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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490415

RESUMO

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. Methods: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Findings: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. Interpretation: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. Funding: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

2.
Curr Med Chem ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238141

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK 9) was revealed to be a key player in the lipid metabolism and therefore in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. PCSK 9 binds to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, induces its degradation, and increases circulating blood LDL. As a result, PCSK 9 inhibitors represent an essential pillar in cardiovascular risk reduction therapies due to their highest good LDL decreasing properties. While the influence of PCSK 9 on lipid metabolism has been widely investigated, the full pathophysiological spectrum of PCSK 9 is yet to be determined. Statins have already been demonstrated to have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. In this context, evidence suggests that PCSK 9 also interferes with inflammatory processes and thereby contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. As lipid metabolism on its own affects inflammatory processes, it is difficult to distinguish between lipid-dependent and -independent inflammatory properties of PCSK 9. A body of evidence has revealed that PCSK9 LDL-independently regulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-underlying pathways in vascular walls. In contrast, recent observations suggest that PCSK9 interacts with lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) and dampens inflammatory responses through LDL reduction. In conclusion, this review provides mounting evidence indicating how PCSK9 promotes vascular inflammation and subsequent atherosclerosis to shed light on the anti-inflammatory effects of PCSK9 inhibitors in preventing atherosclerosis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the prognostic value of regional quantitative myocardial flow measures as assessed by 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We retrospectively included 150 consecutive patients with suspected CAD who underwent clinically indicated 13 N-ammonia PET-MPI and who did not undergo revascularization within 90 days of PET-MPI. The presence or absence of a decreased global myocardial flow reserve (i.e., MFR < 2) as well as decreased regional MFR (i.e., ≥ 2 adjacent segments with MFR < 2) was recorded, and patients were classified as having preserved global and regional MFR (MFR group 1), preserved global but decreased regional MFR (MFR group 2), or decreased global and regional MFR (MFR group 3). We obtained follow-up regarding major adverse cardiac events (MACE, i.e., a combined endpoint including all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and late revascularization) and all-cause death. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 50 months (IQR 38-103), 30 events occurred in 29 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced event-free and overall survival in MFR groups 2 and 3 compared to MFR group 1 (log-rank: p = 0.015 and p = 0.013). In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, decreased regional MFR was an independent predictor for MACE (adjusted HR 3.44, 95% CI 1.17-10.11, p = 0.024) and all-cause death (adjusted HR 4.72, 95% CI 1.07-20.7, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: A decreased regional MFR as assessed by 13 N-ammonia PET-MPI confers prognostic value by identifying patients at increased risk for future adverse cardiac outcomes and all-cause death.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562759

