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1.
Curr Biol ; 29(23): 3974-3986.e4, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735679

RESUMO

The human genetic diversity of the Americas has been affected by several events of gene flow that have continued since the colonial era and the Atlantic slave trade. Moreover, multiple waves of migration followed by local admixture occurred in the last two centuries, the impact of which has been largely unexplored. Here, we compiled a genome-wide dataset of ∼12,000 individuals from twelve American countries and ∼6,000 individuals from worldwide populations and applied haplotype-based methods to investigate how historical movements from outside the New World affected (1) the genetic structure, (2) the admixture profile, (3) the demographic history, and (4) sex-biased gene-flow dynamics of the Americas. We revealed a high degree of complexity underlying the genetic contribution of European and African populations in North and South America, from both geographic and temporal perspectives, identifying previously unreported sources related to Italy, the Middle East, and to specific regions of Africa.

2.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 130, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is an important determinant of human health. Its composition has been shown to be influenced by multiple environmental factors and likely by host genetic variation. In the framework of the Milieu Intérieur Consortium, a total of 1000 healthy individuals of western European ancestry, with a 1:1 sex ratio and evenly stratified across five decades of life (age 20-69), were recruited. We generated 16S ribosomal RNA profiles from stool samples for 858 participants. We investigated genetic and non-genetic factors that contribute to individual differences in fecal microbiome composition. RESULTS: Among 110 demographic, clinical, and environmental factors, 11 were identified as significantly correlated with α-diversity, ß-diversity, or abundance of specific microbial communities in multivariable models. Age and blood alanine aminotransferase levels showed the strongest associations with microbiome diversity. In total, all non-genetic factors explained 16.4% of the variance. We then searched for associations between > 5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and the same indicators of fecal microbiome diversity, including the significant non-genetic factors as covariates. No genome-wide significant associations were identified after correction for multiple testing. A small fraction of previously reported associations between human genetic variants and specific taxa could be replicated in our cohort, while no replication was observed for any of the diversity metrics. CONCLUSION: In a well-characterized cohort of healthy individuals, we identified several non-genetic variables associated with fecal microbiome diversity. In contrast, host genetics only had a negligible influence. Demographic and environmental factors are thus the main contributors to fecal microbiome composition in healthy individuals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01699893.

3.
Curr Biol ; 29(17): 2926-2935.e4, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402299

RESUMO

African rainforests support exceptionally high biodiversity and host the world's largest number of active hunter-gatherers [1-3]. The genetic history of African rainforest hunter-gatherers and neighboring farmers is characterized by an ancient divergence more than 100,000 years ago, together with recent population collapses and expansions, respectively [4-12]. While the demographic past of rainforest hunter-gatherers has been deeply characterized, important aspects of their history of genetic adaptation remain unclear. Here, we investigated how these groups have adapted-through classic selective sweeps, polygenic adaptation, and selection since admixture-to the challenging rainforest environments. To do so, we analyzed a combined dataset of 566 high-coverage exomes, including 266 newly generated exomes, from 14 populations of rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers, together with 40 newly generated, low-coverage genomes. We find evidence for a strong, shared selective sweep among all hunter-gatherer groups in the regulatory region of TRPS1-primarily involved in morphological traits. We detect strong signals of polygenic adaptation for height and life history traits such as reproductive age; however, the latter appear to result from pervasive pleiotropy of height-associated genes. Furthermore, polygenic adaptation signals for functions related to responses of mast cells to allergens and microbes, the IL-2 signaling pathway, and host interactions with viruses support a history of pathogen-driven selection in the rainforest. Finally, we find that genes involved in heart and bone development and immune responses are enriched in both selection signals and local hunter-gatherer ancestry in admixed populations, suggesting that selection has maintained adaptive variation in the face of recent gene flow from farmers.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(21): 10430-10434, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068474

