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1.
Tob Control ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the extent to which cigarette taxes affect smoking behaviour and disparities in smoking among adolescents by gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. METHODS: We used US nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional data from the 2005 to 2016 Monitoring the Future study to evaluate the relationship between state cigarette taxes and past 30-day current smoking, smoking intensity, and first cigarette and daily smoking initiation using modified Poisson and linear regression models, stratified by grade. We tested for interactions between tax and gender, SES and race/ethnicity on the additive scale using average marginal effects. RESULTS: We found that higher taxes were associated with lower smoking outcomes, with variation by grade. Across nearly all of our specifications, there were no statistically significant interactions between tax and gender, SES or race/ethnicity for any grades/outcomes. One exception is that among 12th graders, there was a statistically significant interaction between tax and college plans, with taxes being associated with a lower probability of 30-day smoking among students who definitely planned to attend college compared with those who did not. CONCLUSION: We conclude that higher taxes were associated with reduced smoking among adolescents, with little difference by gender, SES and racial/ethnicity groups. While effective at reducing adolescent smoking, taxes appear unlikely to reduce smoking disparities among youth.

4.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(3): 689-696, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and marijuana are psychoactive substances commonly used by young adults and are independently associated with numerous acute and long-term consequences. Many young adults engage in simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use to cross-fade (i.e., to enhance the effects of intoxication), although the extent to which alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences increase on SAM occasions compared to alcohol-only occasions is unclear. This study examines daily data among a sample of SAM users comparing SAM days to other days when young adults only used alcohol. METHODS: A sample of 409 young adults (age 18 to 25; Mage  = 21.6, SD = 2.2; 50.9% women) who reported SAM use in the past month completed 2 bursts of 14 days of daily surveys (28 days in total) assessing alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, and SAM use. RESULTS: Multilevel models based on alcohol-only and SAM days (n = 3,016 days; 391 individuals) indicated young adults drank more alcohol on SAM days compared to alcohol-only days (with no marijuana use). Similarly, days with SAM use were associated with more alcohol-related positive and negative consequences. The daily association between SAM use and positive consequences was statistically significant, after accounting for the amount of alcohol consumed; in contrast, the association between SAM use and negative consequences was diminished and nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Among young adult SAM users, days with SAM use were associated with more alcohol use and positive consequences compared to days they only drank alcohol. Further examination of the motivational context for engaging in SAM use, as well as potential physiological interactions between alcohol and marijuana use on alcohol's effects, is warranted. Alcohol interventions might benefit from addressing increased alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences as risks associated with SAM use.

5.
Addict Behav ; 105: 106320, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007832

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study estimated the prevalence of negative consequences associated with alcohol use in a national sample of young adults one or two years after graduating from high school, focusing on differences by college attendance, living situation, binge drinking, and sex. METHODS: A subsample (N = 1068) of U.S. nationally representative Monitoring the Future study 12th grade students from 2006 to 2016 cohorts was followed-up at modal age 19 or 20 (in 2008-2017) and asked about negative consequences related to their own alcohol use during the past 12 months. Differences in prevalence were estimated and multivariable models examined associations with college attendance, living situation, binge drinking, and sex. RESULTS: Half of surveyed U.S. 19/20 year-old alcohol users (a third of non-binge drinkers and almost three-quarters of binge drinkers) experienced negative consequences in the past year. The likelihood of experiencing several consequence types was significantly associated with college attendance prior to controlling for living situation. In multivariable models controlling for living situation, unsafe driving due to drinking remained more likely for students attending 2-year colleges or vocational/technical schools than for 4-year college students or non-attenders. In general, negative consequence risk was elevated among young adults not living with parents (vs. those living with parents) and women (vs. men). CONCLUSION: Negative consequences from alcohol use are prevalent among young adults and differ by college attendance, living situation, binge drinking, and sex. Students at 2-year/vocational/technical schools are at particular risk for unsafe driving, warranting specific research attention and targeted intervention.