RESUMO

Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle with a wide range of potential etiological factors and consequently varying clinical patterns across the world. In this review, we address the epidemiology of myocarditis. Myocarditis was considered a rare disease until intensified research efforts in recent decades revealed its true epidemiological importance. While it remains a challenge to determine the true prevalence of myocarditis, studies are underway to obtain better approximations of the proportions of this disease. Nowadays, the prevalence of myocarditis has been reported from 10.2 to 105.6 per 100,000 worldwide, and its annual occurrence is estimated at about 1.8 million cases. This wide range of reported cases reflects the uncertainty surrounding the true prevalence and a potential underdiagnosis of this disease. Since myocarditis continues to be a significant public health issue, particularly in young adults in whom myocarditis is among the most common causes of sudden cardiac death, improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are necessary. This manuscript aims to summarize the current knowledge on the epidemiology of myocarditis, new diagnostic approaches and the current epidemiological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 3, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate coronary adenosine response is a potential cause for false negative ischemia testing. Recently, the splenic switch-off (SSO) sign has been identified as a promising tool to ascertain the efficacy of adenosine during vasodilator stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). We assessed the value of SSO to predict adenosine response, defined as an increase in myocardial blood flow (MBF) during quantitative stress myocardial perfusion 13 N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 64 patients who underwent simultaneous CMR and PET myocardial perfusion imaging on a hybrid PET/CMR scanner with co-injection of gadolinium based contrast agent (GBCA) and 13N-ammonia during rest and adenosine-induced stress. A myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of  > 1.5 or ischemia as assessed by PET were defined as markers for adequate coronary adenosine response. The presence or absence of SSO was visually assessed. The stress-to-rest intensity ratio (SIR) was calculated as the ratio of stress over rest peak signal intensity for splenic tissue. Additionally, the spleen-to-myocardium ratio, defined as the relative change of spleen to myocardial signal, was calculated for stress (SMRstress) and rest. RESULTS: Sixty-one (95%) patients were coronary adenosine responders, but SSO was absent in 18 (28%) patients. SIR and SMRstress were significantly lower in patients with SSO (SIR: 0.56 ± 0.13 vs. 0.93 ± 0.23; p < 0.001 and SMRstress: 1.09 ± 0.47 vs. 1.68 ± 0.62; p < 0.001). Mean hyperemic and rest MBF were 2.12 ± 0.68 ml/min/g and 0.78 ± 0.26 ml/min/g, respectively. MFR was significantly higher in patients with vs. patients without presence of SSO (3.07 ± 1.03 vs. 2.48 ± 0.96; p = 0.038), but there was only a weak inverse correlation between SMRstress and MFR (R = -0.378; p = 0.02) as well as between SIR and MFR (R = -0.356; p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of SSO implies adequate coronary adenosine-induced MBF response. Its absence, however, is not a reliable indicator for failed adenosine-induced coronary vasodilatation.


Assuntos
Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Amônia , Circulação Coronária , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Baço/irrigação sanguínea , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 28(1): 263-273, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Positron emission tomography (PET) integrating assessment of perfusion with 13N-ammonia (NH3) and viability with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has high accuracy to identify viable, hibernating myocardium. We tested whether quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and washout (k2) can predict myocardial viability using FDG as standard of reference. METHODS: In 180 consecutive patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, myocardium was categorized on a segment-level into normal, ischemic, hibernating, and scar. From dynamic images, stress MBF, rest MBF, and k2 were derived and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) and volume of distribution (VD) were calculated. RESULTS: Across myocardial tissues, all parameters differed significantly. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.564 (95% CI 0.527-0.601), 0.635 (0.599-0.671), 0.553 (0.516-0.591), 0.520 (0.482-0.559), and 0.560 (0.522-0.597) for stress MBF, rest MBF, MFR, k2, and VD. The generalized linear mixed model correctly classified 81% of scar as viable, hibernating myocardium. If the threshold of rest MBF to predict viability was set to 0.45 mL·min-1·g-1, sensitivity and specificity were 96% and 12%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Quantitative NH3 PET parameters have low to moderate diagnostic performance to predict viability in ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, if rest MBF falls below 0.45 mL·min-1·g-1, viability testing by FDG-PET may be safely deferred.

7.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 28(4): 1364-1373, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely available, fast, inexpensive, and safe. However, its value to predict a true myocardial scar in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) has not been studied extensively yet. This study was conducted to assess whether Q waves on resting surface 12-lead ECG are predictive of non-viable myocardium in patients with ICM. METHODS: We analyzed resting ECGs of 149 patients with ICM undergoing cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) with 13N-ammonia (NH3) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at our institution. Pathological Q waves and QS complexes were assigned to one of three coronary artery territories and compared to the PET findings. Myocardial scar was defined as 2 or more contiguous myocardial segments with an average (matched) reduction of NH3 and FDG uptake <50% of the maximum value. RESULTS: Pathological Q waves had a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 40%, respectively, and a PPV and NPV of 37% and 73%, respectively, to detect myocardial scar on FDG PET. For QS complexes, sensitivity and specificity were 46% and 59%, respectively, and PPV and NPV were 36% and 68%, respectively. Sensitivity was lower, but specificity was significantly higher in both the LCX and RCA compared to the LAD territory (p<0.001), particularly for QS complexes. CONCLUSION: Pathological Q waves on resting 12-lead ECG have poor or at best moderate sensitivity and specificity to detect myocardial scar on FDG PET. These findings support the use of more advanced imaging techniques to assess myocardial viability in ICM.

