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1.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492664

RESUMO

Surface diffusion is known to be of prime importance in the growth of semiconductor nanowires. In this work, we used ZnMgO layers as markers to analyze the growth mechanisms and kinetics during the deposition of ZnMgO/ZnO multilayered shells by molecular beam epitaxy on previously grown ZnO nanowire cores (so called core-shell heterostructures). Specifically, the influence of the O2 flow sent into the plasma cell on the adatom surface mobility was investigated. By carefully measuring the growth rate on the lateral facets as well as on the top of the nanowires, it is concluded that the surface diffusion length of adatoms, within the used MBE growth conditions, is very low. Such poor surface mobility explains why so few works can be found related to the spontaneous growth (without catalyst) of ZnO nanowires by MBE, contrary to other deposition techniques.

2.
Int J Pharm ; 585: 119442, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445910

RESUMO

Lansoprazole (LPZ) is an acid pump inhibitor, which readily degrades upon acidic or basic conditions and under heating. We investigated here LPZ stability upon incorporation in particles made of cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs). LPZ loaded CD-MOFs were successfully synthesized, reaching high LPZ payloads of 23.2 ± 2.1 wt%, which correspond to a molar ratio of 1:1 between LPZ and γ-CD. The homogeneity of LPZ loaded CD-MOFs in terms of component distribution was confirmed by elemental mapping by STEM-EDX. Both CTAB, the surfactant used in the CD-MOFs synthesis, and LPZ compete for their inclusion in the CD cavities. CTAB allowed obtaining regular cubic particles of around 5 µm with 15 wt% residual CTAB amounts. When LPZ was incorporated, the residual CTAB amount was less than 0.1 wt%, suggesting a higher affinity of LPZ for the CDs than CTAB. These findings were confirmed by molecular simulations. Vibrational circular dichroism studies confirmed the LPZ incorporation inside the CDs. Solid-state NMR showed that LPZ was located in the CDs and that it remained intact even after three years storage. Remarkably, the CD-MOFs matrix protected the drug upon thermal decomposition. This study highlights the interest of CD-MOFs for the incorporation and protection of LPZ.

3.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283029

RESUMO

To date, defect-tolerance electronic structure of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals is limited to an optical feature in the visible range. Here, we demonstrate that IR sensitization of formamidinium lead iodine (FAPI) nanocrystal array can be obtained by its doping with PbS nanocrystals. In this hybrid array, absorption comes from the PbS nanocrystals while transport is driven by the perovskite which reduces the dark current compared to pristine PbS. In addition, we fabricate a field-effect transistor using a high capacitance ionic glass made of hybrid FAPI/PbS nanocrystal arrays. We show that the hybrid material has an n-type nature with an electron mobility of 2 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1. However, the dark current reduction is mostly balanced by a loss of absorption. To overcome this limitation, we couple the FAPI/PbS hybrid to a guided mode resonator that can enhance the infrared light absorption.

4.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027145

RESUMO

Crystal phase switching between the zincblende and wurtzite structures in III-V nanowires is crucial from the fundamental viewpoint as well as for electronic and photonic applications of crystal phase heterostructures. Here, the results of in situ monitoring of self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth of GaAs nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy inside a transmission electron microscope are presented. It is demonstrated that the occurrence of the zincblende or wurtzite phase in self-catalyzed nanowires is determined by the sole parameter, the droplet contact angle, which can be finely tuned by changing the group III and V fluxes. The zincblende phase forms at small (<100°) and large (>125°) contact angles, whereas pure wurtzite phase is observed for intermediate contact angles. Wurtzite nanowires are restricted by vertical sidewalls, whereas zincblende nanowires taper or develop the truncated edge at their top. These findings are explained within a dedicated model for the surface energetics. These results give a clear route for the crystal phase control in Au-free III-V nanowires. On a more general note, in situ growth monitoring with atomic resolution and at the technological-relevant growth rates is shown to be a powerful tool for the fine-tuning of material properties at the nanoscale.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 31(14): 145708, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846937

RESUMO

Axial p-n and p-i-n junctions in GaAs0.7P0.3 nanowires are demonstrated and analyzed using electron beam induced current microscopy. Organized self-catalyzed nanowire arrays are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on nanopatterned Si substrates. The nanowires are doped using Be and Si impurities to obtain p- and n-type conductivity, respectively. A method to determine the doping type by analyzing the induced current in the vicinity of a Schottky contact is proposed. It is demonstrated that for the applied growth conditions using Ga as a catalyst, Si doping induces an n-type conductivity contrary to the GaAs self-catalyzed nanowire case, where Si was reported to yield a p-type doping. Active axial nanowire p-n junctions having a homogeneous composition along the axis are synthesized and the carrier concentration and minority carrier diffusion lengths are measured. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of axial p-n junctions in self-catalyzed GaAsP nanowires.

