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1.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 13(1): 68-80, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462658

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. While surgery remains the mainstay of the treatment of all different histologies, for differentiated thyroid cancers, radioactive iodine also plays an important role in management. Once tumor becomes radio-iodine refractory, it needs systemic therapy. Earlier, these tumors had very dismal prognosis. However, with the advancement of technology and research, it has become clear now that thyroid cancer cells are driven by various mutations. Targeting these oncogenic drivers by various molecules have proven to be effective therapeutic strategy in thyroid cancer. Besides, as in other solid tumors, immunotherapy is also being evaluated in thyroid cancer. While these new therapeutic approaches have revolutionized the treatment on advanced/metastatic thyroid cancer, there are definite challenges which limit their use in common clinical practice. These challenges include higher treatment cost and lack of testing to identify the driver mutations. Moreover, there is still need for further research in thyroid cancers to identify oncogenic targets and agent to act upon them.

2.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 13(1): 61-67, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462671

RESUMO

There is a paucity of evidence of the impact of sorafenib on MCT and it is the preferred therapy used in India. We decided to do an audit of all patients of MCT who were referred to us for systemic therapy. The objective of this exercise was to identify the treatment pattern, outcomes, and adverse events with therapy in MCT. Baseline demographics (age, gender, ECOG PS, comorbidities, habits), tumor details (site of metastasis), previous treatment details, clinical features at metastasis (symptomatic or asymptomatic), the pattern of treatment, adverse events (CTCAE version 4.02), date of progression, date of death and status, and follow-up were extracted from the rare tumor database and electronic medical records. Out of 75 patients referred for therapy for MCT, 47 (62.7%) patients were considered for immediate tyrosine kinase inhibitors as they had symptomatic status and 28 (37.3%) patients were kept on observation due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease. Out of the 28 patients, 15 (53.6%, n = 28) patients were subsequently started on TKI while in 13 (46.4%, n = 28) patients observation was continued. In the overall cohort, the median PFS was 18.9 months (95% CI 11.9-29.9) and OS was 26.6 months (95% CI 14.4-39.0). Among variables tested, only female gender had an impact on PFS (hazard ratio = 0.364 95% CI 0.148-0.895; P = 0.028) and the absence of lung metastasis had a positive impact on OS (hazard ratio = 0.443 95% CI 0.207-0.95; P = 0.037). Most commonly used TKI was sorafenib (n = 61) and sunitinib in 1 patient. The most common adverse events with TKI were palmo-plantar dysesthesia (50, 80.6%) and oral mucositis (25, 40.2%). The strategy of treating symptomatic MCT and observing in asymptomatic MCT is associated with reasonable PFS and OS. Sorafenib is the most commonly used TKI in our setup and provides similar outcomes as globally.

3.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 13(1): 81-86, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462674

RESUMO

The real-world patterns of TKI use in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) are largely governed by the accessibility and financial feasibility of the patient with more sorafenib use compared to lenvatinib. There are limited data available on the toxicity profile, safety and tolerance of sorafenib and lenvatinib in DTC. Hence, we audited our practice on DTC. This is a retrospective single-centre analysis of patients with DTC who were referred to the Department of Medical Oncology for systemic therapy. Baseline demographics (age, sex, ECOG PS, comorbidities, substance use), tumour details (site of metastasis), previous treatment details, clinical features at metastasis (symptoms), the pattern of treatment, adverse events and outcomes including progression and death were extracted. There were 67 patients with DTC referred for systemic therapy; the median age was 56 (33-81) with a male preponderance (55.6%). The most common reason to start TKI therapy was radioactive iodine (RAI) cumulative dose > 600 milliCurie, followed by low iodine uptake in the RAI low-dose scan done at progression. The most common TKI used in the first line was sorafenib in 56 (83.6%) patients followed by lenvatinib in 9 (13.4%) patients. Papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most common histology (51, 76.1%), and the rest were follicular carcinoma (16, 23.9%). With a median follow-up of 36 months, the median PFS was 13.2 months (95% CI 10.4-16.0). The median OS was 18.8 months (95% CI 10.0-27.6). Among variables tested, no factors had a significant impact on the PFS or OS. The most common adverse events were hand-foot syndrome (54, 80.5%), diarrhoea (23, 33.3%) and transaminitis (24, 34.4%). The pattern of care of patients with RAI-refractory DTC is TKI therapy, especially sorafenib and lenvatinib in the real-world settings with comparable efficacy and safety profile compared to international literature.