RESUMO

The human genetic basis of tuberculosis (TB) has long remained elusive. We recently reported a high level of enrichment in homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A variant in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with TB from non-European countries in which TB is endemic. This variant is homozygous in ∼1/600 Europeans and ∼1/5,000 people from other countries outside East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. We report a study of this variant in the UK Biobank cohort. The frequency of P1104A homozygotes was much higher in patients with TB (6/620, 1%) than in controls (228/114,473, 0.2%), with an odds ratio (OR) adjusted for ancestry of 5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.96-10.31, P = 2 × 10-3]. Conversely, we did not observe enrichment for P1104A heterozygosity, or for TYK2 I684S or V362F homozygosity or heterozygosity. Moreover, it is unlikely that more than 10% of controls were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as 97% were of European genetic ancestry, born between 1939 and 1970, and resided in the United Kingdom. Had all of them been infected, the OR for developing TB upon infection would be higher. These findings suggest that homozygosity for TYK2 P1104A may account for ∼1% of TB cases in Europeans.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 553-561, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827499

RESUMO

The hemoglobin ßS sickle mutation is a textbook case in which natural selection maintains a deleterious mutation at high frequency in the human population. Homozygous individuals for this mutation develop sickle-cell disease, whereas heterozygotes benefit from higher protection against severe malaria. Because the overdominant ßS allele should be purged almost immediately from the population in the absence of malaria, the study of the evolutionary history of this iconic mutation can provide important information about the history of human exposure to malaria. Here, we sought to increase our understanding of the origins and time depth of the ßS mutation in populations with different lifestyles and ecologies, and we analyzed the diversity of HBB in 479 individuals from 13 populations of African farmers and rainforest hunter-gatherers. Using an approximate Bayesian computation method, we estimated the age of the ßS allele while explicitly accounting for population subdivision, past demography, and balancing selection. When the effects of balancing selection are taken into account, our analyses indicate a single emergence of ßS in the ancestors of present-day agriculturalist populations ∼22,000 years ago. Furthermore, we show that rainforest hunter-gatherers have more recently acquired the ßS mutation from the ancestors of agriculturalists through adaptive gene flow during the last ∼6,000 years. Together, our results provide evidence for a more ancient exposure to malarial pressures among the ancestors of agriculturalists than previously appreciated, and they suggest that rainforest hunter-gatherers have been increasingly exposed to malaria during the last millennia.

6.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 179, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioko is one of the few islands that exist around Africa, the most genetically diverse continent on the planet. The native Bantu-speaking inhabitants of Bioko, the Bubi, are believed to have colonized the island about 2000 years ago. Here, we sequenced the genome of thirteen Bubi individuals at high coverage and analysed their sequences in comparison to mainland populations from the Gulf of Guinea. RESULTS: We found that, genetically, the closest mainland population to the Bubi are Bantu-speaking groups from Angola instead the geographically closer groups from Cameroon. The Bubi possess a lower proportion of rainforest hunter-gatherer (RHG) ancestry than most other Bantu-speaking groups. However, their RHG component most likely came from the same source and could have reached them by gene flow from the mainland after island settlement. By studying identity by descent (IBD) genomic blocks and runs of homozygosity (ROHs), we found evidence for a significant level of genetic isolation among the Bubi, isolation that can be attributed to the island effect. Additionally, as this population is known to have one of the highest malaria incidence rates in the world we analysed their genome for malaria-resistant alleles. However, we were unable to detect any specific selective sweeps related to this disease. CONCLUSIONS: By describing their dispersal to the Atlantic islands, the genomic characterization of the Bubi contributes to the understanding of the margins of the massive Bantu migration that shaped all Sub-Saharan African populations.