6.
Nanoscale ; 11(45): 21847-21855, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696191

RESUMO

Realizing single photon sources emitting in the telecom band on silicon substrates is essential to reach complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible devices that secure communications over long distances. In this work, we propose the monolithic growth of needlelike tapered InAs/InP quantum dot-nanowires (QD-NWs) on silicon substrates with a small taper angle and a nanowire diameter tailored to support a single mode waveguide. Such a NW geometry is obtained by a controlled balance over axial and radial growths during the gold-catalyzed growth of the NWs by molecular beam epitaxy. This allows us to investigate the impact of the taper angle on the emission properties of a single InAs/InP QD-NW. At room temperature, a Gaussian far-field emission profile in the telecom O-band with a beam divergence angle θ = 30° is demonstrated using a single InAs QD embedded in a 2° tapered InP NW. Moreover, single photon emission is observed at cryogenic temperature for an off-resonant excitation and the best result, g2(0) = 0.05, is obtained for a 7° tapered NW. This all-encompassing study paves the way for the monolithic growth on silicon of an efficient single photon source in the telecom band based on InAs/InP QD-NWs.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4322, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541107

RESUMO

The monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductor devices with silicon presents physical and technological challenges, linked to the creation of defects during the deposition process. Herein, a new defect elimination strategy in highly mismatched heteroepitaxy is demonstrated to achieve a ultra-low dislocation density, epi-ready Ge/Si virtual substrate on a wafer scale, using a highly scalable process. Dislocations are eliminated from the epilayer through dislocation-selective electrochemical deep etching followed by thermal annealing, which creates nanovoids that attract dislocations, facilitating their subsequent annihilation. The averaged dislocation density is reduced by over three orders of magnitude, from ~108 cm-2 to a lower-limit of ~104 cm-2 for 1.5 µm thick Ge layer. The optical properties indicate a strong enhancement of luminescence efficiency in GaAs grown on this virtual substrate. Collectively, this work demonstrates the promise for transfer of this technology to industrial-scale production of integrated photonic and optoelectronic devices on Si platforms in a cost-effective way.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 30(32): 324002, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995632

RESUMO

The surface morphology of III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) protected by an arsenic cap and subsequently evaporated in ultrahigh vacuum is investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We show that the changes of the surface morphology as a function of the NW composition and the nature of the seed particles are intimately related to the formation and reaction of surface point defects. Langmuir evaporation close to the congruent evaporation temperature causes the formation of vacancies which nucleate and form vacancy islands on {110} sidewalls of self-catalyzed InAs NWs. However, for annealing temperatures much smaller than the congruent temperature, a new phenomenon occurs: group III vacancies form and are filled by excess As atoms, leading to surface AsGa antisites. The resulting Ga adatoms nucleate with excess As atoms at the NW edges, producing monoatomic-step islands on the {110} sidewalls of GaAs NWs. Finally, when gold atoms diffuse from the seed particle onto the {110} sidewalls during evaporation of the protective As cap, Langmuir evaporation does not take place, leaving the sidewalls of InAsSb NWs atomically flat.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 30(29): 294003, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032812

RESUMO

We report on the detailed composition of ternary GaAsP nanowires (NWs) grown using self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth by molecular beam epitaxy. We evidence the formation of an unintentional shell, which enlarges by vapor-solid growth concurrently to the main VLS-grown core. The NW core and unintentional shell have typically different chemical compositions if no effort is made to adjust the growth conditions. The compositions can be made equal by changing the substrate temperature and the P/As flux ratio in the vapor phase. In all cases, we still observe the existence of a P-rich interface between the GaAsP NW core and the unintentional shell, even if favorable growth conditions are used.

10.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 1961-1967, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726057

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanocrystalline heterostructures can be produced by the immersion of semiconductor substrates into an aqueous precursor solution, but this approach usually leads to a high density of interfacial traps. In this work, we study the effect of a chemical passivation of the substrate prior to the nanocrystalline growth. PbS nanoplatelets grown on sulfur-treated InP (001) surfaces at temperatures as low as 95 °C exhibit abrupt crystalline interfaces that allow a direct and reproducible electron transfer to the InP substrate through the nanometer-thick nanoplatelets with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. It is in sharp contrast with the less defined interface and the hysteresis of the current-voltage characteristics found without the passivation step. Based on a tunnelling effect occurring at energies below the bandgap of PbS, we show the formation of a type II, trap-free, epitaxial heterointerface, with a quality comparable to that grown on a nonreactive InP (110) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Our scheme offers an attractive alternative to the fabrication of semiconductor heterostructures in the gas phase.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(16): 166101, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387660

RESUMO

Crystal growth often proceeds by atomic step flow. When the surface area available for growth is limited, the nucleation and progression of the steps can be affected. This issue is particularly relevant to the formation of nanocrystals. We examine the case of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires, which we grow in a transmission electron microscope. Our in situ observations show that atomic layers nucleate at the periphery of the interface between the nanowire and the catalyst droplet. From this starting location, the atomic step flows within a restricted area of hexagonal shape. At specific partial coverages, the monolayer configuration changes abruptly. A simple model based on the geometry of the system and its edge energies explains these observations. In particular, we observe an inversion of the step curvature which reveals that the effective energy per unit length of monolayer edge is much lower at the interface periphery than inside the catalyst droplet.