6.
Subst Use Misuse ; 55(6): 973-982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997688

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol expectancies, or the perceived likelihood of experiencing certain effects after consuming alcohol, are associated with college student drinking such that heavier drinkers expect a greater likelihood of positive effects. However, less is known as to whether day-to-day within-person deviations in expectancies are associated with drinking that same day and for whom and when these associations may be strongest. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine daily-level associations of positive and negative alcohol expectancies with alcohol use, and whether associations differed according to demographic characteristics and additional alcohol-related constructs. Methods: College student drinkers (N = 327, 53.8% female) participated in an intensive longitudinal study that captured daily-level data. Alcohol use and expectancy measures were utilized from a baseline session and at the daily-level using Interactive Voice Response (IVR). Results: Results found that on days when participants reported stronger positive and negative expectancies than their average, they were more likely to drink as well as consume more alcohol when drinking. Moderation analyses revealed that positive expectancies were more positively associated with the likelihood of any drinking for women relative to men, and more positively associated with the quantity of alcohol consumption for younger students, students with lower baseline rates of drinking, and students with greater overall positive alcohol expectancies. Conclusions/Importance: The findings demonstrate that alcohol expectancies fluctuate within-person across days and these fluctuations are meaningful in predicting same-day drinking. Interventions that seek to modify expectancies proximal to drinking events may be considered to reduce college student drinking.

7.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 19(1): 3-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452060

RESUMO

Understanding racial/ethnic drinking patterns and service provision preferences is critical for deciding how best to use limited alcohol prevention, intervention, and treatment resources. We used nationally representative data from 150,727 U.S. high school seniors from 2005 to 2016 to examine differences in a range of alcohol use behaviors and the felt need to reduce or stop alcohol use based on detailed racial/ethnic categories, both before and after controlling for key risk/protective factors. Native students reported particularly high use but corresponding high felt need to reduce/stop use. White and dual-endorsement students reported high use but low felt need to stop/reduce alcohol use.

8.
Addict Behav ; 102: 106180, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785477

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine differences in high-intensity drinking (HID) by parental status, parent age, and parent sex, including two- and three-way interaction effects of these parent demographic categories. METHODS: The present study included individuals ages 18-50 from the National Epidemiologic Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (2012-13), a sample of non-institutionalized adults in the US (N = 22,278). We calculated weighted estimates of past-year HID (≥10/≥8 standard drinks for men/women on a single occasion) for each parental status group (parents of young children <5, parents of children 5-17, not parents of children <18) overall and stratified by sex and stratified by age. We then examined the overall association of parental status and HID and tested for interactions of parental status × sex, parental status × age, and parental status × age × sex, while controlling for other relevant sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Prevalence of HID varied considerably by parental status, with 14.84% of parents with kids under age 5, 12.72% of parents with kids 5 to 17, and 23.15% of non-parents reporting HID. The strength of the associations of parenthood and HID were strongest for females and for older parents. CONCLUSIONS: While parents engage in HID less than those who are not parents, a portion of parents of young and adolescent children do report heavy drinking. Younger parents and male parents, in particular, are at high risk for HID. Given the risks to children and parents, interventions focused on preventing HID among parents, especially fathers, could have significant public health impacts.

9.
Soc Sci Med ; 244: 112664, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial social roles are known to have important links with both acute and chronic excessive alcohol use. However, whether and how these links vary across adulthood and by gender is not well understood and would provide insight into populations most at risk for excessive alcohol use. METHODS: This study used data from those ages 18 to 60 in the National Epidemiologic Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III survey (N=28,475). We examined the gender- and age-varying associations of current marital status (married vs. divorced/separated vs. never married) and parental status (parent vs. not) with acute (binge drinking) and chronic (exceeding weekly drinking guidelines) excessive alcohol use using time-varying effect modelling. RESULTS: Both marital and parental statuses were inversely associated with acute and chronic excessive alcohol use at most ages, however the magnitude of these associations and gender differences in these associations varied by age. There were greater differences between adults who were married vs. never married and parents vs. not in excessive alcohol use during young adulthood as compared to later adulthood. The association of parental status with acute excessive alcohol use was stronger for women compared to men in young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and age should be considered when examining risk and protective factors, particularly in examining the role of parenthood in acute excessive alcohol use. These findings will help target populations most at risk for chronic and acute excessive alcohol use.