Assuntos
Genômica , Migração Humana , Ilhas , Linguagem , África , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Homozigoto
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(3): 950-959, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591557

RESUMO

Computational analyses of human patient exomes aim to filter out as many nonpathogenic genetic variants (NPVs) as possible, without removing the true disease-causing mutations. This involves comparing the patient's exome with public databases to remove reported variants inconsistent with disease prevalence, mode of inheritance, or clinical penetrance. However, variants frequent in a given exome cohort, but absent or rare in public databases, have also been reported and treated as NPVs, without rigorous exploration. We report the generation of a blacklist of variants frequent within an in-house cohort of 3,104 exomes. This blacklist did not remove known pathogenic mutations from the exomes of 129 patients and decreased the number of NPVs remaining in the 3,104 individual exomes by a median of 62%. We validated this approach by testing three other independent cohorts of 400, 902, and 3,869 exomes. The blacklist generated from any given cohort removed a substantial proportion of NPVs (11-65%). We analyzed the blacklisted variants computationally and experimentally. Most of the blacklisted variants corresponded to false signals generated by incomplete reference genome assembly, location in low-complexity regions, bioinformatic misprocessing, or limitations inherent to cohort-specific private alleles (e.g., due to sequencing kits, and genetic ancestries). Finally, we provide our precalculated blacklists, together with ReFiNE, a program for generating customized blacklists from any medium-sized or large in-house cohort of exome (or other next-generation sequencing) data via a user-friendly public web server. This work demonstrates the power of extracting variant blacklists from private databases as a specific in-house but broadly applicable tool for optimizing exome analysis.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Exoma , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 222, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors and is increasingly thought to affect variation in complex traits and diseases. Yet, the extent of ancestry-related differences in DNA methylation, their genetic determinants, and their respective causal impact on immune gene regulation remain elusive. RESULTS: We report extensive population differences in DNA methylation between 156 individuals of African and European descent, detected in primary monocytes that are used as a model of a major innate immunity cell type. Most of these differences (~ 70%) are driven by DNA sequence variants nearby CpG sites, which account for ~ 60% of the variance in DNA methylation. We also identify several master regulators of DNA methylation variation in trans, including a regulatory hub nearby the transcription factor-encoding CTCF gene, which contributes markedly to ancestry-related differences in DNA methylation. Furthermore, we establish that variation in DNA methylation is associated with varying gene expression levels following mostly, but not exclusively, a canonical model of negative associations, particularly in enhancer regions. Specifically, we find that DNA methylation highly correlates with transcriptional activity of 811 and 230 genes, at the basal state and upon immune stimulation, respectively. Finally, using a Bayesian approach, we estimate causal mediation effects of DNA methylation on gene expression in ~ 20% of the studied cases, indicating that DNA methylation can play an active role in immune gene regulation. CONCLUSION: Using a system-level approach, our study reveals substantial ancestry-related differences in DNA methylation and provides evidence for their causal impact on immune gene regulation.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Adulto , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Monócitos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578351

RESUMO

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rß1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12-dependent IFN-γ immunity and IL-23-dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL-12 or IL-23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αß T, γδ T, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-23. We also show that the development of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium-specific TH1* cells (CD45RA-CCR6+), is dependent on both IL-12 and IL-23. Last, we show that IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, relative to IL-12Rß1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. There are fewer symptomatic IL-23R- and IL-12Rß2-deficient than IL-12Rß1-deficient patients, not because these genetic disorders are rarer, but because the isolated absence of IL-12 or IL-23 is, in part, compensated by the other cytokine for the production of IFN-γ, thereby providing some protection against mycobacteria. These experiments of nature show that human IL-12 and IL-23 are both required for optimal IFN-γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-23/deficiência , Interleucina-23/genética , Linhagem
10.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578352