12.
Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv ; 74(Pt 6): 647-658, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378576

RESUMO

Some specific structures of intermetallic alloys, like approximants of quasicrystals, have their unit cells and most of their atoms located on a periodic fraction of the nodes of a unique {\bb Z}-module [a set of the irrational projections of the nodes of a (N > 3-dimensional) lattice]. Those hidden internal symmetries generate possible new kinds of defects like coherent twins, translation defects and so-called module dislocations that have already been discussed elsewhere [Quiquandon et al. (2016). Acta Cryst. A72, 55-61; Sirindil et al. (2017). Acta Cryst. A73, 427-437]. Presented here are electron microscopy observations of the orthorhombic phase NiZr - and its low-temperature monoclinic variant - which reveal the existence of such defects based on the underlying {\bb Z}-module generated by the five vertices of the regular pentagon. New high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy high-angle annular dark-field (STEM-HAADF) observations demonstrate the agreement between the geometrical description of the structure in five dimensions and the experimental observations of fivefold twins and translation defects.

13.
Nanoscale ; 10(43): 20207-20217, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357204

RESUMO

One obstacle for the development of nanowire (NW) solar cells is the challenge to assess and control their nanoscale electrical properties. In this work a top-cell made of p-n GaAs core/shell NWs grown on a Si(111) substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is investigated by high resolution charge collection microscopy. Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) analyses of single NWs have validated the formation of a homogeneous radial p-n junction over the entire length of the NWs. The radial geometry leads to an increase of the junction area by 38 times with respect to the NW footprint. The interface between the NWs and the Si(111) substrate does not show any electrical loss, which would have led to a decrease of the EBIC signal. Single NW I-V characteristics present a diodic behavior. A model of the radial junction single NW is proposed and the electrical parameters are estimated by numerical fitting of the I-Vs and of the EBIC map. Solar cells based on NW arrays were fabricated and analyzed by EBIC microscopy, which evidenced the presence of a Schottky barrier at the NW/ITO top contact. Improvement of the top contact quality is achieved by thermal annealing at 400 °C, which strongly reduces the parasitic Schottky barrier.

14.
ACS Sens ; 3(10): 2129-2137, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284814

RESUMO

Solid-state nanopores have a huge potential in upcoming societal challenging applications in biotechnologies, environment, health, and energy. Nowadays, these sensors are often used within bulky fluidic devices that can cause cross-contaminations and risky nanopore chips manipulations, leading to a short experimental lifetime. We describe the easy, fast, and cheap innovative 3D-printer-helped protocol to manufacture a microfluidic device permitting the reversible integration of a silicon based chip containing a single nanopore. We show the relevance of the shape of the obtained channels thanks to finite elements simulations. We use this device to thoroughly investigate the ionic transport through the solid-state nanopore as a function of applied voltage, salt nature, and concentration. Furthermore, its reliability is proved through the characterization of a polymer-based model of protein-urea interactions on the nanometric scale thanks to a hairy nanopore.


Assuntos
Microfluídica/métodos , Nanoporos , Proteínas/química , Ureia/química , Transporte de Íons , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Cloreto de Lítio/química , Cloreto de Potássio/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Conformação Proteica , Reciclagem , Compostos de Silício/química
15.
Nanoscale ; 10(32): 15303-15316, 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069556

RESUMO

Biomimetic ion channels with different materials have been extensively designed to study the dynamics in a confined medium. These channels allow the development of several applications, such as ultra-fast sequencing and biomarker detection. When considering their synthesis, the use of cheap, non-cytotoxic and readily available materials is an increasing priority. Cyclodextrins, in supramolecular architectures, are widely utilized for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. Recent work has shown that short nanotubes (NTs) based on alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) assemble transient ion channels into membranes without cytotoxicity. In this study, we probe the influence of new cyclodextrin NT structural parameters and chemical modifications on channel formation, stability and electrical conductance. We report the successful synthesis of ß- and γ-cyclodextrin nanotubes (ß-CDNTs and γ-CDNTs), as evidenced by mass-spectrometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. CDNTs were characterized by their length, diameter and number of CDs. Two hydrophobic groups, silylated or vinylated, were attached along the γ-CDNTs, improving the insertion time into the membrane. All NTs synthesized form spontaneous biomimetic ion channels. The hydrophobic NTs exhibit higher stability in membranes. Electrophysiological measurements show that ion transport is the main contribution of NT conductance and that the ion energy penalty for the entry into these NTs is similar to that of biological channels.