4.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382699

RESUMO

The COVID-19 is declared a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO). It causes respiratory illness which leads to oxygen deficiency; it has affected millions of lives all around the globe. It has also been observed that people with diabetes condition are more likely to have severe symptoms when infected with the SARS-CoV2. So, continued efforts are being taken to design and discover potential anti-covid drugs. Earlier, a study reveals that the acetonitrile (2-phenyl-4H-benzopyrimedo [2,1-b]-thiazol-4-yliden) derivatives have potential anti-diabetic activity. Hence, drugs repurpose approach was used to identify the potential acetonitrile derivative targeting the main protease of SARS-CoV2. Here, ADMET, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation techniques were employed, to identify potential acetonitrile compounds against the main protease. The acetonitrile compounds (A to M) show the drug-likeness properties. Next, the molecular docking and dynamics simulation study reveals that acetonitrile compounds A, F, G, and L show a higher binding affinity and have an effect on the structure and dynamics of the main protease. Furthermore, binding energy calculations reveal that the acetonitrile derivative F has a higher binding affinity with the main protease and derivative L has a lower binding affinity with the main protease. The binding affinity of acetonitrile derivatives decreases in the order of F > A > G > L with the main protease. Thus, our computational modeling study provides valuable structural and energetic information of interaction of potential acetonitrile derivatives with the main protease which could be further used as potential lead molecules against the SARS-CoV2.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

5.
Oral Oncol ; 128: 105816, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant re-chemoradiation after salvage surgery improves disease-free survival in recurrent head and neck cancer. However, most patients are ineligible for re-irradiation and are kept on observation. We investigated the efficacy of metronomic adjuvant chemotherapy (MAC) in this group of patients compared to observation. METHODS: This was a randomized integrated phase II/III clinical trial. Adults with recurrent head and neck cancer, who had undergone salvage surgery, but were ineligible for adjuvant re-irradiation were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either MAC arm or observation. MAC consisted of weekly oral methotrexate (at a dose of 15 mg per square meter of body surface area) and celecoxib (at a dose of 200 mg orally twice daily) for 6 months. The primary endpoint of phase 2 was disease-free survival (DFS) while that of phase 3 was overall survival (OS). For phase 2, to detect an improvement in the hazard ratio (HR) 0.67 with MAC, with a type 1 error of 10% (1-sided), type 2 error of 30%, 105 patients were required. While for phase 3, with a target HR of 0.77, with a type 1 error of 5%, type 2 error of 20%, 318 patients were required. Here we report the results of phase 2 part of the study. RESULTS: At a median follow up of 30.2 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 25.3 to 35.1) the 1 year and 2-year DFS were 57.4% (95% CI, 42.8-69.5) and 37.6% (95% CI, 24.1-51) in MAC arm whereas the corresponding numbers were 62.3% (95% CI, 47.8 to 73.8) and 54.2%(95% CI, 39.8 to 66.5) in observation arm, respectively (hazard ratio for progression, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.87 to 2.47; P = 0.15). In the MAC arm, the 1 and 2 year OS was 78.7% (95% CI, 64.9 to 87.6) and 48% (95% CI, 34.1 to 62).The corresponding figures in the observation arm were 79.2% (95% CI, 65.7 to 87.9) and 65.5% (95% CI, 50.9 to 76.7) (hazard ratio for death, 1.7, 95% CI, 0.94 to 3.08; P = 0.08). CONCLUSION: The adjuvant 6-month metronomic schedule was ineffective in improving outcomes in recurrent head and neck cancers post salvage surgery who are ineligible for re-radiation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registry of India (CTRI)- CTRI/2016/04/006872 [Registered on 26/4/2016].


