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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731781

RESUMO

One of the current trends in the study of criminal profiling consists of developing theoretical and methodological typologies to offer information of operational use in police investigations. The objective of this work was to verify the validity of the instrumental/expressive model, so as to establish homicide typologies based on modus operandi relationships, characteristics of the victims, and characteristics of perpetrators. The sample consisted of 448 homicide cases registered in the database of the Homicide Revision Project of the Office of Coordination and Studies of the Spanish Secretary of State and Security. Through multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis, three expressive homicide subtypes were identified (expressive-impulsive, expressive-distancing, and expressive-family), as well as two instrumental homicide subtypes (instrumental-opportunist and instrumental-gratification). The expressive homicide typologies accounted for almost 95% of all of the studied cases, and most of the homicides occurring in Spain were found to take place between individuals who know one another (friends, family members, intimate couples/ex-couples). The findings from this study suggest that the instrumental/expressive model may be a useful framework for understanding the psychological processes underlying homicides, based on the study of relationships between the crime and aggressor characteristics, which may be very helpful in the prioritization of suspects.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569667

RESUMO

One of the current trends in homicide research includes developing works based on scientific study and empirical evidence, which offer conclusions that can be used in an operational manner during police investigations. The objective of this study was to identify homicide characteristics from behaviors carried out on the crime scene and victim characteristics associated with those of the perpetrators of these crimes in Spain. The sample consisted of 448 homicide cases from the database of the Homicide Revision Project led by the Office of Coordination and Studies of the Secretary of State and Security. After creating six classification tree models, it was found that the modus operandi of the aggressor and the victim characteristics may permit hypothesizing about the demographic characteristics of the perpetrator (gender, age, and country of origin), his/her criminal record, and the type of relationship with the victim. Furthermore, the importance of the study of victimology during a criminal investigation is highlighted, as it may indirectly offer information about the potential perpetrator. The findings of this study suggest that criminal profiling contributes notably to the decision-making process to establish more rigorous suspect prioritization, improve the management of human resources and materials, and increase the efficiency of criminal investigations.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Medicina Legal , Psicologia Forense , Homicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia Criminal , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
3.
Adicciones ; 0(0): 1195, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018007

RESUMO

There are different profiles of alcohol consumption for men and women, and different courses and prognoses associated with problems caused by alcohol abuse. There is evidence of these differences by sex, but research on their links to differences associated with gender dimensions is scarcer. In order to know what has been researched on the subject, this article reviews the literature regarding the relationship between conformity with gender norms and alcohol use and/or abuse in adults. A systematic review was conducted using the electronic databases of PubMed, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect. Twenty-four articles published in English or Spanish were included and analysed. The main findings were: 1) conformity to norms associated with traditional masculine role (dominance, womanising, aggressiveness, risk behaviours) is related to greater alcohol use; 2) conformity to norms associated with traditional feminine role (interest in home life and family care) is related with lower alcohol use. These findings provide evidence of the relationship between dimensions associated with gender and drinking. It is considered that the possibilities of modifying beliefs and gender patterns linked to risk behaviours is an aspect to be taken into account in the field of prevention, with the development of gender measures a necessary task to further deepen the study of these relationships.

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