10.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804099

RESUMO

Alcohol expectancies are consistently associated with alcohol use in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. However, little research has examined whether alcohol expectancies on specific drinking occasions are associated with reported consequences on those days, particularly when controlling for the amount of alcohol consumed, thus differentiating the extent to which reported consequences may have resulted from alcohol or an "expectancy effect." This study examined consequence-specific daily expectancy effects. College students (N = 342; mean age 19.7 [standard deviation (SD) = 1.25], 52.9% female) participated in a longitudinal measurement burst study. During four 2-week intervals, participants used mobile phones to respond to 3 surveys per day via automated telephone interviews. The results showed that on days when college students had higher-than-average expectancies for specific subjective positive consequences (e.g., feeling more relaxed, being in a better mood), they were more likely to report experiencing those same consequences as a result of their alcohol use that day, even after controlling for how much they actually drank on that day. The same held true for subjective interpersonal negative consequences (e.g., becoming aggressive, rude, or obnoxious; embarrassing oneself), but not for less subjective physical/cognitive negative consequences (e.g., having a hangover, vomiting, getting hurt/injured, forgetting). The results suggest that one's expectations about the particular effects of alcohol tend to be self-fulfilling for subjective effects of alcohol even when they are not directly tied to the physiological effects of alcohol. The findings underscore the important role of alcohol expectancies, particularly the expectation of subjective positive social and tension-reduction/relaxation effects, in understanding problematic alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

12.
J Adolesc Health ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676228

RESUMO

PURPOSE: From 1991 to 2018, binge drinking among U.S. adolescents has precipitously declined; since 2012, depressive symptoms among U.S. adolescents have sharply increased. Binge drinking and depressive symptoms have historically been correlated, thus understanding whether there are dynamic changes in their association informs prevention and intervention. METHODS: Data were drawn from the U.S. nationally representative cross-sectional Monitoring the Future surveys (1991-2018) among school-attending 12th-grade adolescents (N = 58,444). Binge drinking was measured as any occasion of more than five drinks/past 2 weeks; depressive symptoms were measured with four items (e.g., belief that life is meaningless or hopeless), dichotomized at 75th percentile. Time-varying effect modeling was conducted by sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education. RESULTS: In 1991, adolescents with high depressive symptoms had 1.74 times the odds of binge drinking (95% confidence interval 1.54-1.97); by 2018, the strength of association between depressive symptoms and binge drinking among 12th-grade adolescents declined 24% among girls and 25% among boys. There has been no significant relation between depressive symptoms and binge drinking among boys since 2009; among girls, the relationship has been positive throughout most of the study period, with no significant relationship from 2016 to 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Diverging trends between depressive symptoms and alcohol use among youth are coupled with declines in the strength of their comorbidity. This suggests that underlying drivers of recent diverging population trends are likely distinct and indicates that the nature of comorbidity between substance use and mental health may need to be reconceptualized for recent and future cohorts.

14.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 204: 107580, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College attendance is a risk factor for frequent and heavy drinking and marijuana initiation but less is known about the extent to which risk varies by type of college attendance and across age. METHODS: Using panel data of young adults who were high school seniors in 1990-1998 from the Monitoring the Future study (n = 13,123), we examined the associations between college attendance at age 19/20 (4-year college full-time, other college, and non-attendance) and subsequent alcohol and marijuana use at age 21/22, 25/26, 29/30 and 35. Inverse propensity score weighting was used to balance the three college groups on pre-existing differences when examining associations with substance use outcomes. RESULTS: Compared to non-attendance, attending a 4-year college full-time was associated with significantly greater odds of binge drinking at age 21/22 (aOR = 1.20) and 25/26 (aOR = 1.12) and lower odds of alcohol abstinence at age 35 (aOR = 0.51). Similarly, other college attendance was associated with greater odds of binge drinking at age 21/22 (aOR = 1.08) and 25/26 (aOR = 1.04) and lower odds of abstinence at age 35 (aOR = 0.70). Four-year college full-time attendance was associated with greater odds of marijuana use at age 21/22 (aOR = 1.07) and 25/26 (aOR = 1.02) but lower odds at age 29/30 (aOR = 0.99). Other college attendance was associated with lower odds of marijuana use at age 25/26 (aOR = 0.98) and 29/30 (aOR = 0.97). Marijuana use at age 35 did not differ by college attendance. CONCLUSIONS: College attendance may confer elevated risk of substance use post-college. The magnitude and duration of risk vary by type of college attendance and substance.