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Reirradiação , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Reirradiação/métodos , Terapia de Salvação
6.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geriatric 8 (G8) and Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) are quick and easy-to-use screening tools, developed and validated in older patients living in North America and Europe for predicting abnormalities in the subsequent geriatric assessment. The applicability of these screening tools in older Indian patients with cancer is not known. METHODS: An observational study in 308 Indian patients with cancer aged ≥60 years, who were evaluated in the Geriatric Oncology clinic at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India, between June 2018 and November 2020. Patients underwent the G8 and VES-13 screening tools followed by a geriatric assessment. The objectives were to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the G8/VES-13 screening tools to detect an abnormal geriatric assessment, to determine their association with the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS)/Cancer Aging and Research Group (CARG) scores, to determine the optimal cut-off value on the G8 scale for older Indian patients with cancer, and to determine whether an abnormal G8/VES-13 score was associated with shorter survival. We also aimed to assess the utility of combining the G8 and VES-13 scores to predict for an abnormal geriatric assessment and poorer survival. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the G8 (cut-off, ≤14) score were 84.4% and 17.6%, respectively, whereas those for the VES-13 score (≥3) were 34.9% and 82.4%, respectively. The appropriate abnormal G8 cut-off score was noted to be 12. Abnormal G8 (≤14) and VES-13 scores were not associated with an abnormal subsequent geriatric assessment [p = 0.736 (G8)], while abnormal G8 (≤14) scores did not predict for worse survival outcomes. Lowering the cut-off of the G8 score to <12 and/or combining an abnormal G8 (<12) with the VES-13 score were found to be associated with an abnormal subsequent geriatric assessment [p < 0.001 (G8), p < 0.001(G8 + VES-13)] and predicted for worse survival. CONCLUSIONS: An abnormal G8 cut-off score < 12 is therefore appropriate in older Indian patients with cancer. G8 < 12 predicts for the presence of non-oncological vulnerabilities and shorter survival. Lowering the cutoff of G8 to 12translated to a 35% reduction in the number of patients undergoing a complete geriatric assessment. Combined with VES-13, the G8 can be reliably used to identify those patients who would benefit the most from a geriatric assessment and help in optimal resource utilization especially in busy Indian centers.