16.
Faraday Discuss ; 210(0): 41-54, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974104

RESUMO

Biomimetic ion channels can be made to display the high sensitivity of natural protein nanopores and to develop new properties as a function of the material used. How to design the best future biomimetic channels? The main challenges are to control their sensitivity, as well as their syntheses, chemical modifications, insertion and lifetime in a lipid membrane. To address these challenges, we have recently designed short cyclodextrin nanotubes characterized by mass spectrometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. They form non-permanent ion channels in lipid bilayers. Here we show how to improve the nanotube insertion in order to limit multiple insertions, how to stabilize biomimetic channels into the membrane, and how to understand the ion dynamics in confined medium scale.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7206, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739962

RESUMO

Technological platforms offering efficient integration of III-V semiconductor lasers with silicon electronics are eagerly awaited by industry. The availability of optoelectronic circuits combining III-V light sources with Si-based photonic and electronic components in a single chip will enable, in particular, the development of ultra-compact spectroscopic systems for mass scale applications. The first circuits of such type were fabricated using heterogeneous integration of semiconductor lasers by bonding the III-V chips onto silicon substrates. Direct epitaxial growth of interband III-V laser diodes on silicon substrates has also been reported, whereas intersubband emitters grown on Si have not yet been demonstrated. We report the first quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) directly grown on a silicon substrate. These InAs/AlSb QCLs grown on Si exhibit high performances, comparable with those of the devices fabricated on their native InAs substrate. The lasers emit near 11 µm, the longest emission wavelength of any laser integrated on Si. Given the wavelength range reachable with InAs/AlSb QCLs, these results open the way to the development of a wide variety of integrated sensors.

18.
Nano Lett ; 18(7): 4590-4597, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29812951

RESUMO

The use of intraband transition is an interesting alternative path for the design of optically active complex colloidal materials in the mid-infrared range. However, so far, the performance obtained for photodetection based on intraband transition remains much smaller than the one relying on interband transition in narrow-band-gap materials operating at the same wavelength. New strategies have to be developed to make intraband materials more effective. Here, we propose growing a heterostructure of HgSe/HgTe as a means of achieving enhanced intraband-based photoconduction. We first tackle the synthetic challenge of growing a heterostructure on soft (Hg-based) material. The electronic spectrum of the grown heterostructure is then investigated using a combination of numerical simulation, infrared spectroscopy, transport measurement, and photoemission. We report a type-II band alignment with reduced doping compared with a core-only object and boosted hole conduction. Finally, we probe the photoconductive properties of the heterostructure while resonantly exciting the intraband transition by using a high-power-density quantum cascade laser. Compared to the previous generation of material based on core-only HgSe, the heterostructures have a lower dark current, stronger temperature dependence, faster photoresponse (with a time response below 50 µs), and detectivity increased by a factor of 30.

19.
Nano Lett ; 18(2): 701-708, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29257888

RESUMO

The bottom-up fabrication of regular nanowire (NW) arrays on a masked substrate is technologically relevant, but the growth dynamic is rather complex due to the superposition of severe shadowing effects that vary with array pitch, NW diameter, NW height, and growth duration. By inserting GaAsP marker layers at a regular time interval during the growth of a self-catalyzed GaP NW array, we are able to retrieve precisely the time evolution of the diameter and height of a single NW. We then propose a simple numerical scheme which fully computes shadowing effects at play in infinite arrays of NWs. By confronting the simulated and experimental results, we infer that re-emission of Ga from the mask is necessary to sustain the NW growth while Ga migration on the mask must be negligible. When compared to random cosine or random uniform re-emission from the mask, the simple case of specular reflection on the mask gives the most accurate account of the Ga balance during the growth.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15212, 2017 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123115

RESUMO

The transfer of GaN based gas sensors to foreign substrates provides a pathway to enhance sensor performance, lower the cost and extend the applications to wearable, mobile or disposable systems. The main keys to unlocking this pathway is to grow and fabricate the sensors on large h-BN surface and to transfer them to the flexible substrate without any degradation of the performances. In this work, we develop a new generation of AlGaN/GaN gas sensors with boosted performances on a low cost flexible substrate. We fabricate 2-inch wafer scale AlGaN/GaN gas sensors on sacrificial two-dimensional (2D) nano-layered h-BN without any delamination or cracks and subsequently transfer sensors to an acrylic surface on metallic foil. This technique results in a modification of relevant device properties, leading to a doubling of the sensitivity to NO2 gas and a response time that is more than 6 times faster than before transfer. This new approach for GaN-based sensor design opens new avenues for sensor improvement via transfer to more suitable substrates, and is promising for next-generation wearable and portable opto-electronic devices.

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