15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588973

RESUMO

Young adults experience social role transitions across multiple life domains, and a deeper understanding of the ways in which these simultaneous transition experiences are associated with substance use and mental health will inform targeted interventions for this population. Data from the current study include24 repeated monthly assessments of young adults (N = 778; 56% female; age range 18 to 24 at baseline; 60% White, 18% Asian, 12% Multiracial, 5% Black or African American, 1% American Indian, 1% Pacific Islander, 3% Other, 9% Latinx) and outcomes 6 months later. Monthly assessments across 2 years were used to identify latent classes of frequency of social role transitions in four key domains (education, residential, employment, and romantic relationships) and associations between these classes and later outcomes. Three classes of social role transitions were identified: Infrequent Transitions (30.4%), Transitions except in Relationships (38.5%), and Frequent Transitions (31.1%). Compared to the Infrequent Transitions class, the other classes had greater typical drinking and hazardous alcohol use six months later; the Frequent Transitions class also had more hazardous cannabis use, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Young adults experiencing frequent transitions across multiple domains appear to be at risk for substance use and mental health problems and may benefit from targeted intervention to address substance use and mental health issues.

16.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 38(3): 302-305, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: High-intensity drinking (HID), or consuming 8+ (10+) drinks in one sitting for women (men), is associated with significant harm. We compared the likelihood of individuals using protective behavioural strategies (PBS) on days with varying levels of drinking (HID, heavy episodic-only drinking [4-7/5-9 drinks for women/men], moderate drinking [1-3/1-4 drinks]). DESIGN AND METHODS: We used an intensive repeated measures longitudinal design with four 14-day measurement bursts across 2 years (N = 258 university students [50.0% female, average age of 19.95 (SD = 0.41) years] who provided 3176 daily drinking reports). Each drinking day, participants reported the amount of alcohol consumed and whether they used PBS. RESULTS: Multilevel models indicated that, relative to heavy episodic drinking-only days, students were more likely to use strategies of avoiding drinking too quickly on moderate drinking days (odds ratio = 1.90, confidence interval 1.50-2.40) but less likely on HID days (odds ratio = 0.38, confidence interval 0.29-0.48). Relative to heavy episodic drinking-only days, students were less likely to use strategies to protect themselves from serious harm on moderate days (odds ratio = 0.53, confidence interval 0.41-0.67) and equally likely on HID days (odds ratio = 0.84, confidence interval 0.93-1.41). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Despite elevated risk for alcohol-related harms when drinking most heavily, PBS may be under-utilised on higher-risk drinking occasions. In light of prior work supporting the effectiveness of PBS at reducing harms on HID days, increasing PBS should be emphasised in future prevention and intervention efforts.