7.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of low dose once-a-week cisplatin and once-every-3-weeks cisplatin with radiation in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC). The current analysis focuses on the quality of life (QoL) of patients in this trial. METHODS: In this phase III randomized trial, patients with nonmetastatic LAHNSCC were randomized to receive cisplatin 30 mg/m2 once-a-week or 100 mg/m2 once every- 3-weeks concurrently with radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was locoregional control. QoL was a key secondary endpoint. QoL was assessed using EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35. QoL data were assessed at baseline, days 22 and 43 during treatment; and at 6, 12, 24 months. The linear mixed-effects model was used for longitudinal analysis of QoL to determine the impact of treatment (arm) and time on QoL. RESULTS: Three hundred patients were enrolled, data of 150 patients with available baseline QoL were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the global health status/QoL of the two treatment arms (p = 0.8664). There was no significant difference in the longitudinal QoL scores between the two treatment arms in all scales except constipation (p = 0.0096), less sexuality (p = 0.0002,), and financial difficulty (p = 0.0219). There was a worsening of the QoL scores in all scales in both arms during treatment, which improved after treatment completion in most scales. CONCLUSION: The use of once-every-3-weeks cisplatin did not adversely impact QoL as compared to once-a-week cisplatin in combination with radiotherapy in LAHNSCC.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 161: e587-e595, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is lack of consensus regarding optimal adjuvant therapy in elderly glioblastoma (GBM). We have been treating elderly (≥60 years) GBM patients with normofractionated or hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) plus temozolomide (TMZ) based on Karnofsky performance status (KPS). Herein we report clinical outcomes in this cohort treated at our institute using this approach. METHODS: Medical records of elderly GBM patients (≥60 years) treated between 2013 and 2017 with either normofractionated RT (59.4-60 Gy/30-33 fractions/6-6.5 weeks) or hypofractionated RT (35 Gy/10 fractions/2 weeks) plus TMZ were reviewed retrospectively. Outcomes of interest included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and ≥grade 3 myelotoxicity. Time-to-event outcomes were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier methods, compared using log-rank test, and reported as point estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The normofractionated cohort (n = 126) was characterized by a higher proportion of patients younger than age 65 years, KPS ≥70, methylated O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and receiving adjuvant TMZ including extended adjuvant TMZ (>6 cycles) compared with the hypofractionated cohort (n = 20), confirming selection bias. At a median follow-up of 13 months, 1-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of PFS and OS were 43% (95% CI: 36%-52%) and 56% (95% CI: 48%-64%), yielding median PFS and OS of 11.0 months and 13.1 months, respectively. Higher KPS, methylated MGMT, normofractionated RT, and extended adjuvant TMZ emerged as favorable prognostic factors. TMZ was well tolerated with a low risk of ≥grade 3 myelotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Our single-institution clinical audit confirms poor survival in elderly GBM with suboptimal performance status but demonstrates acceptably fair outcomes in patients with preserved KPS comparable with the nonelderly cohort.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
10.
Radiother Oncol ; 170: 151-158, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and Temporal Bone (TB) are rare entities with very few large reports on outcomes and toxicities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective audit of all SCC of EAC/TB tumors treated with curative intent RT at our Institute between January 2007 and December 2019 was undertaken. The primary endpoint of the study was event-free survival (EFS). RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients were eligible for analysis. The median age was 54 years. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 61 months. Sixty-five patients received adjuvant RT, and 24 received definitive RT. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for aiding resectability was used in 12 patients, out of which 8 underwent surgery. The 5-year LRC, EFS, and OS were 66.2%, 57.8%, and 63.5%. The predominant pattern of failure was local (n = 36, 40.4%). Regional failure was seen in only five patients, none of which were in patients in whom elective nodal irradiation had been omitted post-operatively. On multivariable analysis adjuvant RT was associated with superior outcomes than definitive RT. Treatment with IMRT resulted in lower ≥ grade 2 late subcutaneous fibrosis (8.7% vs. 38.1%) compared to conventional/3D-CRT technique. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery followed by adjuvant therapy should remain the mainstay of treatment for EAC and TB SCC. IMRT should be the preferred modality for RT due to lower late morbidity. Elective nodal irradiation is routinely not warranted in the adjuvant setting for EAC and TB squamous cell carcinomas.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 126(10): 1439-1449, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-EGFR-based therapies have limited success in HNSCC patients. Predictive biomarkers are needed to identify the patients most likely to benefit from these therapies. Here, we present predictive and prognostic associations of different cancer stem cell markers in HPV-negative locally advanced (LA) HNSCC patients. METHODS: Pretreatment tumour tissues of 404 HPV-negative LA-HNSCCs patients, a subset of-phase 3-randomised study comparing cisplatin-radiation(CRT) and nimotuzumab plus cisplatin-radiation(NCRT) were examined. The expression levels of CD44, CD44v6, CD98hc, ALDH1A1, SOX2 and OCT4A were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Progression-free survival(PFS), loco-regional control(LRC),- and overall survival(OS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: NCRT showed significantly improved OS with low membrane expression of CD44 compared to CRT [HR (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.46-0.88)]. Patients with low CD44v6 also showed better outcomes with NCRT [LRC: HR (95% CI) = 0.25 (0.10-0.62); OS: HR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.19-0.74)]. No similar benefit with NCRT observed in patients with high CD44 or CD44v6 expression. Bootstrap resampling confirmed the predictive effect of CD44 (Interaction P = 0.015) and CD44v6 (Interaction P = 0.041) for OS. Multivariable Cox analysis revealed an independent negative prognostic role of CD98hc membrane expression for LRC [HR (95% CI) = 0.63(0.39-1.0)] and OS[HR (95% CI) = 0.62 (0.40-0.95)]. CONCLUSIONS: CD44 and CD44v6 are potential predictive biomarkers for NCRT response. CD98hc emerged as an independent negative prognostic biomarker. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India (Trial registration identifier-CTRI/2014/09/004980).