8.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(2): 406-413, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681446

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Misalignment between positron emission tomography (PET) datasets and attenuation correction (AC) maps is a potential source of artifacts in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We assessed the impact of adenosine on the alignment of AC maps derived from magnetic resonance (MR) and PET datasets during MPI on a hybrid PET/MR scanner. METHODS: Twenty-eight volunteers underwent adenosine stress and rest 13N-ammonia MPI on a PET/MR. We acquired Dixon sequences for the creation of MRAC maps. After reconstruction of the original non-shifted PET images, we examined MRAC and PET datasets for cardiac spatial misalignment and, if necessary, reconstructed a second set of shifted PET images after manually adjusting co-registration. Summed rest, stress, and difference scores (SRS, SSS, and SDS) were compared between shifted and non-shifted PET images. Additionally, we measured the amount of cranial movement of the heart (i.e., myocardial creep) after termination of adenosine infusion. RESULTS: Realignment was necessary for 25 (89.3%) stress and 12 (42.9%) rest PET datasets. Median SRS, SSS, and SDS of the non-shifted images were 6 (IQR = 4-7), 12 (IQR = 7-18), and 8 (IQR = 2-11), respectively, and of the shifted images 2 (IQR = 1-6), 4 (IQR = 7-18), and 1 (IQR = 0-2), respectively. All three scores were significantly higher in non-shifted versus shifted images (all p < 0.05). The difference in SDS correlated moderately but significantly with the amount of myocardial creep (r = 0.541, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Misalignment of MRAC and PET datasets commonly occurs during adenosine stress MPI on a hybrid PET/MR device, potentially leading to an increase in false-positive findings. Our results suggest that myocardial creep may substantially account for this and prompt for a careful review and correction of PET/MRAC data.


Assuntos
Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio , Artefatos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
9.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No methodology is available to distinguish truly reduced myocardial flow reserve (MFR) in positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (PET MPI) from seemingly impaired MFR due to inadequate adenosine response. The adenosine-induced splenic switch-off (SSO) sign has been proposed as a potential marker for adequate adenosine response in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). We assessed the feasibility of detecting SSO in nitrogen-13 ammonia PET MPI using SSO in CMR as the standard of reference. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty patients underwent simultaneous CMR and PET MPI on a hybrid PET/MR device with co-injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent and nitrogen-13 ammonia during rest and adenosine-induced stress. In CMR, SSO was assessed visually (positive vs negative SSO) and quantitatively by calculating the ratio of the peak signal intensity of the spleen during stress over rest (SIR). In PET MPI, the splenic signal activity ratio (SAR) was calculated as the maximal standard uptake value of the spleen during stress over rest. The median SIR was significantly lower in patients with positive versus negative SSO in CMR (0.57 [IQR 0.49 to 0.62] vs 0.89 [IQR 0.76 to 0.98]; P < .001). Similarly, median SAR in PET MPI was significantly lower in patients with positive versus negative SSO (0.40 [IQR 0.32 to 0.45] vs 0.80 [IQR 0.47 to 0.98]; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Similarly to CMR, SSO can be detected in nitrogen-13 ammonia PET MPI. This might help distinguish adenosine non-responders from patients with truly impaired MFR due to microvascular dysfunction or multivessel coronary artery disease.