RESUMO

Inherited IL-12Rß1 and TYK2 deficiencies impair both IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity and are rare monogenic causes of tuberculosis, each found in less than 1/600,000 individuals. We show that homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A allele, which is found in about 1/600 Europeans and between 1/1000 and 1/10,000 individuals in regions other than East Asia, is more frequent in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis from endemic areas than in ethnicity-adjusted controls (P = 8.37 × 10-8; odds ratio, 89.31; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1725). Moreover, the frequency of P1104A in Europeans has decreased, from about 9% to 4.2%, over the past 4000 years, consistent with purging of this variant by endemic tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we also show that TYK2 P1104A impairs cellular responses to IL-23, but not to IFN-α, IL-10, or even IL-12, which, like IL-23, induces IFN-γ via activation of TYK2 and JAK2. Moreover, TYK2 P1104A is properly docked on cytokine receptors and can be phosphorylated by the proximal JAK, but lacks catalytic activity. Last, we show that the catalytic activity of TYK2 is essential for IL-23, but not IL-12, responses in cells expressing wild-type JAK2. In contrast, the catalytic activity of JAK2 is redundant for both IL-12 and IL-23 responses, because the catalytically inactive P1057A JAK2, which is also docked and phosphorylated, rescues signaling in cells expressing wild-type TYK2. In conclusion, homozygosity for the catalytically inactive P1104A missense variant of TYK2 selectively disrupts the induction of IFN-γ by IL-23 and is a common monogenic etiology of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , TYK2 Quinase/genética , Tuberculose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interleucina-23/deficiência , TYK2 Quinase/imunologia
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(48): E11256-E11263, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413626

RESUMO

Different human populations facing similar environmental challenges have sometimes evolved convergent biological adaptations, for example, hypoxia resistance at high altitudes and depigmented skin in northern latitudes on separate continents. The "pygmy" phenotype (small adult body size), characteristic of hunter-gatherer populations inhabiting both African and Asian tropical rainforests, is often highlighted as another case of convergent adaptation in humans. However, the degree to which phenotypic convergence in this polygenic trait is due to convergent versus population-specific genetic changes is unknown. To address this question, we analyzed high-coverage sequence data from the protein-coding portion of the genomes of two pairs of populations: Batwa rainforest hunter-gatherers and neighboring Bakiga agriculturalists from Uganda and Andamanese rainforest hunter-gatherers and Brahmin agriculturalists from India. We observed signatures of convergent positive selection between the rainforest hunter-gatherers across the set of genes with "growth factor binding" functions ([Formula: see text]). Unexpectedly, for the rainforest groups, we also observed convergent and population-specific signatures of positive selection in pathways related to cardiac development (e.g., "cardiac muscle tissue development"; [Formula: see text]). We hypothesize that the growth hormone subresponsiveness likely underlying the adult small body-size phenotype may have led to compensatory changes in cardiac pathways, in which this hormone also plays an essential role. Importantly, in the agriculturalist populations, we did not observe similar patterns of positive selection on sets of genes associated with growth or cardiac development, indicating our results most likely reflect a history of convergent adaptation to the similar ecology of rainforests rather than a more general evolutionary pattern.

12.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(457)2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185651

RESUMO

The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ where naïve T cells are generated; however, with the exception of age, the parameters that govern its function in healthy humans remain unknown. We characterized the variability of thymic function among 1000 age- and sex-stratified healthy adults of the Milieu Intérieur cohort, using quantification of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in peripheral blood T cells as a surrogate marker of thymopoiesis. Age and sex were the only nonheritable factors identified that affect thymic function. TREC amounts decreased with age and were higher in women compared to men. In addition, a genome-wide association study revealed a common variant (rs2204985) within the T cell receptor TCRA-TCRD locus, between the DD2 and DD3 gene segments, which associated with TREC amounts. Strikingly, transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells with the rs2204985 GG genotype into immunodeficient mice led to thymopoiesis with higher TRECs, increased thymocyte counts, and a higher TCR repertoire diversity. Our population immunology approach revealed a genetic locus that influences thymopoiesis in healthy adults, with potentially broad implications in precision medicine.

13.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 53: 90-97, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103089