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Biomarcadores , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 198(3): 291-303, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059761

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Imaging features are known to reflect inherent disease biology in various cancers including brain tumors. We report on the prognostic impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features on survival in patients with medulloblastoma treated between 2007 and 2018 at our institute. METHODS: Sixteen semantic imaging features (with predefined categories) were extracted from pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI by consensus. Univariate analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation of semantic features with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 171 medulloblastoma patients (median age 9 years) treated with maximal safe resection followed by risk-stratified adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy. A total of 55 patients experienced recurrent/progressive disease (commonly neuraxial metastases) resulting in 44 deaths, including one treatment-related death. At a median follow-up of 45 months (interquartile range 19-65 months), 5­year Kaplan-Meier estimates of RFS and OS were 64% and 71%, respectively. Semantic MRI features such as non-central tumor location on vertical axis, absence of brainstem involvement, ≤ 80% solid tumor area with contrast uptake, heterogenous pattern of contrast enhancement, necrosis, calcification, and T2-weighted heterogeneity were associated with significantly worse RFS and/or OS in univariate analysis. Cox regression analysis identified tumor location on the vertical axis, brainstem involvement, and calcification as independent prognostic factors impacting outcomes. Distinctive MRI features correlated with survival even within individual molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma. CONCLUSION: Distinctive semantic MRI features correlate significantly with survival outcomes in medulloblastoma, also within individual molecular subgroups, reflecting their prognostic impact.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares , Meduloblastoma , Neoplasias Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cerebelares/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Meduloblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Meduloblastoma/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Semântica
14.
J Neurooncol ; 156(3): 625-634, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037156

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nearly 10% of patients with adult diffuse glioma develop clinically significant myelotoxicity while on temozolomide (TMZ) leading to treatment interruptions. This study aimed to assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene in adults with biopsy-proven diffuse glioma who develop TMZ-induced myelotoxicity and correlate their presence with severity and duration of such toxicity. METHODS: This study assessed 33 adults treated with TMZ for diffuse glioma who developed ≥ grade 2 thrombocytopenia and/or ≥ grade 3 neutropenia. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells for MGMT SNP analysis after written informed consent. TMZ-induced severe myelotoxicity (≥ grade 3) was correlated with three specified SNPs commonly seen in the MGMT gene (L84F, I143V/K178R) using chi-square test or Fischer's exact test as appropriate. RESULTS: Of the 33 adults, 24 (72.7%) experienced ≥ grade 3 thrombocytopenia and/or neutropenia, while 9 (27.3%) developed grade 2 thrombocytopenia only. The variant T allele of L84F was expressed in 28.7% (19/66) of analyzed alleles, which was substantially higher than previously reported for South Asian ancestry. The variant G allele of I143V/K178R was expressed in 9.3% (6/64) of analyzed alleles. Of which 3 patients showed statistically significant association with prolonged myelosuppression for > 2 months (p = 0.03). No significant correlation was established between the mentioned SNPs and severe myelotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantially higher frequency of variant T allele (L84F) in Indian patients than previously reported for South Asians. The presence of specific SNPs in the MGMT gene correlates with prolonged duration but not severity of TMZ-induced myelotoxicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Metilases de Modificação do DNA , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA , Glioma , Temozolomida , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mieloides/patologia , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Temozolomida/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
15.
Int J Cancer ; 150(6): 1045-1052, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751432