10.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V (ASIR-V) on the accuracy of ultra-low-dose coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. MATERIALS AND METHOD: One-hundred-and-three patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) for CAC scoring were prospectively included. All underwent standard scanning with 120-kilovolt-peak (kVp) and with 80- and 70-kVp tube voltage. ASiR-V was applied to the 80- and 70-kVp scans at different levels. The 120-kVp scans reconstructed with filtered back projection served as the standard of reference. Recently published novel kVp-adapted thresholds were used for calculation of CAC scores from 80- and 70-kVp scans and the resulting CAC scores were compared against the standard of reference. Patients were stratified into six CAC score risk categories: 0, 1-10, 11-100, 101-400, 401-1000, and >1000. RESULTS: Increasing levels of ASIR-V led to an increasing underestimation of CAC scores with bias ranging from -128 to -118 and from -205 to -198 for the 80- and 70-kVp scans, respectively, when compared with the standard of reference. Reconstruction with 20% and 40% ASIR-V for the 80- and 70-kVp scans, respectively, yielded noise levels comparable to the standard of reference. Nevertheless, a change in risk-class was observed in 29 (28.6%) and 46 (44.7%) patients, exclusively to a lower risk-class, when CAC scores were derived from these reconstructions. CONCLUSION: ASIR-V leads to noise reduction in CT scans acquired with low tube-voltages. However, ASIR-V introduces substantial inaccuracies and marked underestimation of ultra-low-dose CAC scoring as compared with standard-dose CAC scoring despite normalization of noise.

11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(7): e007103, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction analyses of cardiac tissues have detected viral sequences in up to 67% of cases of myocarditis. However, viruses have not been implicated in giant cell myocarditis (GCM). Furthermore, efforts to detect viruses implicated in myocarditis have been unsuccessful in more accessible samples such as peripheral blood. METHODS: We used Virome Capture Sequencing for Vertbrate Viruses (VirCapSeq-VERT), a method that simultaneously screens for all known vertebrate viruses, to investigate viruses in 33 patients with myocarditis. We investigated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (n=24), plasma (n=27), endomyocardial biopsies (n=2), and cardiac tissue samples from explanted hearts (n=13). RESULTS: Nine patients (27%) had GCM and 4 patients (13%) had fulminant myocarditis. We found the following viruses in the blood of patients with myocarditis: Epstein Barr virus (n=11, 41%), human pegivirus (n=1, 4%), human endogenous retrovirus K (n=27, 100%), and anellovirus (n=15, 56%). All tissue samples from fulminant myocarditis (n=2) and GCM (n=13) contained human endogenous retrovirus K. CONCLUSIONS: No nucleic acids from viruses previously implicated in myocarditis or other human illnesses were detected in relevant amounts in cardiac tissue samples from GCM or in blood samples from other types of myocarditis. These findings do not exclude a role for viral infection in GCM but do suggest that if viruses are implicated, the mechanism is likely to be indirect rather than due to cytotoxic infection of myocardium.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Miocardite/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Biópsia , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/patologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/genética , Vírus/genética
14.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(2): 289-294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction in radiation dose achievable by using the optimal z-axis coverage in coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) on a latest-generation 256-slice scanner. METHODS: A total of 408 scans were reviewed that were performed on a wide-range detector scanner allowing up to 16-cm z-axis coverage (adjustable in 2-cm increments). For each CCTA study, we assessed the radiation dose (ie, dose-length product and volume CT dose index) and measured the minimum z-axis coverage necessary to cover the complete cardiac anatomy. We calculated the potential radiation dose savings achievable through reduction of the z-axis coverage to the minimum necessary. RESULTS: The majority of the CCTA scans were performed with a z-axis coverage of 16 cm (n = 285, 69.9%), followed by 14 cm (n = 121, 29.7%) and 12 cm (n = 2, 0.5%). In the group that was scanned with a collimation of 16 cm, radiation dose could have been reduced by 12.5% in 55 patients, 25% in 195 patients, and 37.5% in 33 patients when using optimal z-axis coverage for CCTA. In the group that was scanned with a collimation of 14 cm, radiation dose could have been reduced by 14.3% in 90 patients, and 28.6% in 30 patients, whereas in the group that was scanned with a collimation of 12 cm, dose could have been reduced by 16.7% in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Using correct z-axis coverage in CCTA on a latest-generation 256-slice scanner yields average dose reductions of 22.0% but may be as high as 37.5%.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doses de Radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(2): 193-199, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464553