RESUMO

Central Africa, a forested region that supports an exceptionally high biodiversity, hosts the world's largest group of hunter-gatherers, who live in close proximity with groups that have adopted agriculture over the past 5000 years. Our understanding of the prehistory of these populations has been dramatically hampered by the almost total absence of fossil remains in this region, a limitation that has recently been circumvented by population genomics approaches. Different studies have estimated that ancestors of rainforest hunter-gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers separated more than 60 000 years ago, supporting the occurrence of ancient population structure in Africa since the Late Pleistocene. Conversely, the Holocene in central Africa was characterized by large-scale population migrations associated with the emergence of agriculture, and increased genetic interactions between autochthonous rainforest hunter-gatherers and expanding Bantu-speaking farmers. Genomic scans have detected numerous candidate loci for positive selection in these populations, including convergent adaptation for short stature in groups of rainforest hunter-gatherers and local adaptation to endemic malaria in western and central Africans. Furthermore, there is recent increasing evidence that adaptive variation has been acquired by various African populations through admixture, suggesting a previously unappreciated role of intraspecies gene flow in local adaptation. Ancient and modern DNA studies will greatly broaden, and probably challenge, our view on the past history of central Africa, where introgression from yet uncharacterized archaic hominins and long-term adaptation to distinct ecological niches are suspected.

14.
J Exp Med ; 215(9): 2289-2310, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068544

RESUMO

Patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) and biallelic null mutations of TMC6 (encoding EVER1) or TMC8 (EVER2) are selectively prone to disseminated skin lesions due to keratinocyte-tropic human ß-papillomaviruses (ß-HPVs), which lack E5 and E8. We describe EV patients homozygous for null mutations of the CIB1 gene encoding calcium- and integrin-binding protein-1 (CIB1). CIB1 is strongly expressed in the skin and cultured keratinocytes of controls but not in those of patients. CIB1 forms a complex with EVER1 and EVER2, and CIB1 proteins are not expressed in EVER1- or EVER2-deficient cells. The known functions of EVER1 and EVER2 in human keratinocytes are not dependent on CIB1, and CIB1 deficiency does not impair keratinocyte adhesion or migration. In keratinocytes, the CIB1 protein interacts with the HPV E5 and E8 proteins encoded by α-HPV16 and γ-HPV4, respectively, suggesting that this protein acts as a restriction factor against HPVs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the disruption of CIB1-EVER1-EVER2-dependent keratinocyte-intrinsic immunity underlies the selective susceptibility to ß-HPVs of EV patients.

15.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 59, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humoral immune responses to infectious agents or vaccination vary substantially among individuals, and many of the factors responsible for this variability remain to be defined. Current evidence suggests that human genetic variation influences (i) serum immunoglobulin levels, (ii) seroconversion rates, and (iii) intensity of antigen-specific immune responses. Here, we evaluated the impact of intrinsic (age and sex), environmental, and genetic factors on the variability of humoral response to common pathogens and vaccines. METHODS: We characterized the serological response to 15 antigens from common human pathogens or vaccines, in an age- and sex-stratified cohort of 1000 healthy individuals (Milieu Intérieur cohort). Using clinical-grade serological assays, we measured total IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgM levels, as well as qualitative (serostatus) and quantitative IgG responses to cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, influenza A virus, measles, mumps, rubella, and hepatitis B virus. Following genome-wide genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms and imputation, we examined associations between ~ 5 million genetic variants and antibody responses using single marker and gene burden tests. RESULTS: We identified age and sex as important determinants of humoral immunity, with older individuals and women having higher rates of seropositivity for most antigens. Genome-wide association studies revealed significant associations between variants in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region on chromosome 6 and anti-EBV and anti-rubella IgG levels. We used HLA imputation to fine map these associations to amino acid variants in the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DRß1 and HLA-DPß1, respectively. We also observed significant associations for total IgA levels with two loci on chromosome 2 and with specific KIR-HLA combinations. CONCLUSIONS: Using extensive serological testing and genome-wide association analyses in a well-characterized cohort of healthy individuals, we demonstrated that age, sex, and specific human genetic variants contribute to inter-individual variability in humoral immunity. By highlighting genes and pathways implicated in the normal antibody response to frequently encountered antigens, these findings provide a basis to better understand disease pathogenesis. TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT01699893.