RESUMO

The real-world data on short course of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) use are sparse and merit exploration. A multicentric observational study on the safety and efficacy of ICI in oncology patients between August 2014 and October 2020 involves 1011 patients across 13 centers in India. The median age was 59 (min 16-max 98) years with male preponderance (77.9%). The predominant cohort received short-course ICI therapy; the median number of cycles was 5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-27), and the median duration of therapy was 3 (95% CI 0.5-13) months. ICIs were used commonly in the second and third line setting in our study (66.4%, n = 671). Objective response rate (complete or partial response) was documented in 254 (25.1%) of the patients, 202 (20.0%) had stable disease, and 374 (37.0%) had progressive disease. The clinical benefit rate was present in 456 (45.1%). Among the patients whom ICI was stopped (n = 906), the most common reason for cessation of ICI was disease progression (616, 68.0%) followed by logistic reasons like financial constraints (234, 25.82%). With a median follow-up of 14.1 (95% CI 12.9-15.3) months, there were 616 events of progression and 443 events of death, and the median progression free survival and overall survival were 6.4 (95% CI 5.5-7.3) and 13.6 (95% CI 11.6-15.7) months, respectively, in the overall cohort. Among the immune-related adverse events, autoimmune pneumonitis (29, 3.8%) and thyroiditis (24, 2.4%) were common. Real-world multicentric Indian data predominantly with short-course ICI therapy have comparable efficacy/safety to international literature with standard ICI therapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 11(1): 68-77, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891492

RESUMO

Purpose: Medulloblastomas, comprising 20%-25% of all primary brain tumors in children are much rarer in adulthood. Disease biology varies substantially across different age groups; however, owing to rarity, adults with medulloblastoma are traditionally treated using pediatric protocols. This is a retrospective audit of adolescent and adult medulloblastoma from a comprehensive cancer center. Methods: Data regarding demography, clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, histopathological features, molecular profiling, risk stratification, treatment details, and outcomes were retrieved from medical records. All time-to-event outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analysis of relevant prognostic factors was done with p value <0.05 being considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 162 patients ≥15 years of age with medulloblastoma were included. The median age was 25 years (range: 15-59 years) with leptomeningeal metastases seen in 31 (19%) patients at initial diagnosis. Following surgery, patients were treated with appropriate risk-stratified adjuvant therapy comprising of craniospinal irradiation plus boost with or without systemic chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 50 months, 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival were 53.5% and 59.5%, respectively. The addition of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy did not impact upon survival in standard-risk medulloblastoma. High-risk (HR) disease and anaplastic histology emerged as significant and independent predictors of poor survival on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Medulloblastoma is a rare tumor in adolescents and adults with key differences in disease biology and resultant outcomes compared with the pediatric population. Contemporary management comprising maximal safe resection followed by appropriate risk-stratified adjuvant therapy provides acceptable survival outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares , Meduloblastoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/terapia , Criança , Auditoria Clínica , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(3): 272-281, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore the potential role and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in tumor shrinkage and resultant mandibular preservation in oral cancers compared with conventional surgical treatment. METHODS: This study was a single-center, randomized, phase II trial of treatment-naive histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity with cT2-T4 and N0/N+, M0 (American Joint Committee on Cancer, seventh edition) stage, necessitating resection of the mandible for paramandibular disease in the absence of clinicoradiologic evidence of bone erosion. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either upfront surgery (segmental resection) followed by adjuvant treatment (standard arm [SA]) or two cycles of NACT (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) at 3-week intervals (intervention arm [IA]), followed by surgery dictated by postchemotherapy disease extent. All patients in the IA received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and patients in the SA were treated as per final histopathology report. The primary end point was mandible preservation rate. The secondary end points were disease-free survival and treatment-related toxicity. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were enrolled over 3 years and randomly assigned to either SA (34 patients) or IA (34 patients). The median follow-up was 3.6 years (interquartile range, 0.95-7.05 years). Mandibular preservation was achieved in 16 of 34 patients (47% [95% CI, 31.49 to 63.24]) in the IA. The disease-free survival (P = .715, hazard ratio 0.911 [95% CI, 0.516 to 1.607]) and overall survival (P = .747, hazard ratio 0.899 [95% CI, 0.510 to 1.587]) were similar in both the arms. Complications were similar in both arms, but chemotherapy-induced toxicity was observed in the majority of patients (grade III: 14, 41.2%; grade IV: 11, 32.4%) in the IA. CONCLUSION: NACT plays a potential role in mandibular preservation in oral cancers with acceptable toxicities and no compromise in survival. However, this needs to be validated in a larger phase III randomized trial.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Osteotomia Mandibular , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Mandíbula/patologia , Osteotomia Mandibular/efeitos adversos , Osteotomia Mandibular/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Tumoral
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150078, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525758