RESUMO

Objectives: Understanding sex differences in myocarditis is crucial to improve clinical care. We sought to investigate sex differences focusing on clinical presentation and laboratory parameters. Methods: From 2011 to 2018, 77 patients were diagnosed with myocarditis according to European Society of Cardiology (ESC) criteria with available clinical, laboratory, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging data. First, we investigated sex differences of clinical and laboratory parameters in the entire cohort of 77 patients. Second, we focused on patients with acute myocarditis (n = 51) defined as recent symptom onset (≤10 days). Results: Myocarditis was present in 63 men (82%) and 14 women (18%). While men most frequently presented with chest pain (78%), a considerable amount of women presented with dyspnea as the only symptom (40%). Within the entire cohort, only creatinine kinase (CK) was higher in men versus women (364 ± 286 vs. 147 ± 148 U/L, p = 0.007), while in patients with acute myocarditis both CK and myoglobin (Mb) were higher in men versus women (CK: 327 ± 223 vs. 112 ± 65 U/L, p = 0.004 and Mb: 111 ± 126 vs. 25 ± 29 µg/L, p = 0.04). No sex differences were found for high-sensitivity troponin T, C-reactive protein, and NT-probrain natriuretic peptide. Conclusions: This is the first study reporting sex differences in clinical presentation and routine laboratory parameters in myocarditis. While clinical presentation appeared to be subtle in women with dyspnea being the only presenting symptom of myocarditis in a considerable part, men typically complained of chest pain. Similarly to observations in myocardial infarction, atypical symptoms and underdiagnosis may be a cause for under-representation of women in cohorts of myocarditis.


Assuntos
Miocardite/diagnóstico , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Dor no Peito , Estudos de Coortes , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Dispneia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mioglobina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Troponina/sangue
16.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 27(3): 726-736, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism in the manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) has unleashed a call to reconsider cardiovascular risk assessment. Alterations of bone mineral density (BMD) have been associated with congestive heart failure and appear to be modified by sex. However, the sex-specific association between BMD, myocardial perfusion, and cardiovascular outcomes is currently unknown. METHODS: A total number of 491 patients (65.9 ± 10.7 years, 32.4% women) underwent 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography/computed tomography for evaluation of CAD, and were tracked for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). RESULTS: Event-free survival (median follow-up time of 4.3 ± 2.0 years) was significantly reduced in patients with low (≤ 100 Hounsfield units) compared to those with higher BMD (log-rank P = .037). Accordingly, reduced BMD was chosen as significant predictor of MACE in a fully adjusted proportional hazards regression model (P = .015). Further, a first-order interaction term consisting of sex and BMD was statistically significant (P = .007). BMD was significantly lower in patients with abnormal myocardial perfusion or impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (P < .05). This difference, however, was noticed in men, but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: The association between low BMD and cardiovascular disease is sex dependent. Our data suggest that quantification of BMD during myocardial perfusion imaging for evaluation of CAD may be particularly useful in men.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Idoso , Amônia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20098, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic work-up of patients with myocardial infarction and non-obstructive coronary artery disease (MINOCA) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) led to a more than six-fold increase in the detection rate of myocarditis. In this study, we expanded on our prior two-year analysis by including preceding and subsequent years. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with angina-like symptoms and elevated high-sensitivity troponin T (TnT-hs ≥14 ng/l) but without significant coronary artery disease, from 2011 to 2017. Patients underwent CMR to test for myocarditis. From 2011 to 2015, only patients with elevated TnT-hs, no significant coronary artery disease and moderate to high clinical likelihood of suffering from myocarditis, underwent CMR. In 2016 and 2017, CMR images were obtained from all patients with MINOCA, independent of the clinical likelihood that patients were suffering from myocarditis. RESULTS: A total of 556 patients who underwent CMR (70.5% male, 57 ± 17 years, with an average left ventricular ejection fraction of 51 ± 15%) qualified for inclusion in this study’s analysis. From 2011 to 2015, 240 CMR examinations were performed, with the number increasing to 316 between 2016 and 2017. In total, myocarditis was diagnosed in 76 out of the 556 patients (13.7%). Between 2011 and 2015, the detection rate of myocarditis was 12.7 per 100,000 hospitalisations and increased 4.9-fold (p <0.0001), to 62.5 per 100,000 hospitalisations, between 2016 and 2017. CONCLUSION: A novel diagnostic algorithm led to an average 4.9-fold increase in the rate of myocarditis detection in our hospital over the two subsequent years. This highlights that myocarditis continues to be underdiagnosed when CMR is not systematically used in patients with MINOCA.  .