18.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 80(4): 454-461, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research on substance use motives typically examines each substance separately. However, simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use-that is, using alcohol and marijuana at the same time so that their effects overlap-is common among young adults. This study examines day-to-day fluctuations in motives for using alcohol and/ or marijuana among young adult substance users as predictors of alcohol, marijuana, and SAM use across days. METHOD: Data were from a community sample of young adults who reported SAM use in the past month (analytic sample: N = 399, mean [SD] age = 21.63 [2.17]; 50.9% women). Participants reported alcohol, marijuana, and SAM use, and also motives "for alcohol and/or marijuana use" for 14 consecutive days. RESULTS: Multilevel models showed that elevated enhancement motives were associated with heavy episodic drinking, drinking more, and more hours high from marijuana. Elevated social motives were associated with heavy episodic drinking and drinking more, and also with fewer hours high. Elevated conformity motives were associated with drinking more. SAM use was more likely: on alcohol days and on marijuana days with elevated enhancement and conformity motives, on alcohol days with elevated coping motives, and on marijuana days with elevated social motives. CONCLUSIONS: SAM use on a given day was primarily associated with enhancement and conformity motives. Social motives were more strongly linked to alcohol use, and to some extent coping motives were linked to marijuana use in this young adult sample. Further examination of situation-specific motives and contexts of use is needed to inform development of real-time interventions for SAM use and consequences.

19.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 80(3): 331-339, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Underestimating how much one will drink has been associated with greater alcohol-related consequences. Elevated mood or drinking context may relate to drinking more than planned (or intended) among college students. The aims of the current study were to test (a) whether positive and negative mood and contextual factors on a given day were associated with the likelihood of unplanned heavy drinking (defined as unplanned heavy episodic or high-intensity drinking), and (b) whether days with unplanned heavy drinking were associated with more negative consequences. METHOD: The analytic sample included 352 college students (53.4% female; 71.3% non-Hispanic White) who completed daily assessments via automated telephone interviews. Multilevel models were used to test predictors of unplanned heavy drinking (Aim 1) and predictors of consequences (Aim 2). RESULTS: Almost a third (29.60%) of drinking days were unplanned heavy drinking days. Individuals with higher average positive mood across the sampled days had lower odds of unplanned heavy drinking. No significant associations were observed between negative mood and unplanned heavy drinking. Weekend days and days with special occasions were associated with lower odds of unplanned heavy drinking. Unplanned heavy drinking was associated with more negative consequences on that day. CONCLUSIONS: Students were frequently not able to accurately predict the amount of alcohol they would consume on that day, which conferred an increased risk of negative consequences. Interventions could incorporate strategies that help students anticipate their alcohol consumption in order to employ protective behavioral strategies in high-risk contexts.

20.
Addiction ; 114(10): 1763-1772, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As the legal status of cannabis changes across the United States and modes of administration expand, it is important to examine the potential impact on adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to assess changes in prevalence of frequent cannabis use in adolescents in the United States and how far this varies by age and cohort. DESIGN: Analysis of Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative annual survey of 8th-, 10th- and 12th-grade students in the United States conducted from 1991 to 2018. SETTING: In-school surveys completed by US adolescents. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1 236 159 8th-, 10th- and 12th-graders; 51.5% female, 59.6% non-Hispanic white, 12.3% non-Hispanic black, 13.4% Hispanic and 14.7% other race/ethnicity. MEASUREMENTS: Frequent cannabis use (FCU), defined as six or more occasions in the past 30 days, stratified by sex, race/ethnicity and parental education. FINDINGS: FCU among US adolescents increased over the study period; the peak in 2010-18 was 11.4% among 18-year-old students. This increase was best explained by both period and cohort effects. Compared with respondents in 2005, adolescents surveyed in 2018 had period effects in FCU that were 1.6 times greater. Adolescents in younger birth cohorts (those born > 1988) had a lower increase in FCU than those born prior to 1988. Results were consistent across sex, parent education and race/ethnicity, with period effects indicating increasing FCU after 2005 and cohort effects indicating a lower magnitude of increase in more recent birth cohorts. Age and parental education disparities in FCU have increased over time, whereas race/ethnicity differences have converged over time; black students were 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64-0.70] times as likely to use cannabis frequently as white students from 1991 to 2000, and 1.03 (95% CI = 0.98-1.09) times as likely from 2011 to 2018 (P-value for time interaction < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of frequent cannabis use (FCU) increased from 1991 to 2018 among older adolescents in the United States. Racial/ethnic differences in FCU converged, whereas parental education differences have diverged.

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