RESUMO

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) deposited by wild birds into the environment may lead to sporadic mortality events and economically costly outbreaks among domestic birds. There is a paucity of information, however, regarding the persistence of infectious IAVs within the environment following deposition. In this investigation, we assessed the persistence of 12 IAVs that were present in cloacal and/or oropharyngeal swabs of naturally infected ducks. Infectivity of these IAVs was monitored over approximately one year with each virus tested in five water types: (1) distilled water held in the lab at 4 °C and (2-5) filtered surface water from each of four Alaska sites and maintained in the field at ambient temperature. By evaluating infectivity of IAVs in ovo following sample retrieval at four successive time points, we observed declines in IAV infectivity through time. Many viruses persisted for extended periods, as evidenced by ≥25% of IAVs remaining infectious in replicate samples for each treatment type through three sampling time points (144-155 days post-sample collection) and two viruses remaining viable in a single replicate sample each when tested upon collection at a fourth time point (361-377 days post-sample collection). The estimated probability of persistence of infectious IAVs in all five water types was estimated to be between 0.25 and 0.75 during days 50-200 post-sample collection as inferred through Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Our results provide evidence that IAVs may remain infectious for extended periods, up to or even exceeding one year, when maintained in surface waters under ambient temperatures. Therefore, wetlands may represent an important medium in which infectious IAVs may reside outside of a biotic reservoir.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Patos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Áreas Alagadas
19.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 15: 1274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients present with poor performance status (PS) at baseline are almost always excluded from the clinical trials leading to availability of only limited data in this subgroup. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an observational single institutional study. The eligibility criteria for inclusion were a histologic or cytologic diagnosis of advanced NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS 3 or 4. All patients coming between June 2015 and December 2018 were evaluated for inclusion in this study. RESULTS: A total of 245 patients were enrolled in the study. The median age of the patients was 63 years (range 25-89), 142 (58%) were male, 196 (80%) had adenocarcinoma histology and 192 (78.4%) has PS 3 while rest (21.6%) had PS 4. Out of 245 patients, 192 (78.4%) received oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and supportive care, 45 (18.4%) received supportive care alone, while 8 (3.2%) patients received chemotherapy along with supportive care. Median overall survival (OS) was 3 months (95% CI: 1.8-4.2) in patients who received oral TKI versus 1 month (1.0-2.9) in patients who received supportive care alone (log-rank p = 0.013). The median OS for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant patients who received oral TKI was 12 months (95% CI: 7.7-16.3), while it was 3 months (95% CI: 1.5-4.5) for patients who were EGFR wild-type and received TKI on compassionate basis (HR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32-0.77; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral TKI on a compassionate basis led to improvement in survival in the overall cohort of the patients; this was principally driven by EGFR-mutated patients.

20.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105522, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight loss during chemotherapy and its impact on the cancer outcomes have been invariably reported in the literature. We also did a post-hoc analysis of a randomized phase III trial to see the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The database of a recently published randomized study comparing cisplatin-radiation with nimotuzumab cisplatin-radiation was used for this analysis. Week-wise weight loss during the course of treatment was noted. The impact of severe weight loss (grade 2-3) on progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) was studied using the Kaplan Meier method. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to see the effect of various factors. RESULTS: Out of a total of 536 patients, weight loss was captured in 524. Out of these 524 patients, any degree of weight loss was seen in 293 (55.91%) patients. Grade 1 weight loss was noted in 192 (36.6%) patients, grade 2 in 96 (18.3%) and grade 3 in 5 (1%) patients. The 2-year PFS was 53% and 57.1% in severe and non-severe weight loss groups respectively (p-value = 0.36). The 2-year LRC was 60% in patients with severe weight loss, while it was 63.5% in those with non-severe weight loss (p-value = 0.47). The 2-year OS was 59.3% versus 62.2% in severe and non-severe weight loss cohorts respectively (p-value = 0.21). None of the factors was found to be associated with severe weight loss. CONCLUSION: Severe weight loss was uncommon in our patients. Weight loss during treatment was not associated with poor survival outcomes.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Perda de Peso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Resultado do Tratamento
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