd quartile (OR = 1.81), 3rd quartile (OR = 1.49)] versus the highest quartile; having drunk tap water (OR = 1.83) or from a well or spring (OR = 2.30) versus those who drank water purchased in large containers or bottles. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were associated with DF. While better SEP appeared to play an important role in DF, a pattern of water intake associated with water purchased in large containers or bottles (which have different connotations to the use of bottled water in industrialized Western countries) did reduce DF risk in these high fluoride content, high altitude communities.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluorose Dentária/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino
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