17.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(4): 721-730, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531345

RESUMO

Understanding how deleterious genetic variation is distributed across human populations is of key importance in evolutionary biology and medical genetics. However, the impact of population size changes and gene flow on the corresponding mutational load remains a controversial topic. Here, we report high-coverage exomes from 300 rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers of central Africa, whose distinct subsistence strategies are expected to have impacted their demographic pasts. Detailed demographic inference indicates that hunter-gatherers and farmers recently experienced population collapses and expansions, respectively, accompanied by increased gene flow. We show that the distribution of deleterious alleles across these populations is compatible with a similar efficacy of selection to remove deleterious variants with additive effects, and predict with simulations that their present-day additive mutation load is almost identical. For recessive mutations, although an increased load is predicted for hunter-gatherers, this increase has probably been partially counteracted by strong gene flow from expanding farmers. Collectively, our predicted and empirical observations suggest that the impact of the recent population decline of African hunter-gatherers on their mutation load has been modest and more restrained than would be expected under a fully recessive model of dominance.

18.
Elife ; 72018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29537367

RESUMO

Most humans are exposed to Tropheryma whipplei (Tw). Whipple's disease (WD) strikes only a small minority of individuals infected with Tw (<0.01%), whereas asymptomatic chronic carriage is more common (<25%). We studied a multiplex kindred, containing four WD patients and five healthy Tw chronic carriers. We hypothesized that WD displays autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance, with age-dependent incomplete penetrance. We identified a single very rare non-synonymous mutation in the four patients: the private R98W variant of IRF4, a transcription factor involved in immunity. The five Tw carriers were younger, and also heterozygous for R98W. We found that R98W was loss-of-function, modified the transcriptome of heterozygous leukocytes following Tw stimulation, and was not dominant-negative. We also found that only six of the other 153 known non-synonymous IRF4 variants were loss-of-function. Finally, we found that IRF4 had evolved under purifying selection. AD IRF4 deficiency can underlie WD by haploinsufficiency, with age-dependent incomplete penetrance.

19.
Nat Immunol ; 19(3): 302-314, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476184

RESUMO

The quantification and characterization of circulating immune cells provide key indicators of human health and disease. To identify the relative effects of environmental and genetic factors on variation in the parameters of innate and adaptive immune cells in homeostatic conditions, we combined standardized flow cytometry of blood leukocytes and genome-wide DNA genotyping of 1,000 healthy, unrelated people of Western European ancestry. We found that smoking, together with age, sex and latent infection with cytomegalovirus, were the main non-genetic factors that affected variation in parameters of human immune cells. Genome-wide association studies of 166 immunophenotypes identified 15 loci that showed enrichment for disease-associated variants. Finally, we demonstrated that the parameters of innate cells were more strongly controlled by genetic variation than were those of adaptive cells, which were driven by mainly environmental exposure. Our data establish a resource that will generate new hypotheses in immunology and highlight the role of innate immunity in susceptibility to common autoimmune diseases.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(7): 1228-1240, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373757

RESUMO

SOX8 is an HMG-box transcription factor closely related to SRY and SOX9. Deletion of the gene encoding Sox8 in mice causes reproductive dysfunction but the role of SOX8 in humans is unknown. Here, we show that SOX8 is expressed in the somatic cells of the early developing gonad in the human and influences human sex determination. We identified two individuals with 46, XY disorders/differences in sex development (DSD) and chromosomal rearrangements encompassing the SOX8 locus and a third individual with 46, XY DSD and a missense mutation in the HMG-box of SOX8. In vitro functional assays indicate that this mutation alters the biological activity of the protein. As an emerging body of evidence suggests that DSDs and infertility can have common etiologies, we also analysed SOX8 in a cohort of infertile men (n = 274) and two independent cohorts of women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI; n = 153 and n = 104). SOX8 mutations were found at increased frequency in oligozoospermic men (3.5%; P < 0.05) and POI (5.06%; P = 4.5 × 10-5) as compared with fertile/normospermic control populations (0.74%). The mutant proteins identified altered SOX8 biological activity as compared with the wild-type protein. These data demonstrate that SOX8 plays an important role in human reproduction and SOX8 mutations contribute to a spectrum of phenotypes including 46, XY DSD, male infertility and 46, XX POI.

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