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Angina Pectoris/etiologia , Feminino , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Open Heart ; 6(1): e000990, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168382

RESUMO

Objective: Clinical data on the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in myopericarditis are limited. Since NSAIDs are standard therapy in pericarditis, we retrospectively investigated their safety in myopericarditis. Methods: In a retrospective case-control study, we identified 60 patients with myopericarditis from September 2010 to August 2017. Diagnosis was based on clinical criteria, elevated high-sensitivity troponin T and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). All patients received standard heart failure therapy if indicated. Twenty-nine patients (62%) received NSAIDs (acetylsalicylic acid: n=7, average daily dose =1300 mg or ibuprofen: n=22, average daily dose =1500 mg) for an average duration of 4 weeks. To create two cohorts with similar baseline conditions, 15 patients were excluded. Three months after diagnosis, 29 patients were re-evaluated by CMR to measure late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Results: Baseline characteristics of those treated with or without NSAIDs were similar. Mean age was 34 (±13) years, 6 (13%) were women. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 56% (±5). 82 % of the patients (14 of 17) treated with NSAIDs experienced a decrease in LGE at 3 months, while it was only 58 % (7 of 12) of those without NSAIDs (p=0.15). At 12-month follow-up, one of the patients treated without NSAIDs experienced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) with cardiac arrest, while one of the patients with NSAIDs experienced non-sustained VT. Conclusions: This is the first case-control study demonstrating that NSAIDs are safe in patients with myopericarditis and preserved LVEF. Our data suggest that this drug class should be tested prospectively in a large randomised clinical trial.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 258-264, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178224

RESUMO

AIM: Amongst patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), women experience relatively worse outcomes as compared to men. Evidence to date has failed to explore unique female imaging targets as major determinants of cardiovascular risk. We sought to assess the prognostic value of epicardial (EFV) and intrathoracic fat volume (IFV) quantification in women and men with suspected and known CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intrathoracic fat volume and EFV were calculated from non-contrast CT and analyzed in a propensity-matched cohort of 190 patients (95 women, mean age 62.5 ±â€¯11.3 years) undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for evaluation of CAD. IFV and EFV were significantly lower in women as compared to men (198.2 ±â€¯78.4 vs 293.2 ±â€¯114.7 cm3 and 105.6 ±â€¯48.9 vs 135.8 ±â€¯60.9 cm3, p < 0.001) and showed a strong association with coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and obstructive CAD in women (p < 0.05), but not in men. Fat volumes were not related to abnormal MPI in either population (p = NS). During a median follow-up of 2.8 years, high IFV was associated with reduced event free survival (log rank = 0.019 vs low IFV) in women, but not in men. Accordingly, a multivariate Cox regression model adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, CACS, CCTA, and MPI findings selected IFV as a significant predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in women (HR 1.32, 95%CI 1.18-1.55, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Quantification of IFV provides incremental prognostic value for MACE in women, beyond that provided by traditional risk factors and imaging findings.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericárdio/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Cavidade Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Torácica/metabolismo
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